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Exploring Psychological Approaches and Treatment Processes for Major Depressive Disorder Assignment Sample

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Introduction - Psychological Approaches and Treatment Processes for Understanding Major Depressive Disorder

Major depressive disorder is generally known as an anxiety disorder which is the most commonly diagnosed mental illness. The psychological theory has provided the information which is an evidence-based description of why people think, feel, and behave. Major depression is basically a mood disorder. This is naturally shown in a strong patrimonial and biological basis. The relatives of the depressive patients have doubled the risk of major depressive disorder (Allsopp, et al., 2019). The relatives of those patients with the capricious disorder have increased the risk of those patients over nine times stronger. Similarly, the rate of major depressive disorder is very high among the identical twin than in the congenial twin respectively which has referred to those genetic factors that have performed a convalescent role in capricious disorders than in major depressive disorder. Those people who have this mood disorder have imbalances in positive neurotransmitters (Bromis, et al., 2018). It is very important to regulate the body's functions which disrupted the mood disorders like sex drive, sleep, mood, appetite, and arousal. For this kind of major depression, medication is the best treatment that can boost norepinephrine and serotonin to recover from this depression. Also, lithium can be used in the disorder bipolar which has blocked the activity of norepinephrine at the synapses. Depression is some kind of abnormal activity of the brain, which are accesses the emotional acceptance of encouragement and regulates and control the emotions and experience those emotions (Chan,et al., 2019). Depression has expressed the high amygdala activity basically when the negative emotional encouragement has shown like sad things.

Psychology is mainly about understanding the mind and the behavior which has been impacted by those psychological factors. The psychological factors have naturally shown in the actions taken by the people, their thoughts and feelings, emotions, memory, communication style, understanding, and decision making which has detected the situation in which a person is surviving (Farb, et al., 2018). In psychology, there are six types of approaches that describe human behaviors individually. The psychological approaches are humanistic, behavioral, psychodynamic, cognitive, and biological. Each and every approach is a description of an unconcerned assumption of human behavior. There are different types of theories in an approach but all of them explained the same theory (Gao, 2018). The main assumption of the behavioral approach is to learn the behavior through communication with the environment. The people who wear the white coats and they are observing rats in a laboratory are the behavioral psychologist. They recognize the behavioral objectives and the emotions which is scientifically measured by them. The psychodynamic approach has begun with the theory of Sigmund Freud. The theory of Sigmund Freud is one of the greatest steps of psychoanalysis in the psychological field (Han, et al., 2018). This approach describes human behavior which is based on childhood experiences. This approach has looked back at the childhood of that patient to know about their present actions. It has believed the choice of the patient is massively determined by their unconscious mind. The Humanistic approach is naturally focused on the point that every person is different and unique and they have their free wishes that they can change their life anytime (Lippard, 2020). It reflects that every person is responsible for their own happiness which has been pointed out in the perception of the world subjectively but this approach is an antagonistic approach to the scientific attempts to describe the behavior of humans. Cognitive psychology is all about expressing the procedure which has taken place in the mind. After reading all the information about cognition this expresses the procedure gathered for the knowledge. Examples of this cognitive process are perception, memory, and attention. The biological approach is to rotate around the points of the feelings, behavior, and thoughts of humans that have a biological cause. This approach examines the brain and genetics. It admits that most of the behavior of humans have got in their genetics that can be described by the neurological terms which are used (Luyten, 2018). At present cognitive behavioral therapy is very popular and it is used mostly for the treatment of people to overcome their challenges. This approach has mixed up the assumptions of behavioral and cognitive prospects. It has explained the feelings, behavior, and thoughts of human beings by which they all are connected. Cognitive-behavioral therapy’s main goal is to change the negative thoughts which caused the unwanted emotions and behaviors and give a positive state of mind to overcome those faces (Malhi, et al., 2021).

The most effective part for the people who are suffering from depression is the medications and the psychotherapy. All the doctors or the psychiatrist are to impose the medications to alleviate the symptoms (Young, 2019). Many people who are suffering from depression are benefiting from this medication which is prescribed by a psychiatrist, or other mental health experts (Meltzer, et al., 2018). There is a different types of medication that are suggested by the doctors but it depends from person to person on which is suitable for them. The family is the main factor in the time of depression if they understand that person what they need in that time and what is going through in their mind at that time what is the main problem in that person this is the main antidepressant thing in every depressive person life because the family member is the main medicine or the main medications of every person's life (Nagy, et al., 2021). So every doctor or psychiatrist tells the family members to understand the person who is suffering from this disease. If the psychological problem is not a genetic issue at that time the medication helps that person to recover these things and respond to this treatment process. So medication is the first and most important treatment process for depressive disorders. Not only the medications the psychotherapy is also another treatment that is really helpful for depressive disorders. This is basically permissiveness depression by communicating about the patient's conditions and their relevant problems with the mental health experts. There is also some other psychotherapy that is very effective for depression treatment. This therapy is also known as talk therapy (Uchida, et al., 2018). This therapy is help to accommodate a crisis or the other present complications. This therapy also analyzes the negative ideology and the behaviors and changes them with the healthy conclusive ones. This therapy also helps to examine their relationship and also develop communication with others. Discover a better path to cope and rectify the problems. And they can also find the issues that share with their depression and slowly change their behavior which is worse for them but after using this process they learn how to set the goals of their life and the patients who are suffering from this depressive disorder can also improve the ability to accept the distress to adopting healthier behaviors. There is also some other treatment process but these two processes are the main essential part of treatment for depressive disorders.

