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Creating And Managing Digital Systems

Introduction - Creating And Managing Digital Systems

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Task 1

1. Introduction

The concept of privacy is associated with the fundamental human right which underpins the freedom of thought, expression and association along with freedom of discrimination (Lukács, 2016). The emergence of information technology and rapid advancement has encouraged all the traditional procedures to be digitalised which has enabled the procedures to become more advanced. Hence, the use of information technology has increased, simultaneously, the threat of personal information and identity has risen. In the same way, healthcare organisations due to the extensive implication of information technology have exposed this sector to face multiple challenges including data privacy.

Fair information practices are defined as a set of standards that governs a set of standards that safeguard the collection and utilise personal information and address privacy and accuracy challenges (Garfinkel, 2002). The Committee's investigation into how internet entities obtain and use personal details, as well as security measures to ensure that practice is fair and gives sufficient data privacy and security, resulting in the Fair Information Practice Principles. This particular project will be highlighting multiple aspects associated with the implication of Information systems in a healthcare organisation (Case and King, 2021). In this regard, the report will discuss the causes making healthcare organisations vulnerable and multiple internet challenges associated with data, privacy and intellectual property protection. Alongside, ways to protect the privacy of the online user and a discussion on protecting privacy will be drawn. Lastly, two ways of protecting intellectual rights and a recommendation will be developed.

2. Main Body

a. Description of The Causes Making Healthcare Organisations Being Dependent and Vulnerable Due to Implication of Information System

Data benefits in saving a life. This is particularly significant in the context of healthcare. Healthcare practitioners, doctors, and nursing staff who have access to patient and population health information can end up making critical care choices that can greatly affect their service users' lives (Dhillon, 1997). Obtaining patient data into the hands of the right people as rapidly as possible is dependent on health information systems that smoothly and intelligently integrate medical services and information technology. A health information system allows healthcare institutions to obtain, store, maintain, analyse, and optimise patient treatment pasts as well as other valuable data.

These mechanisms also make it simple for healthcare practitioners to collect information about microenvironments, such as public health dynamics (Humaidi and Balakrishnan, 2018). Furthermore, health information systems offer information about particular providers or healthcare institutions, such as frequently utilised therapies or initiatives associated with the better result. Health information systems are used by physicians and nurses to consider making data-driven choices about varied aspects of patient care. Fast access to personal health records, for example, could indeed reveal prior forms of treatment.

Supervisors can also benefit from health information systems because they can analyse statistical data regarding various departments or processes to better assign the company's resources. Due to these multiple advantages, the healthcare system has become extensively dependent upon information technology.

Computer-based information devices are prone to ruination, misapplication, erroneous, scams, and hardware and software failings because data is focused in digital form and many processes are rendered obscure through automated processes. Corporate systems which use the Web are highly vulnerable because the Internet is crafted to be an open platform, making a company's organisational internal systems more vulnerable to outsider deeds. Cybercriminals can launch denial-of-service (DoS) threats or infiltrate corporate networks to potentially cause framework interruptions. Attackers can pass easily Wi-Fi systems via using sniffer programmes to acquire contact information and access the network's resources. Computer viruses and other malware can rapidly spread from network to network, clogging computer memory and ruining programmes and data. Because software defects may be difficult to eliminate and security holes can be manipulated by cyber criminals which cause software problems. Errors can be introduced by the end-user.

Healthcare information security has emerged as among the most major threats to the healthcare sector. Because of the specific details underlined in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) laws, as well as the highest ethical standards to treat individuals and the harm that health care system security flaws can have on their lives, IT experts must constantly confront healthcare security and privacy issues (Shoniregun, Dube and Mtenzi, 2010). The dilemma of shared healthcare data is that it both tends to make patients safe and secure along puts them at risk. The wider the channel grows, the more beneficial that becomes in delivering superior medical treatment, but its information is becoming more appealing to criminal activities. Healthcare cybersecurity threats are a big problem for a multitude of reasons:

Along with the patient’s health records, medical providers also possess financial data.

