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Equality and Diversity in Business Organisations Assignment Sample

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Equality and Diversity in Business Organisations Assignment Sample

Introduction

Background

This report is about Tesco PLC which is considered as one of the largest grocery and retail store in United Kingdom. Tesco PLC is organization that is holding largest market share in retailing industry. This research will be providing various processes and practices that can be used by the business organization to improve their performance in market place by developing diverse work palace and maintain equality between all the employees of organization.In the business organization various elements are need to be considered by the business organization in order to develop better environment with in the work place(Palacios, 2016). This is highly important for the business organization to considered equality and diversity to improve the productivity of organization in target market. If the work place of organization is consist of people who are from different race, age, gender, educational background, political view, religion and social background than work place of the organization can be considered as high diverse workplace. Equality is also related to the diversity within the organization. Equality is a concept in which management of organization use specific policies and process to provide equal treatment to all people. In the traditional work culture organizations were not concerned about the environment of the work place. In current time business organizations are highly concerned about the environment of the work place. Effective work environment can improve the motivation level of employees and it also can improve their performance. Diversity can help the organization to manage high talent with in the work place to keep work environment of organization creative and innovative. This is how diversity and equality are most important things for business organization to develop high performance working environment in organization.

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Aim and Objectives

Aim

            “To critically analyse the concept of gender pay gap and its impact on performance of organization.- A Case Study of Tesco PLC”

Objectives

  • To analyse the concept of gender pay gap in organization.
  • To evaluate the impact of gender pay gap on the motivationof employees.
  • To find ways to maintain equality within the work place of organization.

Research Questions

  • What is concept of gender pay gap in organization?
  • What is the impact of gender pay gap on the performance of organization?
  • What are the ways to maintain equality within the work place of company?

Rationale

Equality and diversity are considered as main elements to maintain proper environment with in the work place of company. Main reason of selecting this topic is related to the importance of equality and diversity within the work place of the organization to gain higher productivity in market place. By developing equal and high diverse work environment in organization can help the management of the organization to improve the motivation and performance of employees with in the workplace. Equality and diversity are important for the internal performance of organization.

Significance

This research is crucial for business organization because it is important for them to maintain better environment in work place to keep their employees motivated and encouraged to maintain their performance high and keep them satisfied with the treatment that is provided in the work place of company. This research will help the management of the organization to develop effective environment that can reduce the tension between the employees by providing them equal treatment. This research also can be used by other researchers in order to improve their work by developing their knowledge. This is how this research is highly important for business organization and other researcher to improve their own study.

Project management

Cost- The overall cost of this research project is 300 Euros. This cost includes the cost of all resources and transportation cost.

Time- Time taken for this project is 6 weeks and this period includes all the steps that are performed as part of the research project.

Scope- This research will be helpful for researchers and business organization to develop better and effective workforce to maintain equality and diversity within the work place.

Quality- To maintain quality in research process various considerations are made. For example, all the resources that are used in the research process are authorised and authentic.

Communication- There are different communication processes are used in the research process to improve the quality of data that is collected from various sources.

Risk- In this research paper there are some risks that can affect the effectiveness of research work. These risk are- data falsification, influenced answers of respondents. These risks are avoided by following ethical considerations.

Resources- The resources that are used in research process are- books, journals, articles, internet, computer, stationary and transportation.

Work Breakdown Structure

 

Gantt Chart

 

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Week 5

Week 6

Topic Selection

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aim and Objective

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Literature Review

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research Methodology

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Collection

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recommendations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reflection

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Final Submission

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Literature Review

Theme 1- Concept of Gender Pay Gap in Organization

This is most common practices that is performed by many business organization on global level. In this process women are paid less than men on same positions. This pay gap is based on the gender differences. This type of practices of organization can be considered as gender discrimination. This practices is considered as negative practice that is performed by organization.In more clear words gender pay gap can be considered as differences in the average gross hourly earnings between men and women. Women are paid less than men in many organization based on their physical strength and other stereo type thinking of people in business organization. As per the view of Bowl, (2018) this can be considered as discriminative action of organization. It can affect the motivation of female worker in organization and it also can lead to negative environment in the work place. This is violation of the policies that are developed by government and human resources department of organization. In United Kingdom gender pay gap stands for 18.4 % part time and full time and workers. There are different factors are considered as origin of the gender pay gap in the organization. Main factors that lead to this kind of activity are social, intellectual, cultural and economic perspective of society. These factors can lead to this difference between the salary of men and women. As per the equal party act 1970 this is considered illegal to pay different salary to employees on basis of their gender (Köllen, 2020). This is how gender discrimination is considered as negative practice that is run by many business organization on global level.

