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Case Study Presentation: Person- Centred Approaches And Service User Involvement In Health And Social Care

Introduction: Case Study Presentation: Person- Centred Approaches And Service User Involvement In Health And Social Care

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Poverty is caused by a wide range of factors that includes low pay, rising living costs, lack of work, less awareness and access to social security benefits. All of these together impact the people who suffer from a lack of resources which is very evident in underdeveloped and developing countries. There have been multiple journals and articles analyzing the effect, cause and reduction strategy which has been discussed in this report. 

Entrepreneurs' activities behind the alleviation of poverty such as in Nigeria

Summary: Poverty has been realized as a major issue faced by every economy of the world. The severe form of the cause can affect the economic growth of a country and its development.

Even the countries that are developed faced the major challenges of poverty. 

Evaluation: However, the countries that suffered the most from the adverse effect and the other forms of poverty that lead to a different definition of the word poverty are the countries that are developing or under development. Entrepreneurship is a human activity that is common throughout history and is common for most economies. Focusing on the identification of new opportunities and utilizing those opportunities in new business ventures (Aziz et al. 2020). This process is accrued for the purpose of monetary gain and as a by-product; the entrepreneurs create more jobs for the population of the country. 

Reflection: The text helped me to understand the poverty in depth, how the proverty is making one section of people weaker, can be visualised. The economic development that comes with the new establishments of enterprises and the creation of more job opportunities improves the overall standard of living. The benefits of the non-financial and financial can provide better access to resources and improve living and learning experiences and alleviate the poverty level of the country.

Poverty reduction strategies: Link corruption with poverty in less developed countries

Summary: There is a belief in the literature of development research that the phenomenon of corruption has an interconnection with poverty in nations that are less developed. According to the World Bank, the effect of corruption falls on the people who are poor and that too disproportionately. 

Evaluation: The m part of the population who lacks the means of resources are the ones who are affected by corruption to the highest extent as they rely on the aid and services offered by the government and other social welfare agencies (Shabbir et al. 2019). These groups of people cannot o provide for themselves with all the basic requirements of living such as adequate education and health services. 

Reflection: The article has provided me the knowledge the strategy required to minimise the poverty. Corruption is found in every channel and industry be it the public health services or the services of the police. The consequence of these is the sending away of valuable goods and services such as education to the needful public.

Effect of education on the resources based on family planning

Summary: According to the Census Bureau of the United States, the population of the world at the current time is around 7,346,284,500 and is estimated to increase by 3.3% by the year 2050. The countries that have the most populations are “China, India, the USA, Brazil, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Bangladesh”(Sultan, 2018). 

Evaluation: In this region, the incensed population is exposed to many challenges and speciality countries that are under development. The underdeveloped countries are burned with the greater economic burden that is triggered by the limited resources to provide for the larger population. Reflection: This article has provided me an insight on how the education is helping in making a family planning. The increased population created the issues of the shortage of food, water and energy which is also caused due to high fertility rate and leads to the quality of life being compromised. In order to tackle this obstacle, Family planning has been identified as a major player as it can affect the population dynamics and aids stabilization in the economy.

The death was caused not by Panic but by the fear of poverty in Pakistan.

Summary: The diseases caused by the corona virus have affected the mental health of the majority of the world population for multiple reasons. The factors such as depression, stress, panic, and adjustment disorder have been reported by healthcare professionals. 

Evaluation: The aftermath of the pandemic is the inflation and recession faced by the economies which affected both the mental and financial health of the populations of the countries that are less developed. Countries like India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan have reported some cases of Suicide due to the loss of employment, and economic recession, alongside social isolation (Mamun and Ullah, 2020). 

Reflection: I have got an insightful knowledge on how the death could be happened due to the poverty. The economic recession has been reported as one of the major reasons that increased poverty in the economy and elevated the number of suicides among people with lesser resources. Pakistan has reported many such occurrences and has included the causality of these cases and underrated the prominent risk factor that was caused by the recession and increasing poverty among their people.

