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Behaviorist Psychology is an aspect of psychology that is based on the belief that the behavior of an individual is a result of responses to environmental conditions (Henry, 2017). It refers to stimulus-oriented actions that an individual undertakes according to his perception and attitude. Humanistic Psychology, on the other hand, is based on the convention that every individual is unique in his perception and psychological quotient and must be treated without generalizing the factors (Pincus et al., 2018). The main aspects governing humanistic psychology are self-efficacy, free will, and self-actualization. A humanistic approach is a modern approach to psychology whereas Behaviorist psychology is based on studies and observations by researchers.
Proponents of humanistic psychology include that it includes dimensions such as feelings, thinking, and perception which are omitted in behaviorist psychology. Humanistic psychology is an evolutionary concept that believes in the hierarchy of needs. When primitive needs are fulfilled, the individual moves to the next stage of needs. This is a mirroring concept with Maslow's need hierarchy theory (Henry, 2017). self-actualization is the last step, where the individual realizes his complete potential. But it cannot overcast the applicability of behaviorist psychology as it has some practical base. People do get influenced by their environment and their innate perception to respond in a unique way to the circumstance form and define their psychology. For example, a child may perceive his circumstance as burdensome whereas another individual may view the same circumstance as an opportunity. Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are largely derived out of one's perception about his environment and circumstances. The scope of behaviorist theory includes learning through association, rewards and penalties, and aversion therapy (Pincus et al., 2018). The limited scope of behaviorist psychology gave rise to the need for humanistic psychology. The humanistic approach evolved during the 1960s when the "human potential" movement was spreading rapidly in the US. It included the dynamic needs and organized these needs in different stages propelled by Maslow.
The major difference between the two concepts lies in the approach of perceiving the information. The advocates of humanistic psychology stated that behaviorist psychology was pessimistic as it considered the extremes of emotions and is limited to the relation of environment and human perception that was determined by the surrounding of the person. Humanistic psychology believed that a person is free to think in different ways and is not confined to be influenced by a circumstance in a predetermined manner. Humanistic psychology has a broader scope and includes humanistic therapy that consists of client-centered therapy, Gestalt therapy, and existential therapy. These therapies are aimed at holistic healthcare treatment of the client. The other dimension of personal development of this theory exhorts a need for realizing the potential of the individual. Social change is the dimension that views the individual as the part of the community and society, he belongs to. Social change aims at the give and takes the relationship of the individual with his community. Behaviorist psychology, on the contrary, is based on outer response and observations by the practitioner/doctor and omits innate feelings, desires, and abilities of an individual. Behaviorist theory is supported by scholars as it was meant to link psychology with natural science and social science with appropriate measures. Behaviorist psychology's proponents include simplicity and practicality by using objective-based factors. Factors used in behaviorist psychology are measurable and observable (Reimann, 2018). Types of behaviorism include methodological behaviorism that deals with the objective experimental branch of psychology. It aims at ascertaining and controlling the behavior of an individual. Radical behaviorism is an advanced version of methodological behaviorism and it included inner factors of an individual to analyze the behavior but it does not view it as an indigenous factor of the behaviorist theory as in the humanistic theory. but this theory accepts the fact that every individual is born with unique innate traits that are not defined by their environment (Watson, 2017). For instance, Lord Buddha was born as a prince but lived a life of a sage.
The scholars do not deny the applicability of behaviorist theory as it has a practical base and is derived out of extensive studies and observation by John Watson followed by B.F. Skinner and other scholars of the 1900s (Watson, 2017). Environment affects one's psychology to great extent. It can be observed that people with strong cultural values perceive information in a different outlook than the person with little influence of culture (Pincus, Kiefer, and Beyer, 2018). Understanding psychology from these theories gives nursing two different approaches to treat patients. If the practitioner adopts a behaviorist approach, it is easy to ascertain the factors that have resulted in a specific personality of the patient and it can be easy to treat the patient by developing an appropriate plan. On the other hand, humanistic psychology aims at the holistic healthcare of the patient (Henry, 2017). It can be complex to ascertain the innate feelings and desires of the patient but it has a long-lasting effect on the patient if treatment includes a humanistic approach to plan the treatment. If the patient needs immediate treatment and time is of prime importance then the behaviorist approach is suitable but if the issue is gravely integrated with the inner state of the person, it is desirable to adopt the humanistic approach of psychology (Pincus, Kiefer, and Beyer, 2018).
