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Introduction to Psychology Assignment

Introduction to Psychology Assignment Sample

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Introduction to Psychology Assignment

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Introduction to Psychology

The Purpose of the following document is to analyse the psychological approaches and topics to understand their efficiency in providing the learning of human behaviour and actions. There will be an evaluation of major psychological perspectives including cognitive, Biological, and behaviorist approaches to understanding their effectiveness in learning human tendency. The final part offer document will critically assess the ethical implications identified in the case of Genie.

Part 1- The purpose and study of psychology

Child development

Child development is the procedure of changes in an individual life from his or her childhood. Child development includes overall period Human journey from conception to becoming an individual offer functioning adult. The child's development is mainly incorporated with physical growth along with the intellectual, Social As well as emotional development of an individual. Analysing child development or psychology is to understand the procedure of growth and maturity in human beings from their infancy to adulthood (Firmansyah, 2018). Child development to focuses on the growth of an individual from childhood to the age of 17 years and it includes five major stages i.e., newborn, infancy, toddler, and school-age stages. Child development psychology is vital to support the effective understanding of kids and the patterns of their development to make them more expressive and better learners in society.

Child development is useful in assessing the psychology of children to make their development more effective and assist teachers and parents of individuals to provide effective children care. The understanding of child development or child psychology supports in creating principles of providing the effective foundation for children regarding lifelong learning, health, and behaviour because childhood Everyday shapes individual capacities and development criteria to manage challenges and responses towards stresses in daily life (Veraksa, 2018). The development includes the appropriate awareness and strategies of security, accountability, and consistency in childhood to create community and family belonging and develop emotional support. stop child development also includes family structure and impacts of love in education and the positive role models on individual development.

Mental health

Mental health can be defined as the appropriate balance and control on the emotional, psychological and social understanding of individuals with proper wellbeing. mental health is affected and developed through different aspects who including the feelings, behaviour, and surroundings in which an individual up brings and developed. mental health psychology focuses on analysing the individual capabilities to handle stress, Relations with others, and making choices (Bendig et al, 2019). Mental health is an important part of psychology to analyse main groups of mental health and diseases such as mood disorders including depression and bipolar disorder, personality and personality disorders, Trauma-related disorders, and substance abuse disorders. The appropriate mental health provides a wide range of benefits including reduced anxiety, Improved moods, and thinking with a greater sense of peace and self-esteem.

Improved mental health reduces the risk of depression and improves the relationships of individuals from different stages of life and ensures effective wellbeing. There are several measures to keep mental health effects such as having appropriate sleep patterns and eating well along with avoiding alcohol and smoking and other types of drugs to manage stress and active life (Teismann et al, 2018). Continuous exercise and social awareness also increase the connection between people with each other and create a better sense of being physically and mentally healthy. The different types of mental health theories including behaviourism, cognitive, psychodynamic, and humanistic concepts improve the people flourishing and positive development of individuals. psychological theories are utilised for providing a structured model to understand human emotions, Behaviours, and thoughts.

Part 2- The major theoretical approaches

The biological approach

The biological approach can be defined as the psychological belief that behaviours of an individual are consequences of genetics and psychology. This approach examines behaviours, thoughts, and Song feelings of people with a physical point of view and it works so on cognitive behaviour and correlation with brain activities to understand biochemical imbalances. The several advantages of the biological approach in psychology include the clear development of predictions through biological changes and physical study (Aluja, 2019). This approach focuses on neurotransmitters to understand their impacts on the behavior and emotions of individuals The basis of genetic relation. The explanations of different Behaviours and the prediction of theories easel scientifically tested and proven through a biological approach hence there are very low possibilities of changes or issues. the biological approach in psychology also supports Studying the brain functions effectively and analysing the brain diseases or injuries that may impact the behaviour, Feelings, and action of individuals to treat the potential problems in innovative ways.

