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Evaluation Of Public Health Theories And Principles For Improving Population Health And Wellbeing

Introduction - Evaluation Of Public Health Theories And Principles For Improving Population Health And Wellbeing

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A healthcare system of a country helps to reduce the burden on its country’s achievements because the people of the country are the most vital part of an achievement of a country. A good healthcare system helps a country to ensure its development in its economy because healthy people give their full potential to enhance economy of their country. The life expectancy of citizens, in particular, is automatically enhanced if they are treated with best treatment in their country. A healthier citizen of the country helps to make the workforce effective because they are safe from any disease because of a good healthcare system. This report will show the social determinant factors of health and well being of citizens of UK. These factors need to be identified because they can reduce the inequities in health care services in the chosen country. The policy-making services on health issues by the government of UK need to be evaluated because it plays a vital role in their economic enhancement. The policy-making evaluation helps UK to regulate more efficient laws regarding the public health care system to enhance its health care system. Different principles and theories will also be used in this report to the health and well-being needs of the UK people. 


Social determinants of health refer to a condition in which an individual and a community engage themselves related to their born, education, learning, work and play and the effect of this environment on long term health conditions and risk over their quality of life. Social determinants are focused on the social and economic conditions of an individual and a community that made differences regarding their health status. This social determinant is based on a health-promoting factor that helps to reduce the risk of any diseases by promoting proper health guidelines for an individual or a community (Leora I Horwitz et al, 2020). These social determinants mainly provide proper shapes to the society and community by providing proper health policies avoiding other social differences. Social determinants of health have a major impact on people's health, wellbeing and lives. Proper social determinants related to health provide an environment that is free from social inequalities related to health and this helps to provide a better environment for the different classes of people in a community (Leora I Horwitz et al, 2020). Moreover, social determinants provide proper housing, transportation, nutrition, job and opportunities to every individual of a community to enhance the environment of a community that helps to build proper health and well being for all.

Obesity and inactive life is an important reason behind the rate of diabetes affecting patience in the UK. This can be seen that due to improper lifestyle and improper nutrition directly affects the health of an individual. This enhances the chances of obesity that increase the chances of different chronic diseases in their health. Due to obesity, most of the population of the UK suffered from various chronic diseases related to their heart and diabetes. Moreover, it can be seen that 90% to 95% of cases of diabetes are mainly found in the UK. Diabetes is mainly caused due to improper function of pancreatic cells and their uptake capacity of sugar from the blood. This caused the accumulation of high sugar in the blood and an increased trend of diabetes. It has been seen that the most important hazardous disease that affects most of the population of the UK is diabetes due to their improper lifestyle and inactivity (Rangel et al, 2020). This report is based on the importance of social determinants related to health to provide shapes to the community of the UK by providing proper awareness related to diabetes and help to reduce the chances of diabetes by engaging them in proper activity and policies to enhance their lifestyle by proper activities.

Health determinant factor

There are many factors that affect the health care system of a country such as social, economic, cultural and political factors that determine the healthcare system in a country. UK is a well financially established country (Reddy, 2021). Therefore, government is providing best health care services to its citizens. It is a well-financed country, therefore, people of this country prefer their health and avoid money expansion on their health. Health is main concern of the people of the UK because they are educated and know that health is more important than any other thing. 

Public health policy

The government of the UK provides a government-sponsored healthcare system that is National Health Services (NHS). This system consistently funded a series of money on its health care system to improve its services by using best medical practices. Innovative medical tools and technologies are used here to provide people with the best medical services as compared to other countries in the world (Fløistad, 2018). There are policies regulated for all medical carers to regulate the best health care service. These policies are related to fact that all medical care has to give respect to their patients and treat them with the best treatment services that they can provide for them. The treatment plan is needed to explain to patient and their family to know exact treatment of patient to stop fraud related to treatment care. 

Primary care

Primary care services of the UK provide an easy way to contact the health care system directly from any area (Smith, et al. 2021). This service is a front door service for patients that are regulated by NHS.  Primary care services also include general practices, dental and pharmacy services for quick treatment to handle a patient. Local flexibility for an emergency is regulated by these primary care services to give treatment to needy people as soon as possible. These primary services were regulated in 2010 by Compliance with the Equality Act as an effective rule of the government of UK to enhance its medical services (Smith, et al. 2021). This government makes rules and regulations quickly to solve medical issues that arise in this country. During Covid-19, front primary health care workers of UK establish an effective team practice by giving essential services to patients at their doors. These practices show that primary care service of UK is far better than any other country’s primary care services. 