Humanistic psychology has wider applicability in the contemporary world and it is promoted extensively across the globe as it serves the ethical principles of the healthcare service (Hawkins, 2017). Behaviorist theory has roots in natural science and hence its vitality cannot be ignored. The environment of an individual has a considerable influence on a human's mind and behavior. Humanistic psychology I have been adopted to provide patients with complete care and judicious decision-making by the practitioner (Pincus, Kiefer, and Beyer, 2018). if a person gets treated with the humanistic psychological approach, he/ she is likely to contribute to society and the world positively. In the other theory, the patient will limit the success of the treatment to himself/herself. Humanistic psychology aims at transforming the individual at the inner level (Henry, 2017). Behaviorist theory is limited to the extent of the illness. Behaviorist theory, however, is successful in treating the illness and diagnosing the root cause of the issue appropriately (Reimann, 2018).
It must be noted that each theory has evolved out of the limitation to prior theories and can be deduced as the advanced version of the preceding theory (Wong, 2017). It implies that each theory was suitable according to its prevailing period. Behaviorist theory was meant for linking psychology to natural Science so that theory can be backed by solid evidence and practical observations and studies (Wong, 2017). And the humanistic theory was developed in the period when the world was in transition and evolution from certainty in the market to more volatility in sectors like employment, education, sustainability, and economy (Hawkins, 2017). Both psychologies have great importance and must be considered in the nursing profession to treat patients and treatment must include the maximum benefit of the patient by applying the most suitable theory in practice (Watson, 2017).
1. Age-related changes in Heritability of Behavioral Phenotypes over Adolescence and Youth Adulthood: A Meta-Analysis
Primary research method
1. Search strategy and inclusion criteria
How the study is conducted?
1. The study was conducted to ascertain the relationship between age and hereditability behavioral patterns using online search to extract data and including variables corelations. It included longitudinal and cross-sectional studies (Bergen, Gardner, and Kendler, 2007).
How the research method is applied?
Longitudinal study encompasses study of different rates of waves and it was used as in assistance to cross-sectional studies. Samples were used to represent each of the eight domains of behavioral pattern (Bergen, Gardner, and Kendler, 2007).
2. Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Humanistic Psychology
It uses extensive studies to develop a comprehensive analysis on the dynamics of humanistic psychology and how these variables are correlated with one another.
It uses sampling and meta-analysis to draw interpretations of scattered information to develop an understanding between resilience, emotions and innate feelings of an individual.
Psychological studies are subject to many sensitive issues that impede the success rate of the research. Therefore, it is vital to weigh each factor with utmost precision and use analytical means judiciously.
Confidentiality- Confidentiality is one of the major aspects of the ethical framework of the healthcare and nursing sector. Respecting someone's privacy is important to gain one's confidence (Pincus, Kiefer, and Beyer, 2018). Ethical dilemmas arise when confidentiality breaches another vital aspect of the healthcare framework like informed consent. When two aspects of the ethical framework contradict each other, it becomes an issue for the researcher to weigh the two aspects judiciously and summarize and interpret the information unbiasedly and in a precise manner without making the study ambiguous for the reader (Wong, 2017). If a participant wants his privacy and anonymity to be respected throughout the research, it must be done by the researchers. Anonymity in researches has a crucial role to play as these researches are accessed by readers who are not known to the participant as well as the researcher. Therefore, confidentiality is given priority over other factors while conducting psychological research (Wong, 2017).
Debriefing- debriefing is a crucial measure undertaken by the researchers to make sure that the participants of the research are aware of the true motive behind the research. It helps the research by proofreading all the findings by clearing it with the participants of the research. Debriefing helps the participants to clarify the misunderstandings, if any, that occurred during the research. If the participant feels that the research discloses some private information or was deceptive under any circumstance, he has the right to withdraw his participation and the researcher has to omit the findings right away specific to that participant (Hawkins, 2017). Debriefing is an issue as it consumes time if the participant withdraws his support and makes changes in his/her statements. This makes the process long as all the findings are evaluated based on new information (Wong, 2017).
Bergen, S.E., Gardner, C.O. and Kendler, K.S., 2007. Age-related changes in heritability of behavioral phenotypes over adolescence and young adulthood: a meta-analysis. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 10(3), pp.423-433.
Hawkins, P., 2017. The necessary revolution in humanistic psychology. Humanistic psychology: Current trends and future prospects, pp.9781315392943-41.
Henry, C.D., 2017. Humanistic psychology and introductory textbooks: A 21st-century reassessment. The Humanistic Psychologist, 45(3), p.281.
Pincus, D., Kiefer, A.W. and Beyer, J.I., 2018. Nonlinear dynamical systems and humanistic psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 58(3), pp.343-366.
Reimann, A., 2018. Behaviorist Learning Theory. The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, pp.1-6.Braat, M., Engelen, J., van Gemert, T. and Verhaegh, S., 2020. The rise and fall of behaviorism: The narrative and the numbers. History of psychology.
Watson, J.B., 2017. Behaviorism. Routledge.
Wong, P.T., 2017. Meaning-centered approach to research and therapy, second wave positive psychology, and the future of humanistic psychology. The Humanistic Psychologist, 45(3), p.207.
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