As, the number of people who visit healthcare centres is not a limited number, as a result, almost every person’s data is available to them in some form. Because EHRs are linked, cybercriminals have direct exposure to data that has been gathered under patients' identities for decades (Azubuike and Ehiri, 1999). Sharing patient data is essential to providing the best care to patients, but it also tends to make channels a highly valuable primary target. In many cybersecurity threats, the attacker's objective is to collect information — either to sell or to use for personal benefit. With the data available in electronic health records, a random person could have established consultations, undertaken costly surgical treatments, or acquired prescribed drugs in the patient's name. In such instances, the patient or the health provider may be held liable for the charges or treatments.

b. Evaluation of the Internet Challenges caused by the Data, Privacy, Intellectual Property Protection in Healthcare Organisations

The healthcare industry is evolving with new technologies and the security threats are also increasing day by day. One of the biggest security threats healthcare organisations face today is related to health information exchange and electronic health records. According to the 2009 Recovery act, HITECH encourages healthcare providers to utilise Health information exchange (HIE) to assist doctorsto share data and electronic health records (EHR) for patients. As the network benefits in storing a large number of medical data between multiple providers which tempt data thieves. Another data security hazard faced by healthcare is of HER is the simplest patient-user error (Dang et al., 2019). Storing data in an unencrypted folder in the cloud or the data is sent via email which hackers can easily access these data.

Patient privacy is the fundamental right of every patient. due to the rise of digitalisation, the accessibility of these records is increasing exponentially (Rana, Kubbo and Jayabalan, 2017). The main privacy issue faced by organisations is relating to giving protection towards health information. The rise of electronic exchange of data between healthcare providers has grown privacy and security challenges. Mostly, a data breach is caused by employee mistakes and outright carelessness which seems to be growing every year. Furthermore, the use of mobile device put patients at risk. Lost and stolen mobile device is considered as one of the major cause of data breach (Abouelmehdi, Beni-Hessane and Khaloufi, 2018). Another cause imposing challenge in privacy is medical identity theft.

Currently, intellectual property is at the heart of healthcare systems which benefit in the present research and development of today's medicine. The most crucial challenge faced by healthcare organisations is related to compulsory licensing. Furthermore, the procedure of keeping a patent is a costly procedure that requires a large amount of money for maintenance as well. As a result, the overall cost of healthcare organisations increases.

c. Description of the Ways to Protect Individual privacy of Internet User

Protection of individual privacy is indeed necessary for all kinds of organisation. There are certain ways that might be able to safeguard the Individual privacy of Internet Users.

Informed consent

Informed Consent is considered a significant element in terms of data protection of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Informed Consent or confidentiality basically refers to giving importance to patients' perception about collecting any information or any kind of procedure regarding the person (Kreuter et al., 2020). Therefore, it has been observed that the major ideologies reinforcement of GDPR is to enlarge digital citizen consciousness surrounding consent in terms of data processing and practice. This has substantial implications in terms of data processing and practice in a healthcare context. In order to make certain digital citizens who are up to date during the time of consenting to the utilisation of IoT, within the health sphere of authority, it is essential that the requirement of the digital citizen is congregated to guarantee that they consist of the information they required to make knowledgeable choices.


  • It acclimatizes more than the system of the government: It has been observed that self-regulation is the ultimate way to protect the privacy of the consumers and it has been considered as a rapid procedure (Gostin, Halabi and Wilson, 2018). Therefore, Privacy companies, such as TRUSTe, can confirm the declarations of their customers and function at the speed of technology.
  • It encourages being on top: companies who provide the best quality product and services along with sustaining brand reputation, considered as the ultimate market leader. For example, Working with NNEDV has been proved to be extremely beneficial as it facilitates extending a containment feature in TrueRep and that basically provides users the chance to block their current contact information (Hong, Chan and Thong, 2021). This has been proved to be accommodating for operating any organisation in an effective manner.
  • It provides solutions: self-regulation and innovation are extremely interrelated to each other. It has been observed that through the process of permitting the industry to self-regulate, innovation is prioritized together with customer protection. As a matter of fact, it basically helps the innovation procedure to be fast.


There are some privacy protection regulations for keeping secure individual information. These laws are found to be extremely effective in terms of safeguarding information.

  • Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) [1986]– this law defends convinced wire, oral, and electronic communications from not permitted interception, right of entry, use, and information revelation.
  • Computer Fraud & Abuse Act (CFAA) [1986] according to the conception of this act, computer-associated activities which are intimately associated with unauthorised access, the transmission of important information, or traffic in computer passwords is prohibited. The implementation of this specific law has been proved to be extremely accommodating for the users to safeguard in keeping their data. On the other hand, the legal issues of not maintaining these laws have been able to safeguard the information in an effective manner.

d. Discussion upon the ways to Protect Intellectual Property Rights

There are many effective ways to Protect Intellectual Property Rights and this has been proved quite helpful after applying in multiple organisations.