Theme 2- Impact of Gender Pay Gap on the Motivation of Employees.

Gender pay gap is negative element in the work place of the organization that is developed by the management of the company. This is most crucial for organization to develop policies that can provide equal treatment to the people who work for organization. Ethically this is not good to provide different salary to people based on gender or any other aspect. This can lead to negative image of organization in market place. This also can affect the reputation of organization in target market. In different ways discrimination can affect the organization. As per the view of Ylöstalo, (2016) some of the main adverse impact of gender pay gap on organization are- This can affect the moral of the employees within the work place. This also can affect the motivation level of employees in organization. The employee motivation is directly related to the performance of employees in work place. This negative practice can develop negative environment in work place and also it can develop negative politics with in the work place of company, Employee retention is also affected by these practice. Women employees have tendency to switch organization very quickly. It can reduce the employee retention rate of the organization. This can affect the brand value of organization in target market (Attfield and Attfield, 2019). This is most negative factor for organization to get negative score in market place. This negative image can reduce the productivity of organization in target market. Overall performance of various teams also get affected by these negative practice within the work place.

Theme 3- To Find Ways to Maintain Equality within the Work Place of Organization.

There are different operations and actions can be performed by the business organization to reduce the negative practices like gender pay gap within the work place. These activities can be performed by human resources management, management and leadership of the organization. Some of the most common practices that can be used by the organization are- Developing strong human resource strategy can reduce the negative practices in work place of company. Strong human resource department can improve the policies that are used by the organization to maintain payrolls of company. As per the view of Klein, (2016) this is most effective way to improve the internal practices of organization. Employee engagement can be improved by the management of the organization to provide equal salary to all the employees of organization. Equality policy also can be improved by the human resource management to provide equal treatment to all people in the organization (Phipps, 2020). This is how various practices can be implemented by the organization to reduce the issues like gender pay gap in organization work place.

Research Methodology

Research methodology is considered as process of defining the various methodologies and processes that are used in the research process. I the research process various methods and approaches are need to be implemented to keep the research on right path. The selection of the research methodology is completely based on the research topic that is selected in the research process. Research methodologies that are used in the research process are explained with proper reason.

Research Type- Selection of research type is completely based on the research topic. Mainly it is explained on basis of data type that is used in the research process. In research process two type of data are mainly used, which are- Qualitative and Quantitative research. Quantitative research is mainly consist of numerical data. In qualitative research theoretical and observation based data is used to understand particular concept of topic(Dodds and Hess, 2020). In this research qualitative research is used to get detailed information about the importance of equality and diversity for business organization. Theoretical and observation based data can be used to develop understanding about the research topic. Qualitative research is easy to organize and cost of research is also comparatively low.

Research Philosophy

Research philosophy is directly related to the thinking of the researcher about the research topic. Mainly research philosophies are considered as mind set of researcher. There are different research methodologies are used in the research process. Realism, positivism and interpretivism are main research philosophies that are used in the research process. In this research positivism and interpretivism research philosophies are used to develop effective and productive result for the research topic. Positivism research philosophy will help to develop various hypothesis in order to generate wide and detailed information about the research topic. Interpretivism research philosophy can play important to generate more accurate and precise result for the research topic.

Research Design

Research design can be explained as the frame work that is used in the research process to maintain research work in right direction. Research design also can be considered as strategy that is used by the researcher to complete research in proper manner. In research process different research designs are used to meet the aim of the research work. Two type of research designs that are used in the research process are exploratory research and conclusive research process. Exploratory research design can be explained as process in which collected information and data is used to generate data on wide perspective and explore more information about the research topic. In conclusive research approach collected data is analysed to address particular problem that is considered in research topic(Mohajan, 2018). In this research exploratory research is used to explore information collected in the research topic. This process will provide opportunity to address research topic effectively.

Research Approach

Research approach is considered as proper plan and procedure in which various assumptions are used for data collection, analysis and processing. In the research process various assumptions are need to be made by the researcher in order to get proper information about the research topic. There are different research approaches are used in the research process. Main research approaches that are used in the research process are – inductive and deductive research approach. These approaches are most commonly used in the research process. The inductive research approach can be explained as approach in which various observations and theories are considered by the researcher to develop new theories that can be used by business organizations to improve their performance in market place. Deductive research approach is considered as process in which existing theories and concepts are used by the researcher to generate result for the particular topic. The selection of the approach is completely based on the type of research topic. In this research inductive research approach is used to find different ways that ca be used by the business organization to improve workplace environment. The main advantage of inductive is related to the flexibility of approach. This is approach is more flexible ad effective to provide better solution to the organization related to workplace issues.

