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The aspect of organisational behaviour plays a crucial role in influencing the behaviour of individuals within organisational groups. This also influences the organisational culture and nature of managerial works within the organisations which further influences the organisational productivity levels. Hence, the following study seeks to analyse the coherent relationships between organisational structure, people, performance and culture. In addition, a detailed evaluation of the essential managerial work nature will also be interpreted along with the evaluation of effective leadership and management. This will aid in gaining an effective understanding about the way behavioural approach of management influences organisational behaviour of individuals.
The organisational structure associated with any organisation aids in influencing the way individual role and responsibilities are distributed (Nene and Pillay, 2019). In regards, organisational structure ensures to influence the overall information flow of an organisation by which distinct groups and individuals within the organisation could communicate with each other for attaining the functional objectives of the organisation. The organisational structure of an organisation could be categorised in two segments including centralised and decentralised structures where the centralised organisational structures ensure to influence the people to rely upon the decisions adopted by the organisational management which oftens becomes quiet ineffective in terms of managing large scale organisations with several department or group existence (Kawianaet al. 2018). On the contrary, decentralised organisational structures influence the organisational people to delegate decision making authorities to the lower levels of organisational people which therefore enhances the decision making efficiency and catalyses the implementation of decisions. This also influences the level of job satisfaction among the organisational people and elevates the productivity margins of the organisations also.
Furthermore, organisational culture could be regarded as the significant collection of organisational distinct values and norms which are shared by the groups and people associated with an organisation. As per the views of Ahmadyet al. (2016), organisational culture associated beliefs, attitudes, behaviours and customs help the organisational people to recognise what the culture stands for and what considerations are significant within the culture. In addition the authors have also stated that organisational culture associated collective programming aids in distinguishing the organisational people from one organisation to another. This is completely different from the national culture oriented beliefs and values as people learn the culture later in their life (Gochhayatet al. 2017). In regards, the authors have also opined that as the organisational structure and culture both influences the internal controls and the communication of organisational information which further influences the overall organisational performances. Therefore, it can be asserted that the culture of an organisation influences the internal operational mechanism as the individual people associated within an organisation gets to know how they need to behave and work within an organisation. This could be effectively interpreted through the aid of Schien's model of culture as the following framework facilitates adequate insight to interpret the way organisational people and groups associated with specific organisational culture influences the overall productivity.
Figure 1: Schien's model of culture
(Source: Duerret al. 2018)
In accordance with the study of Matko and Takacs (2017), the Schien'sculture model consists of three elements including Artifacts and behaviours, Norms & values and the basic assumptions. In regards, the artifacts associated with an organisation denotes the visible process and structure within the organisation which influences the organisational people to perceive the way organisational operations are getting entailed. The norms & values associated with the following model further defines the significant organisational strategies, philosophies and goals which makes individual or organisational groups realise their functional activities. Therefore, this allows the organisational members to perceive the way organisational work activities are accomplished to attain specific organisational activities. Moreover, the basic values associated with the organisational culture also plays a crucial role in influencing the organisational performances. As mentioned by Bailey et al. (2019), the basic assumptions are the rigid organisational values that individual organisational people hold which aids in shaping the organisational behaviours and practices of individual or groups intrinsic with an organisational structure which drives the overall productivity of the organisations, For instance, an organisational culture that focuses on continual innovativeness, individual associated with the organisation could focus on elevating their innovative decision making efficiency by which the organisation could ensure to gain innovative work culture and this could lead to effective organisational productivity by which the overall sustainability of that organisation could be enhanced.
However, Lagrosen and Lagrosen (2019), have argued organisational culture is something that could aid in uniting the organisational people for greater productivity whereas inadequate organisational culture could alienate organisational people which could hamper the organisational performances. In regards, the significant values associated with an organisation including adaptability, mission, involvement and consistency helps in enhancing the efficiency of organisational culture to achieve the organisational objectives. Therefore, the organisational culture and structure which ensure to align the employer goals and some set of values including involvement are effective in terms of attaining the organisational goals as such organisational cultures could foster a sense of responsibility among individuals and influences the productive behaviours. As a consequence of this, organisational people having adequate sense of organisational structure and culture tends to have effective organisational behaviours of driving the organisational productivity towards a greater sustenance.
The managerial work within an organisation refers to the way organisational works are getting done in a systematic way. As commented by Vainionpää (2017), the managerial works associated with distinct organisations emphasises that all managers despite of their distinct aptitudes, skills and capabilities engage in some significant interrelated functions to attain the organisational goals. These functions include planning, organising, leading and controlling.
Figure 2: Managerial work functions/ processes
(Source: Vainionpää, 2017)
Planning function refers to the way organisational managers ensure to predict the possible occurrences or future trends that could influence the operational activities of an organisation. In regards, the planning process involves the decision making for determining effective plans, strategies or goals for enhancing the organisational practices. In addition, the organising process allows the organisational managers to coordinate with the organisational members for moving the derived plans or goals towards realisation (Robbins et al. 2017). In essence, the organisation helps them in determining and organising the resources for implicating the plan where the structure of that organisation defines the way significant works need to be accomplished. In addition, leading aids in influencing the organisational people to work collaboratively for the achievement of organisational goals where it is essential for the managerial bodies to lead and motivate the organisational for influencing their behaviours to get the organisational works done effectively. Moreover, controlling process allows the managerial bodies to effectively supervise the work progress and to evaluate the progress which also aids in perceiving the modification needs in organisational functions which aids in ensuring the organisational goal achievement in an effective way.