The drawbacks of the biological approach include the failure tendency to provide accountability regarding the different influences of different characteristics on individual behaviour. The biological approach also limits the prediction of impacts on an individual Due to emotions, Environmental factors and childhood experiences social pressures, and cultural variables however it provides different theories to manage those impacts (Willsey et al, 2018). Another limitation of the biological approach is that it focuses on nature rather than nurturing process. For example, the causes of Mental illness are multiple but the biological approach only analyse things that add to the biological level and ignores psychological factors and life experiences.

The cognitive approach

In Psychology, the cognitive approach refers to analysing the human behavioural by utilising the modern approach of focusing on individual thinking for certain aspects and characteristics. the cognitive approach assumes the impacts of characteristics on the thought process that influences human behaviour. There are several benefits of the cognitive approach in psychology that it enhances the effectiveness of learning and leads to life longer development among people (Han et al, 2018). The Cognitive approach improves the effectiveness of theories and approaches to boost confidence and enhances comprehension among people to understand the characteristics and the influence on their behaviour. It is a scientific approach that works on experimental methods and provides proof for theories on human behaviour. The cognitive approach provides important contributions in testimonies and validates therapies to improve the behaviour of adults and children suffering from several traumas and life experiences. This theory also supports in explaining personality and the unique thought process of individuals that captured different skills and stimulates different responses.

The cognitive approach has negative impacts on creating collaboration between biological and cultural influences because it neglects the consideration of natural factors on behavioural practices. This approach also reduces the importance of emotions and biological factors and represents cold mechanisms while assuming the result of rational thought processes on behaviour. Another limitation of the cognitive approach includes the lack of director observation and high interference of schemes (Lenz and Viola, 2018). The cognitive approach also claims that the human mind process for different thoughts like a computer but it is contradicting because humans can feel and experience environmental and other aspects while computers are just machine including codes.

The behaviourist approach

the behaviourist approach Also referred to as behavioural psychology is a psychological concept that states the learning behaviours of humans are based on interactions and the environmental conditions because the behaviour is response offer environmental stimuli. This theory mainly focuses on the process of learning among people and the pattern of their recognition. The Behaviourist demonstrates that the events in natural life influence the individual to learn and respond in different ways. Behaviourist approach is very useful in developing successful therapies for the treatment of abnormalities and it'll improve the psychological conditions of people to reduce disorders (Fulconis and Lissillour, 2021). This approach provides theories and procedures to develop comfort and belonging between people to improve their relationships and mental health simultaneously. The main purpose of this approach is to provide a valid explanation between the combination of behaviours and influences of efforts and goals.

The Major issue with behaviourist approach includes the negligence towards mental procedural that includes important factors of learning and processing values. This approach also takes a long duration to process and it Only certain the scenarios and behaviours of relevant people by determining trial and error method. The behaviourism approach is also considered a mechanistic and reductionist acre because it focuses on groundless behaviours with opposing views (Agarwal and Alex, 2018). Behaviourism So considers harmful for vulnerable people because it ignores the mental health and neuro-diversities of individuals While implementing positive behaviour concepts and support interventions and promotional concerns.

Part 3- The ethical implications of research in psychology

Genie has faced several psychological issues including biological and physical problems and the several negligences are also has a negative impact on her whole life. While trapped in a cage Has no protection from harm for the genie because she was getting mentally sick due to living in isolation since are a lot of years. During several tests, She was protected from harm and other potential problems but the continuous sessions and observation also impacted her psychological development Negatively and adversely the negative impacts of her overall situation. Her situation is direct to breach of the BPS code of ethics photo integrity and APA ethical code offer integrity and justice (Kiritchenko et al, 2021).

According to different areas of psychology, the genie was deprived of privacy and confidentiality Because her movements were continuously observed and she was not allowed to do her things privately. There was no privacy available for Ginny and there was number confidentiality of her actions and behaviour at all. According to the BPS code of ethics, the individual must be treated with appropriate respect And Genie was deprived of any kind of integrity and respect while being in a cage. However, according to APA Ethical guidelines the researcher was treating her with rights and dignity and trying to resolve her ethical issues with integrated and responsible research.