After reflecting on these psychological factors, there is much information related to them. Major depressive disorder is a psychological factor that detects the anxiety of the person by which he/she has survived. It can come genetically from childhood. Major depressive disorder is naturally increased for the relatives (Widge,et al., 2019). This mood disorder is a certain phrase that a person survives. For this depression, there are many approaches to recover their mental health. These approaches are different from each other but all of these describe the same things about human psychology. These approaches especially follow up the behavior, thoughts, feelings, and actions to detect the phase by which a person has survived. But among those six approaches, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is the most popular (Winter, 2018). It is the best therapy that can help the patients to overcome their bad phase. Psychologists gather the childhood information about their patients to know their next steps at present and they observed their behavior, communication styles, and thoughts to detect the challenges and can help them to overcome them. There is also some process of treatments by which a patient can recover. For this kind of anxiety and depression medication is the best way to revail their challenges (Yan, et al., 2019). Many depression patients have to get benefitted from this anxiety prevail medication which is prescribed by the doctors. Family is the main antidepressant for the patients because they can understand the patient very closely. They have to treat because their mental decisions are not in this term by which they can identify which is wrong or which is right, then any of them who are surviving they can commit suicide at any time or harm anyone. For the pregnant woman, depression is a very bad impact on her baby. There are many more reasons to provide treatment to those people to help them to overcome. Because of these reasons, medication and psychotherapies are very important to heal them.

Reference list

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Bromis, K., Calem, M., Reinders, A.A., Williams, S.C. and Kempton, M.J., 2018. Meta-analysis of 89 structural MRI studies in posttraumatic stress disorder and comparison with major depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 175(10), pp.989-998.

Chan, J.S., Liu, G., Liang, D., Deng, K., Wu, J. and Yan, J.H., 2019. Special issue–therapeutic benefits of physical activity for mood: a systematic review on the effects of exercise intensity, duration, and modality. The Journal of psychology, 153(1), pp.102-125.

Farb, N., Anderson, A., Ravindran, A., Hawley, L., Irving, J., Mancuso, E., Gulamani, T., Williams, G., Ferguson, A. and Segal, Z.V., 2018. Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depressive disorder with either mindfulness-based cognitive therapy or cognitive therapy. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 86(2), p.200.

Gao, S., Calhoun, V.D. and Sui, J., 2018. Machine learning in major depression: From classification to treatment outcome prediction. CNS neuroscience & therapeutics, 24(11), pp.1037-1052.

Han, L.K., Aghajani, M., Clark, S.L., Chan, R.F., Hattab, M.W., Shabalin, A.A., Zhao, M., Kumar, G., Xie, L.Y., Jansen, R. and Milaneschi, Y., 2018. Epigenetic aging in major depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 175(8), pp.774-782.

Lippard, E.T. and Nemeroff, C.B., 2020. The devastating clinical consequences of child abuse and neglect: increased disease vulnerability and poor treatment response in mood disorders. American journal of psychiatry, 177(1), pp.20-36.

Luyten, P. and Fonagy, P., 2018. The stress–reward–mentalizing model of depression: An integrative developmental cascade approach to child and adolescent depressive disorder based on the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) approach. Clinical Psychology Review, 64, pp.87-98.

Malhi, G.S., Bell, E., Bassett, D., Boyce, P., Bryant, R., Hazell, P., Hopwood, M., Lyndon, B., Mulder, R., Porter, R. and Singh, A.B., 2021. The 2020 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for mood disorders. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 55(1), pp.7-117.

Meltzer-Brody, S., Howard, L.M., Bergink, V., Vigod, S., Jones, I., Munk-Olsen, T., Honikman, S. and Milgrom, J., 2018. Postpartum psychiatric disorders. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 4(1), pp.1-18.

Nagy, C., Maitra, M., Tanti, A., Suderman, M., Théroux, J.F., Davoli, M.A., Perlman, K., Yerko, V., Wang, Y.C., Tripathy, S.J. and Pavlidis, P., 2020. Single-nucleus transcriptomics of the prefrontal cortex in major depressive disorder implicates oligodendrocyte precursor cells and excitatory neurons. Nature neuroscience, 23(6), pp.771-781.

Uchida, S., Yamagata, H., Seki, T. and Watanabe, Y., 2018. Epigenetic mechanisms of major depression: targeting neuronal plasticity. Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 72(4), pp.212-227.

Widge, A.S., Bilge, M.T., Montana, R., Chang, W., Rodriguez, C.I., Deckersbach, T., Carpenter, L.L., Kalin, N.H. and Nemeroff, C.B., 2019. Electroencephalographic biomarkers for treatment response prediction in major depressive illness: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 176(1), pp.44-56.

Winter, G., Hart, R.A., Charlesworth, R.P. and Sharpley, C.F., 2018. Gut microbiome and depression: what we know and what we need to know. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 29(6), pp.629-643.

Yan, C.G., Chen, X., Li, L., Castellanos, F.X., Bai, T.J., Bo, Q.J., Cao, J., Chen, G.M., Chen, N.X., Chen, W. and Cheng, C., 2019. Reduced default mode network functional connectivity in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(18), pp.9078-9083.

Young, K.S., Sandman, C.F. and Craske, M.G., 2019. Positive and negative emotion regulation in adolescence: links to anxiety and depression. Brain sciences, 9(4), p.76.

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