The poverty that makes the environment vulnerable towards degradation in the African countries

Summary: Poverty has been investigated among several sub-Saharan countries of Africa. Investigations have led to the determination of the factors associated with poverty that degrades environmental stability. 

Evaluation: Poverty is actually related to the emission of carbon and leaving an ecological footprint in the environment and the degradation not only affects the environment by the overall economy and the employment status of the countries as well (Baloch et al. 2020). The alleviation from poverty can alleviate pollution and promote environmental sustainability as two of these are the targets of development.

Reflection: This article helped me in understanding how the proverty is impacting the African countries towards the degradation. The improved measures to take care of the environmental policies will improve the image of the country by fulfilling the environmental goals of development. The development will provide the countries with more job opportunities and employment opportunities to provide services on reducing the ecological footprint.

Poverty, Population and economic development In countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh

Summary: A country's population plays a vital role in its development and specifically economic development. The increase in the population at a rapid pace affects the development of a country negatively and especially in the countries that are underdeveloped. 

Evaluation: The larger population exerts limited resources and reduces the amount of investment in the sectors of public health, and education. Public and private sectors get affected by the reduction in the capacity of holding assets and capital in the businesses and the investment being reduced. Poverty as it is a global issue which affects the resources not only limited to the boundaries of a country but the resources of the whole world in a larger context (Sibt e Ali et al. 2018). 

Reflection: From this article i have understand on how the countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh are developing their nation. As the suppliers have to reserve a section of the supplies for the economy that are less developed and the remaining portion is procured by the stronger economies. 

Poverty consumption in Volunteer tourism in Nepal

Summary: Poverty is an unfortunate phenomenon in the economy. The more it focuses on capitalism the more a section of the population remains deprived of access to resources. The basic necessity is the same for all levels of the population but capitalism gives the ones with more purchasing power the upper hand with access to resources and causes the less fortunate to be deprived. 

Evaluation: On the other hand, the capitalist mentality promotes the identification of opportunities to maximize profit-making ability. Tourism is an industry that is an integrated part of an economy and for Nepal, its whole economy is dependent on the revenue incurred from the tourism & hotel industry (Benali and Oris, 2020). 

Reflection: From this article i have understood on how to do p[roverty consumption and volunteer in Nepal.  The tourism industry of Nepal has made orphanage tourism into a business of poverty. The disadvantages and misfortunes of the children are accumulated and are underpinned as an opportunity for orphanage tourism.

Poverty reduction through micro-crediting in the countries of South-East Asia

Summary: Poverty in a country can be caused by many factors and many strategies can be implemented by the government, credit agencies, social welfare societies or monetary institutions. Such a strategy that has been identified as a useful tool to reduce poverty in the developing countries of South-East Asia is micro-crediting. 

Evaluation: These had been analyzed and had been found effective in not only increasing income opportunities but improving employment status. The credit can be used in reducing the effect of inflation and helping in spreading the opportunity to achieve the benefits that come with education. This has been witnessed in 11 underdeveloped countries of “South-East Asia” from the employed data from 2007 to 2016 (Félix et al. 2019). 

Reflection: The result has been measured based on the index of headcount, the poverty gap has been found to be squared up, employment increases and the seduction received has reduced the poverty level in countries as seen like witnessed in Bangladesh.

The rural roads in alleviating poverty

Summary: Improved infrastructure can provide the population access to better resources and improve the employment position in the economy as well. The programs of development such as real investment will give the population better access to services and distribute more income to them. 

Evaluation: The programs of development such as the road projects have made the planning based on awesome assumptions and estimation of the impact of t it on the public under the poverty line. The planning has m included all the aspects that need special focus in employing and involving the lower-income public and below the baseline in the programs. The legends, networks, employment strength, the labor wages all are planned beforehand (Howe, 2019). 

Reflection: This development is beneficial to the economy as it improves the transport system and helps build networks and social development through the distribution of income to the rural and semi-urban populations.