  • Don't File Patents: The most unique or appropriate way to preserve intellectual property is not to file patents. For example, the ultimate purpose of Filing patents offers the recipe of the way a product or service can be produced. After the publishing of the recipe, each and every one has the ability to create a similar product (Boerman, Kruikemeier and Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2021). Regarding this fact, the ultimate technique is to regulate the initiative with a standards alliance, so that others are jammed from making such an idea.
  • Consult an expert: Discussion about the case along with a specialized attorney who is a pro in terms of tackling such cases and offers a typical explanation to the customers (Boerman, Kruikemeier and Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2021). Looking for recommendations or suggestions from the patent attorney who is not located in the region or locality can also have the ability to safeguard from having an indentation in the pockets.
  • Re-check of the idea: Doing proper investigation of the idea along with making certain of the fact that it is genuine and comprises advantages. Tracking down of the fact that if someone is thinking about the same perception or not, applying for an exclusive trademark along within patent searches (Zeilinger, 2018). This will be extremely accommodating for any company or organisation to Protect Intellectual Property Rights in an effective manner.
  • Arrange Some Evidence While Innovating: It is the most appropriate yet foremost way to preserve property rights. It has been observed that lack of efficient information companies has to encounter several issues regarding the maintenance of property rights (Yamin et al., 2019). Keeping exceptional evidence that will prove that the company is the rightful owner or the ultimate creator of the product or services might be beneficial. Therefore, this can be performed through sustaining a record of data that documents the development of intellectual property rights.
  • Building Awareness among the Employees about Intellectual Property rights: Employees are considered to be the key factor of any kind of organization. Due to this fact, providing appropriate training to the employees about evading intellectual property rights will be extremely beneficial. In case of that, there has to be a certain group for monitoring intellectual property rights-related issues. In most cases, it has been observed that intellectual property (IP) gets disclosed from a company during error or by lack of ability to protect. On the other hand, workers can also accidentally expose or disclose company information. In that case, this training will be extremely helpful to keep the intellectual property rights as well as fewer amounts of risks related to information disclosure (Zeilinger, 2018).

3. Conclusion

After analysing the entire report, it can be stated that in the present world, information technology appeals to be of great importance in the healthcare sector. As the application of information technology has made the healthcare operational procedure smoother a result in the efficiency of these procedures have increased. There are certain privacy and data security threats that are causing a challenge for the industry but the adaption of these two measures will benefit healthcare organisations to mitigate these challenges which will benefit the entire procedure to be more efficient and more productive. As a result, the need for patient care will be easily mitigated.

4. Recommendations

These are the following recommendations for the HDS group to deal with the problematic situations of privacy and intellectual property related issues:

  • Password integrity: HDS group should be able to apply password integrity in terms of securing the information. Application such as 1Password and LastPass provides enterprise or “team” admittance to internationally manage passwords along with other sensitive information within organizations (Gostin, Halabi and Wilson, 2018). Utilising this effective tool might be proved to be extremely accommodating for the HDS group to effectively manage the security system.
  • Keeping the elevated level of authenticity: sustaining a high level of authenticity is indeed necessary for the HDS group in order to safeguard intellectual properties (Yamin et al., 2019). It has been observed that after a user finds out about the password, they still have to provide sufficient information before accessing the information. Regarding this fact, the HDS group should apply a high level of Multifactor authentication for this specific reason.
  • Cloud-based solution: It has been observed several companies have already been started transferring their data into cloud-based systems. Selecting a cloud-based solution might be extremely accommodating for the HDS group in terms of safeguarding privacy as well as preserving intellectual property (Yamin et al., 2019). Through transferring into cloud-based service, the company will have to worry less in terms of Data, Privacy, and Intellectual Property Protection.