Managers on the other hand have been playing a pivotal role in managing all the processes of an organisation. The primary role of the managers is to guide and direct the employees towards the achievement of organisational goals. However, it is worth mentioning that leadership skills are the key aspect that secures organisational success. As per the opinion of Osborne and Hammoud (2017), leadership skills are the most expensive to be taken into consideration that enhances the effectiveness of the organisations. Leadership is directly proportional to organisational success.
The more effective the leadership is, the larger the success proportion of the organisation will be. Leaders are responsible for determining the value and the organisational culture and the performance of the employees is mostly dependent on the leadership style. As per the statement of Aliet al. (2018), the primary job role of managers ought to be influencing the employees which further contributes to achieving organisational objectives hence the business success. Along with shaping the organisational strategies are also the lookout of the leaders including the effectiveness and execution of the plans. Besides, an effective leadership style ensures the economic growth and prosperity of both organisation and employees and thus the leadership has a positive impact on organisational success.
Figure: The relationship between organisational culture, leadership style and Organisational performance
(Source: Stoyanova and Iliev, 2017)
There are numerous factors that determine the effectiveness of both the management and the leadership such as communication, performance evaluation, training and development, organisational culture, employee engagement, collaborative workplace and willingness for change. Communication has been found to be the most effective tool that determines the effectiveness of strategic management and leadership and there ought to be a framed communication channel between the lower and upper-level management in order to avoid organisational conflict (Stoyanova and Iliev, 2017). Moreover, good communication aids in solving difficulties and if will enable the peers to discuss the issues openly with the top-level management. Performance evaluation on the other hand is also one of the most important determining factors of strategic leadership and management. Tracing the performance of the employees will enable the upper-level management to comprehend the flaws of individuals that they face while executing any task.
Performance measures, rewards and recognition also enhance the confidence of the employees and which is further beneficial for the organisations in terms of achieving the organisational objectives.
Training and development will allow organisations to enhance the competence of the employees. It will also make them skilful which is beneficial for both the individuals and the organisation. As per the statement of Kuvaaset al. (2017), a major part of organisational success relies on the amount of effort each staff puts into the process. The sincerity and dedication of employees while performing a job role eventually benefits the organisations. In this regard, the upper-level management must allow the employees to take part in the decision-making process which further enhances the confidence of the employees and they become more devoted to their job role. As opined by Varma (2017), organisational culture also determines the effectiveness and success of the organisations as a strong organisational culture makes the employees caring about the organisational values. Employee motivation is one of the core aspects that need to be dragged in this scenario that aids in elevating the business standard by improving the performance of the organisations.
Figure: Factors of effective management and leadership
(Source: Varma, 2017)
The behavioural approach to management has completely been focusing on employee well-being and human relations. Install of only commanding, participation and collaboration of the upper-level management with the fellow team members is an effective way to accomplishing organisational goals (Quaratino and Mazzei, 2018). Behavioural style managers often motivate employees to accomplish their job role and keep them motivated and satisfied (Idowu, 2017). In his regard, the behavioural management theory is one of the prominent frameworks to be taken into account which has been discussed below.
Behavioural management theory
The behavioural management theory is also known as the notions of human relations as it refers to the human dynamics of work. The behavioural theory compels individuals to understand human behaviour in a better manner for instance motivation, organisational conflicts, group dynamics, expectations and improved productivity. Behavioural management theory depends on the notions of leaders and it influences them to apprehend the human aspects of workers and treat each employee as an important part of the organisation. It helps to grow the individual prosperity as well the organisational performance.
As per the opinion of Ibrahim and Daniel (2019), management ought to consider the employees as a special part of the organisation which further contributes to the accomplishment of the organisational objectives. As per this theory, managers must work collaboratively with fellow team members which further make the employees self-confident that results in improved organisational performance (Martinussenet al. 2020). This theory also depicts that the employees ought to be allowed in the decision-making process which will further boost up their motivation level and make them feel an important part of the organisation. Apart from that, a collection of decisions coming from the employees would help the upper-level management to formulate a better decision for the betterment of both the organisational and individuals.
Figure: Behavioural approach in the management
(Source: Martinussenet al. 2020)
It can be concluded that leadership and strategic management does play an important role in the success of the organisation. A good leader guides the employees towards achieving organisational goals. They also know how to get connected with the employees in order to boost up productivity by motivating them as much as possible. The current study has presented a coherent relationship between culture, structure, people and organisational performance, the organisational culture and structure have a high influence on the organisational performance as employees often work harder to accomplish the organisational objectives If they fell secure and comfortable within the organisational environment However any contradiction on that leads to the disruption of employee performance hence organisational growth. The role of leadership has also been presented in the current report by amalgamating the behaviour management theory. Hence, it can be affirmed that organisational performance highly relies on the organisational culture, structure, leadership skills, communication and behavioural approach to management.
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