The matters of economic growth in reducing poverty in Indonesia

Summary: In the past few decades poverty has been the critical and the biggest problem for the universal economy including the Indonesian economy. 

Evaluation: The poverty level of Indonesia in the year 2014 was 10.96% and the rate was declining from the year 2004 to 2009 by 1.27% -1.78% (Nansadiqa et al. 2019). However, the decrease in the poverty rate slowed down afterwards by 0.4%-0.8% and since 20017 based on the statistics shown by the national development planning the government has failed to reduce the rate of poverty nationwide4 to 7.55%. 

Reflection: The matter of economic growth can be analysed in this article. The poverty increase in these times has affected the fulfilment of the necessity of living a healthy, sustainable lifestyle.

The poverty principle and the structural adjustment in African

Summary: The countries such as Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique and Zimbabwe have been examined in this journal based on structural adjustment and economic privation. 

Evaluation: This study has considered all the concepts relating to “adjustment with a human face” and the deficiencies in the adjustment programmes in the whole world. The economic structure of Africa has been an underlying determinant regarding the underdevelopment status and the central condition of the content. Poverty is what the materialistic version of the underdevelopment status is. In the 1970s the country experienced a crisis of a high magnitude which promoted poverty in the country furthermore (Jacques, 2019). 

Reflection: This article has provided a insight on the provert principal and structural adjustment between African. Malawi has seen a significant growth period of fifteen years post-independence. Mozambique has planned various projects of alleviating the poverty existing in the country through various provisions. 

Multidimensional poverty in the Philippines in the context of energy

Summary: Poverty can be defined from multiple dimensions just as the poverty of food, natural sources, and scarcity of agricultural products energy poverty is another dimension. 

Evaluation: The modern economy relies on energy sources and the absence or insufficient energy services can deter the path of economic development. The reduced development can lead to the poverty rate in the country growing even higher and impact the public of lower income to a greater extent (Mendoza et al. 2019). Energy poverty can be measured from the socio-economic standpoint of development and the implication of its policy for the public. The context of the people's welfare is a vital department in maintaining and improving the Standard of living of the general public. 

Poverty reduction using the microfinance institution in Nigeria

Summary: Microfinance can be an influential business activity in terms of saving the public that is from the low-income group. The financial aid provided to the public of Nigeria has benefited from the financial services made by the various institutions. 

Evaluation: These institutions have worked their way up in the country's economy in order to elevate the poverty level of the country. The proper use of amount received from microfinance has been utilized in improving the standard of living for the people of Nigeria (Tafamel, 2019). The aids have been encouraged to be used in getting deductions, starting a business and learning the required skills to be qualified for getting into their workplaces. 

Reflection: Financial institutions h are obligated to contribute towards the growth of society and the economy. Microfinance has been gaining momentum in neighboring countries as well in providing soft loans to the f groups of people or individuals with the encouragement of starting developmental operations.

Poverty related to Gender in the rural areas of South Africa

Summary: The effects of gender on the poverty level of the country Ghana has been discussed in this article. Gender is determinant in the process of decisions making in a household as a result it is also a determinant of the household falling in the trap of poverty. 

Evaluation: Gender is an identified potential aspect in the direction and reduction of poverty for an individual household and effectiveness in society, seen from a larger angle. The standards of living as per the Statistics of South Africa (2017) are not uniform for the entire continent. Inequality is rising in a society driven by the different levels of education and employment (Konadu-Agyemang and Takyi, 2018). 

Reflection: The poverty seen in the females has been evident as they have been less privileged in terms of receiving education and the wage rate is lower compared to their male counterparts. The promotion of education among women will solve this problem of poverty on a larger scale than anticipated.

Mitigating poverty in rural Pakistan with the help of agriculture foreign remittance

Summary: Agriculture can play a vital part in fulfilling the needs of food for the large population of the country. The Green revolution has become popular and effective in Asian countries in providing the larger population with an adequate amount of food resources (Liu et al. 2020). 