Task 2

1.a. Conceptualisation and Discussion about the Characteristics of Project

A project is a collection of tasks to be done in order to achieve a particular goal. A project can also be described as a combination of outputs and inputs necessary to reach that goal. Projects can be simple or complex, and they can be handled by one or a hundred people. There are certain characteristics that consist of a project, which includes,

  • Single definable Purpose: A project must have a specific cost, schedule and requirements in performance.
  • Uniqueness: There are a set of unique requirements in a project which requires to be delivered inside the project boundaries.
  • Temporary Activities: Generally, projects are temporary in nature and projects have a defined starting pointing and defined endpoint.
  • Cut Across Organisational Lines: Projects every time reduced along a company's regular organisational lines and frameworks. They do this because the project requires the skills and abilities of numerous professions and divisions within the company, as well as from outside organisations. Because modern technology creates mission inter-dependencies that can initiate fresh and novel troubles, the complex nature of modern technology frequently results in additional task challenges.
  • Unfamiliarity: Since a project varies from prior projects, it also entails unfamiliarity. A project may also include the latest tech, which introduces critical components of unpredictability for the institution carrying out this project.
  • Specific Goal: A project is a process of getting things done toward a common goal. Throughout the procedure, initiatives went through various separate stages, which are referred to as the life cycle of the project. Even as work proceeds from one step toward the next, the duties, individuals, organisations, and other resources will alter. With each succeeding phase, the organization structures and resource spending grow high point, and afterwards downturn as the undertaking nears the end.

1.b. Purpose of Project Initiation Document

The project initiation document is associated with the document which describes the scope of a project, risks, other significant details. The main purpose of the project initiation document is to acquire chief planning data which will assist in steering the project in the right way, acquire acceptance from the stakeholders and decision-makers and build an apparent plan in terms of project delivery. A project face lacks direction and poor engagement from stakeholders because of not initiating project initiation document. A project management document is a living document that can be modified and updated over the span of the project life cycle. Hence, the project initiation document is significant as it delivers management stages that describe the overall project. This project ensures resource availability, delivers a time-based baseline based upon this progress that can be measured.

2.a. Scope of a Project

Project scope is considered to be an integral part of project planning which is basically associated with determining and documenting a variety of project deliverables, responsibilities, costs and objectives. In other words, it is a project management plan which basically involves making certain of accomplishing any work in an exact time as per the requirement (Kwon and Kang, 2019). In terms of the project scope statement, it is, therefore, the concern of the manager to successfully manage the project. The project scope statement will operate as the most important instrument in terms of stakeholders and teammates in order to transfer back to and employ as a parameter to precisely measure project achievement (Eyibio and Daniel, 2020). It is indeed a necessary procedure and as per the perception of the project management institute, there is a range of features of project scope. These are:

  1. Appropriate justification
  2. Brief description of the project scope
  3. Analysing business objectives
  4. Project deliverables
  5. Project exclusions
  6. Investigation of the challenges regarding the project
  7. Assumptions

2.b. Role of Work Breakdown Structure

With a WBS, project managers may organise their work more effectively and more accurately. There is a set amount of time and money allotted to a specific project. When a project is completed, it must meet the goals it set out to accomplish for the various parties it was intended to benefit. The project's timetable, fixed costs, and functional completeness must be planned and assigned duties by the project management (Zecheru and Olaru, 2016). The WBS helps to ensure that this planning is consistent and that the project can be successfully completed.

3. Gantt Chart with Critical Path


Start Date

Finish Date


(in weeks)












































4. Approaches for Generating Project Budget

Determining a project budget is extremely crucial for measuring the outcome. It has been observed that funding is considered to be one of the most important components of project management. It is therefore the managers concerned to form an appropriate budget plan in order to accomplish the project in an effective manner. It will also describe the amount of money needed to fulfil the project management (Kwon and Kang, 2019). On the other hand, it will help the manager to have a perception of the budget otherwise project might become a failure. It has been observed that project budget has a direct result on the company's economic viability.

5. Discussion about How Project Risk Arise and Understanding Responses to mitigate risk in a Project management

Project risk arises when the planning was not enough or due to lack of focus, it has been proved to be a major failure. On the other hand, members of the project management are also considered to be responsible for the failure of the project. However, there are some effective ways through which mitigation of the risks can be possible (Mobley, 2018). In terms of increasing the budget, the formation of transparency is extremely important. It will facilitate the project manager to prevent budget overruns. Through gathering relevant information, team members and the clients will be able to mitigate this issue. On the other hand, communication is measured as a common problem in project management. It occurs when individuals are not doing teamwork efficiently (Dandage et al., 2018). Face-to-face interaction or through messaging these problems can be solved effortlessly. Yet, the manager requires keeping a close eye on the operating techniques in an effective manner. 


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