The BPS and APA Foundation allows individual to withdraw as human right but genie didn't have the right to withdraw while researches and experiments and it is negatively appearing on psychological areas and concerning with cognitive approach where emotions are neglected by the researcher (Han et al, 2018). The right to withdraw allows individuals to take their consent back and deny Providing further data or information as an ethical process of research battle Genie was not even aware of it. The researcher must efficiently inform the Respondent regarding the research and testing conducted on an individual. Genie was Very deprived of her basic human rights and capabilities of answering or asking anything, hence there was a lack of surety that she was informed to test and subjects.

There were several challenges faced by the genie while transferring from children's hospital to two different homes and guardian and she was subjective to many psychological challenges during this. It is demonstrated that there was a lack of guardianship for Genie because she was very sensible and require more care than other children. As per APA guidance, It is essential to develop human relations positively end on the basis of trust and belonging however in the case of genie, there are several complications to developing positive human relations and effective living standards (Yadav et al, 2017). 

Conclusion-

It is concluded that the psychological approach has a significant role in understanding human behavior and the impacts of external factors on human response and actions. It is concluded that the BPS and APA guidelines provide a wide range of structure and framework to analyse the ethics and psychological approaches in different situations such as ‘case of genie’.

References-

Agarwal, S. and Alex, J., 2017. A comparative study between the parenting style of working and non-working mothers and their childs' temperament on behavioural problems among school going children. Indian Journal of Health and Well-being8(11), pp.1335-1339.

Aluja, A., 2019. In memoriam of Marvin Zuckerman: His impact on Spanish Psychology. Psicothema31(2), pp.184-193.

Bendig, E., Erb, B., Schulze-Thuesing, L. and Baumeister, H., 2019. The next generation: chatbots in clinical psychology and psychotherapy to foster mental health–a scoping review. Verhaltenstherapie, pp.1-13.

Firmansyah, D., 2018. Analysis of language skills in primary school children (study development of child psychology of language). PrimaryEdu-Journal of Primary Education2(1), pp.35-44.

Fulconis, F. and Lissillour, R., 2021. Toward a behavioral approach of international shipping: a study of the inter-organisational dynamics of maritime safety. Journal of Shipping and Trade6(1), pp.1-23.

Han, M., Li, L., Xie, Y., Wang, J., Duan, Z., Li, J. and Yan, M., 2018. Cognitive approach for location privacy protection. IEEE Access6, pp.13466-13477.

Kiritchenko, S., Nejadgholi, I. and Fraser, K.C., 2021. Confronting abusive language online: A survey from the ethical and human rights perspective. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research71, pp.431-478.

Lenz, T. and Viola, L.A., 2017. Legitimacy and institutional change in international organisations: a cognitive approach. Review of International Studies43(5), pp.939-961.

Teismann, T., Forkmann, T., Brailovskaia, J., Siegmann, P., Glaesmer, H. and Margraf, J., 2018. Positive mental health moderates the association between depression and suicide ideation: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology18(1), pp.1-7.

Veraksa, N.E., 2018. Child development: two paradigms. Cultural-Historical Psychology14(2), pp.102-108.

Willsey, A.J., Morris, M.T., Wang, S., Willsey, H.R., Sun, N., Teerikorpi, N., Baum, T.B., Cagney, G., Bender, K.J., Desai, T.A. and Srivastava, D., 2018. The psychiatric cell map initiative: a convergent systems biological approach to illuminating key molecular pathways in neuropsychiatric disorders. Cell174(3), pp.505-520.

Yadav, P.K., 2017. Ethical issues across different fields of forensic science. Egyptian journal of forensic sciences7(1), pp.1-6.

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