Evaluation: The Agricultural industry has contributed towards the Pakistani economy with effective planning. 

Reflection: The help received in the form of remittance from foreign institutions and countries such as the USA has spread the economic development utilizing the dual economy model.


The report highlighted the causes, and impact of poverty in countries that are underdeveloped or still developing. Poverty has been concluded as a link between many negative conditions such as substandard housing, inadequate nutrition, homelessness, food security of food, and lack of healthcare access. Poverty has been identified to have been causing inadequate child care, under-resourced schools, and unsafe neighbourhoods which impact the children of an affected nation adversely. Misogynistic and patriarchal societies play a major part in it as well. The effective procurement of energy as well as the effective and optimized use of energy sources can make progressive changes in daily life in the Philippines. The transfer of cash, distributing income, water suppliers and social services establishment in rural and semi-urban areas can create employment and improve the standard of living. The problem with poverty is multidimensional because it has a link with the social, cultural, economical and structural dimensions as well.


Aziz, O., Grant, K.A. and Arshed, N., 2020. Does entrepreneurial activity assist in the alleviation of poverty?. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 22(7), pp.114-132.

Baloch, M.A., Khan, S.U.D. and Ulucak, Z.?., 2020. Poverty and vulnerability of environmental degradation in Sub-Saharan African countries: what causes what?. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 54, pp.143-149.

Benali, A. and Oris, M., 2020. Consuming poverty: volunteer tourism in an orphanage in Nepal. In Modern day slavery and orphanage tourism (pp. 110-122). Wallingford UK: Cabi.

Félix, E.G.S. and Belo, T.F., 2019. The impact of microcredit on poverty reduction in eleven developing countries in south-east Asia. Journal of Multinational Financial Management, 52, p.100590.

Howe, J., 2019. The impact of rural roads on poverty alleviation: a review of the literature. Rural roads and poverty alleviation, pp.48-81.

Jacques, G., 2019. Structural adjustment and the poverty principle in Africa. In Structural Adjustment, Reconstruction and Development in Africa (pp. 107-121). Routledge.

Konadu-Agyemang, K. and Takyi, B.K., 2018. Structural adjustment programs and the political economy of development and underdevelopment in Ghana. In IMF and World Bank Sponsored Structural Adjustment Programs in Africa (pp. 17-40). Routledge.

Liu, Y., Amin, A., Rasool, S.F. and Zaman, Q.U., 2020. The role of agriculture and foreign remittances in mitigating rural poverty: Empirical evidence from Pakistan. Risk management and healthcare policy, 13, p.13.

Mamun, M.A. and Ullah, I., 2020. COVID-19 suicides in Pakistan, dying off not COVID-19 fear but poverty?–The forthcoming economic challenges for a developing country. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 87, pp.163-166.

Mendoza Jr, C.B., Cayonte, D.D.D., Leabres, M.S. and Manaligod, L.R.A., 2019. Understanding multidimensional energy poverty in the Philippines. Energy Policy, 133, p.110886.

Nansadiqa, L., Masbar, R. and Majid, M.S.A., 2019. Does economic growth matter for poverty reduction in Indonesia. East African Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management, 2(2), pp.46-52.

Shabbir, M.S., Abbas, M., Aman, Q., Ali, R. and Orangzeb, K., 2019. Poverty Reduction Strategies. Exploring the link between Poverty and Corruption from less developed countries. Dilemas Contemporáneos: Educación, Política y Valore, 6(2).

Sibt e Ali, M., Raza, S.M.F. and Abidin, S.Z., 2018. Population, poverty and economic development nexus: Empirical study of some selected developing countries.

Sultan, S., 2018. The effects of education, poverty, and resources on family planning in developing countries. Clinics in Mother and Child Health, 15(1), pp.3-6.

Tafamel, E.A., 2019. Analysis of the effect of microfinance institutions on poverty reduction in Nigeria. In Analysis of the effect of microfinance institutions on poverty reduction in Nigeria: Tafamel, Ehiabhi Andrew.

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