Health improvement

The lockdown due to the Covid-19 pandemic in the UK goes beyond the impact on NHS of UK. NHS to not avoid any patient that has critical medical conditions enhances the emergency admission services. The health foundations of the UK support its people by giving an online survey on public health through YouGov that is designed by the Resolution Foundation of the UK (Raftery et al. 2021). This survey is an initial step of the UK government to analyse the health of tiger people using their remote control to control the expansion of Coronavirus in the country. NHS provides many other policies such as rules related to critical patients to give them quick treatment to save them from these deadly viruses. Beds and hospital equipment are also increased in number to continue treatment of a large population because this virus affects a large number of people in the UK. 


Epidemiology is a state of education in which it helps to gather different information related to distribution, pattern and determinants of health for chronic diseases that affect lifestyle of an individual or communities of a particular population. These principles of epidemiology are based on these principles of collecting data from a particular area and providing a systematic analysis of data to produce effective strategies. Moreover, this process helps to analyse various determinants of society and environment that directly enhance the chances of various chronic diseases.

This study of epidemiology is based on some factors. These are as follows: Distribution of epidemiology helps to gather information related to the frequency of cases in a population and patterns help to determine the type of disease. Determinants help to understand the condition and environment of a community or population and information related to their habitat, education, economic conditions that affect their lifestyle and feeding pattern to understand the effect of these determinants over their health. Moreover, this epidemiology helps to gather information related to different states or levels of disease to provide better prevention to the population of a country (Schade et al, 2018).

In the UK, diabetes is an effective disease that affects most of the population of the UK. Epidemiology helps to gather information related to the reason behind this high rate of diabetes infected population in the UK. According to epidemiology of diabetes, it can be seen that a large number of the population of the UK affects thorough diabetes due to improper lifestyle and inactivity that enhance the chances of obesity and chronic heart disease that enhance the chances of diabetes in the UK (Miller et al, 2019). Moreover, epidemiology provides proper information related to different determinants of society and environments that directly affect diabetes in the UK. It can be seen there are various determinants like improper knowledge effect over their job and different opportunities of workplaces. This directly affects the economic condition of the UK population that causes inactivity and enhances the level of stress and anxiety in population that increasing these chances of diabetes. This epidemiology of diabetes helps to drive information related to different social determinants that need to be improved for getting better results and maintaining health and wellbeing in a community and population. 

Importance of health assessment

Health assessment is an important part of an analysis that provides information about the symptoms, treatment and several stages of diseases. Importance of health assessment is to collect and gather different information related to various stages of disease and symptoms that are suffered by different patients from a particular population or areas. Moreover, it provides information to patients about self-care to reduce the chances of effectiveness of chronic diseases. Furthermore, this health assessment helps to get information related to different social determinants that affect and enhance the rate of chances of being affected in a population (Pop-Busui et al, 2017). This proper understanding helps to provide proper necessary precautions related to disease and reduce the chances of affected individuals in a population. Thereafter, this self-assessment helps to produce a proper strategic plan to manage the effectiveness of chronic disease by taking proper precautions and awareness among people of a community or population.

In this case of diabetes in UK, proper health assessment is an important part of gathering information from various parts of this country to gather information about different communities and their rate of diabetes effect in those communities or populations. Self-assessment provides information about improper lifestyle and inactivity among people mainly enhancing the effectiveness of diabetes. Inactivity causes obesity which causes different heart-related diseases and capillary diseases that enhance the chances of diabetes in those populations. In addition, it creates stress and anxiety that affect their health and feeding habits that cause various chronic diseases along with diabetes. Health assessments help to understand different symptoms of diabetes and the different stages among individuals that provide proper information related to this disease and about their symptoms and treatments that need to be provided to the community of the UK (Griva et al, 2020). Moreover, it helps to develop a proper plan regarding reducing the effect of various determinants that affect the population by giving proper awareness related to diabetes.

Identification of health promotion factors

Health promotion factors enhance the quality of life for an individual, community and nation. This health promotion provides a proper approach to lives by providing necessary guidance related to a particular disease and helps to provide precaution by enhancing awareness in individuals or communities. It reduces the rate of premature death in a country by enhancing proper knowledge and information related to chronic diseases. Promotion-related to health is mainly followed by engagement of different types of education, providing proper economic conditions and appropriate government policies regarding health. This helps to produce a health and disease-free environment for the community as well as the country.

In the UK, due to improper lifestyle and feeding habits, most of the population is affected by diabetes. Epidemiology of these diseases provides information about the inactivity and improper function of the pancreas that is mainly used to uptake sugar from the blood causing diabetes in people that cause an increase of sugar accumulation in blood and cause diabetes. It can be seen that high-level consumption of sugary and fried food affects their health and causes obesity and various heart-related diseases in people. This directly enhances the chances of diabetes along with several chronic diseases in the UK. According to a health assessment tool, it can be seen that different determinants also influence the chances of diabetes in the population of the UK (Jeremiah et al, 2020).