Data Collection

Data collection process is considered as method that is used by the researcher to collect information from different information sources. There are two type of data collection processes are most commonly used in the research process. These data collection process are- primary and secondary data collection process. Main difference between both processes are related to the type of information sources used in research process. In the primary data collection process, primary sources of information are used(Snyder, 2019). The other process that is used in research process is secondary data collection process in which secondary source of information are used to collect information. In the secondary data collection process various information sources like Books, Journals, articles, blogs and various other authorised documents are used. In this research process both primary and secondary source of information are used. Use of primary data collection process will help to collect Real time information which is more accurate and precise. This will improve the authenticity of the research. Secondary data collection process will support the responses that are provided by the primary data collection sources. This is how utilization of both approach will improve the effectiveness of result generated by the research work.

Sampling

Sampling process is considered as method that is used to select particular audience for the research process. This process can be considered as process in which small number of people are selected from large population in order to get generalised response of large audience. In the research process two type of sampling processes are used to select people from large audience. These processes are probable sampling and other sampling is considered as non-probable sampling. In the probable sampling process specific criterion is used to shortlist people from large audience. Non probable sampling is process in which respondents are selected on random basis to avoid the issues of data falsification and eliminate the impact of various factors that can affect the responses of people. In this research process non probable sampling process is used. Specifically in the o probable sampling process, simple random sampling is used to select respondents to eliminate the influence of various organizational factors. In this research process 20 random employees are selected to collect responses from the employees of organization.

Data Analysis

There are different approaches are used by the researcher to analyse the data that is collected in the primary and secondary data collection process. For example mathematic analysis and thematic analysis are used by the researcher to develop proper result for the research topic. In this research process thematic data analysis process is used to analyse the collected data on wide perspective(Ørngreen and Levinsen, 2017). This approach of data analysis can help the researcher to develop more understanding about the research topic.

Ethical Considerations

In the research process various ethical considerations are need to be considered to keep research process more accurate and authenticate. In this process various elements should be considered by the researcher to provide relevancy to the result that is generated from the research process. Main ethical considerations that are need to be considered in the research process are-

  • No respondent should be subjected to harm at any point in the data collection process.
  • All the respondents are provided with consent form to avoid issue of privacy breach.
  • Misleading and false information is also removed in the research process.
  • All the information sources that are used in the research process are verifies and authenticate.

This is how these elements are considered in research process to make is relevant and ethical.

Data Analysis

Theme 1

Q. 1. Do you think that gender pay gap exist in your organization and it is affecting the performance of company?

Frequency

Strongly Agreed

1

Agreed

2

Neutral

0

Disagree

10

Strongly Disagree

7

Interpretation-

As per the responses collected in the research process 17 respondents are disagreed to the statement and 5 respondents have provided positive answer for the question that is asked to them in questionnaire in research process. From the above responses it can be interpreted that people in organization are provided with salary as per their knowledge and skills. There is no issue like gender pay gap.

Theme 2

Q. 2. Have you ever faced any activity like gender pay gap in organization?

Frequency

Strongly Agreed

2

Agreed

3

Neutral

0

Disagree

8

Strongly Disagree

7

Interpretation

As per the above responses it can be interpreted that there is no any activity is performed that can be considered as gender pay gap. So it can be considered that activities that are performed by organization are effective for both men and women.

 

Theme 3

Q. 3. The management of the organization is concern about the equality and diversity within work place of company and it is improving the performance of organization in target market?

Frequency

Strongly Agreed

10

Agreed

5

Neutral

0

Disagree

3

Strongly Disagree

2

Interpretation

As per the responses that are collected from the research process, most of people are agreed that management of organization is highly concerned about the equality and diversity within the work place.

Theme 4

Q. 4. Does your organization needs some changes in the equality policy?

Frequency

Strongly Agreed

0

Agreed

2

Neutral

0

Disagree

15

Strongly Disagree

3

Interpretation

From the above data, 18 respondents are saying that organization do not need any kind of change in the equality and diversity policy. So it can be interpreted that employees of organization are satisfied with the policies that are developed by the human resources department of organization. So, no changes are need to be made in the equality and diversity policy of organization.

Theme 5

Q. 5. Do the women in organization are paid equal to the men?

Frequency

Strongly Agreed

5

Agreed

10

Neutral

0

Disagree

2

Strongly Disagree

3

Interpretation

As per the responses of respondents, most of employees has said that all women employees are provided with same salary that is offered to the male employees. From the above response it can be interpreted that payrolls of organization is similar for both male and female in the organization.