According to this situation in the UK, proper health promotion is an important factor to enhance the awareness related to diabetes. Firstly, Proper health promotion is an important part that helps to identify different gaps related to social determinants that need to be implicated in their lives to provide a proper environment and reduce the effect of diabetes on the community of the UK. These social determinants are as follows:


Education is an important aspect that enhances the enrichment of a community by gathering information related to different challenges. This helps to provide capacity to reduce the effectiveness of challenges and provide capacity to overcome different obstacles. Education helps to provide proper awareness among people of the UK related to the symptoms, prevention methods, and treatment of diabetes by providing proper information and knowledge. Moreover, a population with proper education qualification has the advantages to prevent different challenges related to many chronic diseases by gathering proper information related to diseases and helping them to reduce the effectiveness of this chronic disease overpopulation. Education is an important factor that needs to be implemented in society to make them healthy and wealthy.

Economic stability

Economic stability refers to the condition of a community with proper income, the capacity to prevent any challenges and the ability to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Lower economic conditions cause lower-income that directly affects the lifestyle of people and their feeding habits. According to the UK, most of the population is affected by diabetes due to improper lifestyle and inactivity. To provide proper economic status for the community, proper job and income sources is an important way that helps to reduce these chances of improper lifestyle and feeding habits by providing proper income facilities to the people of the community as well as the country. Moreover, economic stability helps to get proper treatment to the patient from different health sectors through several tests and also it helps to take proper medication related to diabetes.

Health policies

Health policies are another that provides proper treatment and prevention to the whole population of the UK by avoiding any kind of discrimination related to race, religion and social status. Government need to provide proper health policies related to diabetes affected population and also provide proper awareness campaign that help to provide proper information related to disease and provide proper treatment to the patients without maintain any discrimination (Agarwal et al, 2019).

Health workforce of UK

There are different sectors and hospitals in which most of the health workforce is engaged in the UK. It can be seen that 1.4 million employees of the NHS are working in the UK to provide proper care to their patients and maintain a healthy UK environment. There are various multidisciplinary hospitals and clinics that provide proper treatment help to provide awareness among their patients. It can be seen that multidisciplinary team of UK help to identify and take proper prevention related to diabetes. Firstly, the nurses of this team help to identify the disease by proper communication with patients to understand their issues and symptoms related to their patients who suffered from diabetes. Secondly, laboratories help to provide proper examination and report related to diabetes at initial stage of diabetes treatment. Thereafter this report is analysed by nurses to provide them appropriate treatment and engage patients with their required doctors. Thirdly, doctors prescribe proper treatment of diabetes. This helps to get proper treatment for patients. It can be said that the health workforce of UK collectively help to provide proper treatment and help to enhance awareness among people of UK related diabetes (Alighieri et al, 2017).

Leadership in Public health

Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory is based on the effect of the social environment over human development. According to this theory, human nature depends upon the social environment from where an individual came from (Eriksson et al, 2018). This social environment influences human development. According to Bronfenbrenner’s, development of human nature is affected by their social environment and an individual evolves all those social factors in their natures. According to this theory it can be said that to enhance the different social health determinants in the environment of the UK to prevent effectiveness of diabetes proper social development is important that help to develop different prevention methods and precaution strategies in the people. To implement new strategies to reduce the effectiveness of diabetes, firstly it needs to develop the social environment of the community by applying different social health determinants to enhance their lifestyle through various campaigns and public awareness projects.

To enhance the social environment in a community, proper leadership theory will help to provide proper approaches to engage health workers in different parts of countries and help to produce proper strategies related to prevention methods of these diseases. In this aspect of enhancement social awareness transformational leadership theory helps to work with different employees of multidisciplinary teams to provide treatment and awareness to the patients. This theory of leadership is based on the leadership approaches that always encourage their teams to enhance their work process to get successive results. 

According to this, transformational leadership strategies need to apply over the multidisciplinary team of the NHS to provide proper treatment to their patients by engaging appropriate and efficient staff in the identification process of diabetes through various tests and analysis of data. Nurses of this team need to engage in various awareness camps in different areas of the country to get proper information related to type of diabetes and their symptoms. Moreover, it helps them to get proper information about the health determinants that enhance the rate of diabetes over the area (Hoch et al, 2018). Moreover, leaders need to engage various nurses and doctors in awareness campaigns to provide proper information to the people related to symptoms, treatment, prevention methods, and government health policies to proper implementation in their life to get beneficial results.


Social determinant of health is an important factor that provides proper shape to the community as well as this country by enhancing different health policies and education. This report is based upon different social determinants that directly influence the rate of diabetes cases in the UK. This report provides proper information by analyzing the epidemiology of diabetes to get information related to reason, symptoms, and distribution of this disease over the several areas of the UK. Moreover, this report provides the importance of health assessment and health promotion to gather different data related to diabetes and to analyse the various determinants that influence diabetes in the UK. Health workforce and proper leadership strategies help to provide proper treatment and enhance the awareness among people of the community to reduce the effectiveness of diabetes in the UK.


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