Theme 6

Q. 6. Women employees are provided with similar opportunity related to growth and development?

Frequency

Strongly Agreed

5

Agreed

10

Neutral

1

Disagree

2

Strongly Disagree

2

Interpretation

As per the responses collected in the research process. 15 employees out of 20 are agreeing that women in organization are provided with similar opportunities that are provided to the men. So it can be interpreted that policies and practices of organization are equal for all employees who are working for company.

Theme 7

Q. 7. Management of organization take strict action against the activities like gender pay gap?

Frequency

Strongly Agreed

0

Agreed

10

Neutral

5

Disagree

3

Strongly Disagree

2

Interpretation

As per the responses gained from the respondents most of them are agreed to the statement. So it can be interpreted that management is highly serious about the all type of discrimination in the organization.

Theme 8

Q. 8. Atmosphere of organization is good and effective for both men and women?

Frequency

Strongly Agreed

0

Agreed

15

Neutral

0

Disagree

5

Strongly Disagree

0

Interpretation

According to the responses that are collected in research process, most of employees have provided response in favour of organization. From the above responses it can be interpreted that policies and practices that are implemented in organization are equal for both male and female employees of organization.

Conclusion

This report is concluding the importance of equality and diversity within the work place policy of organization. There are various aspects are considered in the research process to get proper analysis related to the gender pay gap in the business organization. The concept of gender pay gap has been analysed in research process. Various impact of gender pay gap has been discussed in the report. Different process to improve the equality condition in organization has been evaluated in research process. In the primary data collection process organizational conditions has been considered in the data analysis process to evaluate the impact of equality condition in organization. All the research methodologies that are used in the research process also has been discussed in report to get better analysis of approaches that are used in research process.

Recommendations

There are different changes can be made in the organization process to improve the equality work condition with in the work place. Transparency can be increased in the organization to maintain better environment with in the work place. Resource allocation and payroll process also can be improved by the organization to reduce number of conflicts in work place. Policies of organization also can be improved by making HR more effective in organization.

Recommendation to Improve the Research Process

There are different process can be used in the research process to improve the effectiveness of the research work. I the research process information system can be used to get more accurate result. The effectiveness of the research process also can be improved by implementing artificial intelligence in the research process and data analysis process. Effectiveness of the research process also can be improved by analysing the real time conditions in company work place. There are some changes can be implemented in organization to get better responses from the research process. In the research process more respondents can be involved to get more accurate and precise result for the research. More accurate tools like AI, DBMS and SPSS can be used to get data in numbers. This is how different process can be used by the researcher to improve the research process.

Reflection

I have learned various things in the research process that are related to the equality and diversity within the work place of organization. This is highly valuable to achieve the goals that are developed in the research process. By meeting the research objectives effectiveness of research process can be improved.

The process that is followed in the project management process is most effective to improve the effectiveness of the research process. If there are certain changes would have implemented in the research process then effectiveness of research process can be improved more. In my opinion changes like implementation of technology and smart process can improve the result of the research process. This is how in my opinion this research can be improved more to develop more effective result in the research process.

Refrences

Books and Journals

Attfield, R. and Attfield, K., 2019. Principles of Equality: Managing Equality and Diversity in a Steiner School. Intech Open.

Bowl, M., 2018. Differentiation, distinction and equality–or diversity? The language of the marketised university: an England, New Zealand comparison. Studies in Higher Education. 43(4). pp.671-688.

Dodds, S. and Hess, A.C., 2020. Adapting research methodology during COVID-19: lessons for transformative service research. Journal of Service Management.

Klein, U., 2016, January. Gender equality and diversity politics in higher education: Conflicts, challenges and requirements for collaboration. In Women's Studies International Forum (Vol. 54, pp. 147-156). Pergamon.

Köllen, T., 2020. Worshipping equality as organizational idolatry? A Nietzschean view of the normative foundations of the diversity management paradigm. Scandinavian Journal of Management. 36(2). p.101108.

Mohajan, H.K., 2018. Qualitative research methodology in social sciences and related subjects. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People. 7(1). pp.23-48.

Ørngreen, R. and Levinsen, K., 2017. Workshops as a Research Methodology. Electronic Journal of E-learning. 15(1). pp.70-81.

Palacios, J.M., 2016. Equality and diversity in democracy: how can we democratize inclusively?. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal.

Phipps, C., 2020. “We Already Do Enough Around Equality and Diversity”: Action Taken by Student Union Officers to Promote LGBT+ Inclusion in University Sport. Sociology of Sport Journal, 1(aop), pp.1-9.

Snyder, H., 2019. Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines. Journal of Business Research. 104. pp.333-339.

Ylöstalo, H., 2016. Traces of equality policy and diversity management in Finnish work organizations. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal.

iversity management in Finnish work organizations. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal.

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