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Exploring Contemporary Issues In Sport And Exercise

Introduction - Exploring Contemporary Issues In Sport And Exercise

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Section A: Scope, context, and approach 

Topic- Snooze you don't lose: Does sleep influence sports performance?

Focus on the boundaries of the research question

The research gains the purpose attention on ‘Snoozing you don’t lose: Does sleep influence sports performance? which includes the focus on the performance of the athletes and how if they follow their schedule it does wonders for them. Getting enough sleep is considered to be important for the performance of the athletes, which also helps in their decision-making ideas and taking risks. Sleep is considered a complex state with the behavioural and psychological components in which the individual is temporarily unresponsive and disengaged to the environment around them. The two key sleep stages include REM (rapid eye moment) and non-ERM. It is the NREM that focuses on containing the deep sleep which is also known as the slow sleep wave. The period is considered to be important for the recovery of the people playing sports. Outside of the sport, the lack of sleep is considered to be having detrimental effects on the performance of athletes. The lack of sleep has negative impacts on the person which include the deprivation of sleep reduces the ability in reacting and thinking in a clear manner (Orrù et al 2018). 

The scope of the research includes the needed attention on the benefits which are related to the activities of sport and the relationship the effective sleep cycle has with them. The focus of the study is to address the advantages of sleep for athletes and the impact on their performance. 

Justification and social context

The issue is considered to be important because sleep is considered to be an essential part of the lives of people. This includes that if the sleep cycle is not given the appropriate attention, then it can hamper the performance of the sportsperson in a negative way. It includes the focus on the young sports players, the sports individual involved in the playing team with the various health conditions. Sleep also helps in retaining the mental health of the person with the initiative focus on learning and understanding new skills with the affective state of mind. Sleep is also considered as the cognitive process which is associated with the effects like lack of sleep which leads to declining the function of cognitive. Both the increased quality and quantity of sleep help an athlete in improving performance and leading to the focus on positive outcomes. 

The approach taken 

The research question is tackled through the organizing of work by focusing on the literature review and discussions in the study. This included the attention on the recommended part which helps in focusing on the various ways which can help in effective work performance and also leads to the understanding of effective sleep benefits. The approach followed in the research is qualitative which helps in initiating the work attention on following the benefits of sleep and how they can help in improving the performance of the sleep and how the lack of sleep can lead to deterioration ineffective working cycle. 

Section B: Evidence and discussion 

Snooze you don't lose: Does sleep influence sports performance?

According to Kirschen et al (2020), the authors adhere to the main focus on the impact of sleep duration on performance among competitive athletes. High quality and sufficient sleep are mainly presumed and considered necessary for various reasons which contribute to the performance of sports that include mental and physical recovery for the training regimens, prevention of fatigue game, concentration is a lapse and minimizing the risk of injury. The athletes mainly lay their attention on taking proper advantage of sleep which helps in their matrix of performance and how it influences the effects of sleep quality and sleep duration. The study reviewing the relationship between sleep quality and feel duration with the performance objective of the athlete require an emphasis on technical, tactical, and speed skills with adhering to the various manipulations in the duration of sleep. This includes that the manipulations of the long-term sleep are considered to be the likely manipulations in the acute sleep which affects the performance of the athletes. This includes the focus on the importance of sleep for the athletes for achieving the higher performance in the demand dependents of the sport with the interventions in the length of the sleep. There is a promotion of the mental and physical recovery from the training regime which state that sleep helps in the mental recovery and also towards the efforts in characterizing and optimizing the overall health of the athletes as well. 

According to Bonnar et al (2018), the authors gain major attention on interventions in the sleep design towards improving athletic recovery and performance. Athletes mainly experience different conditions and situations which mainly interfere with sleep, which is considered to be crucial for the optimum physiological and psychological recovery for the subsequent performance. The convectional intervention and screening approaches are efficacious for the athletes with various lifestyles with demands of travel and training associated with the international/interstate competition. The current review of systematic aims in the evaluation and summarize interventions of sleep studies mainly target subsequent recovery and performance in competitive athletes. The findings include the secondary aim which focuses on outlining the possible intervention sleep for the athletes, which includes the recommendations for the evaluation, delivery mode, and content (O’Donnell et al 2018). The methods include the modified version of the scale of quality assessment which was used in the evaluation of the quality studies. The results include the implementation of the various interventions for sleep, which include sleep napping and extension, hygiene sleep, and the recovery strategies of post-exercise. The evidence from the study suggests that the extension of sleep includes a major effect on effective performance. The researchers gain the major aim in conducting the interventions of sleep among the various athlete populations which focus on addressing the different sleep disturbances and demands. The results state that sleep is considered to be playing an important role in the recovery and performance aspects of the athletes (Bonnar et al 2018). 

According to Vlahoyiannis et al (2021), the authors focus on deconstructing the sleep of athletes which includes the influence of sport type, season, athletic expertise, sex, and age on the characteristics of sleep. The purpose of the study is to focus on describing the parameters of sleep for the athletes which are under various conditions and addressing the issues of the potential sleep in the specific population. The methods used in the research include the focus on Scopus and PubMed which were searched during the inspection in April 2019. The study was being measured through the evaluation of the objective which includes actigraphy and polysomnography. The results of the study state that the parameters of the average value were measured for the athletes according to their various characteristics. This included that during the heavy periods, SE and sleep duration on the average was less compared to the season of training periods. The sleep duration of athletes was mainly found to be low SE, in comparison to the general consensus for the healthy adults who are non-athletes. The sleep issues are mainly revealed in the athletes who are young which also tend to change across various periods of training. The major evidence suggests that more than half of the athletes consider reporting poor sleep which is during various occasions. This includes that the measuring tendency includes that there should be effective importance of following the sleeping purpose which will help in gaining the management purpose attention and also following the various cycle of the sleep. 

In the views of O’Donnell et al (2018), the authors focus on the pillow to the podium which includes reviewing the understanding of sleep for the elite athletes. Sleep is mainly considered at vital to well-being and human health and considered to be critical to cognitive and physiological functioning. The elite experiences of the athlete's high competition and training demands are exposed to the different environments, situations, and factors which can cause the impairments of sleep. Research in the past has shown that athletes experience loss of sleep which leads up to competition and lead up, which should have various impacts on the performance, recovery, and preparation (Bonnar et al 2018). The results from the past research show the reductions which are significant in the time of total sleep and an increase in the latency of sleep following the completion of the evening (O’Donnell et al 2018). Napping is considered in both competition and training settings in the athletes, which include the napping effect on performance and physiology is limited. The research interventions and strategies in improving sleep and increasing the population of athletes, with hygiene sleep research that include various improvements in the indices of the key sleep. The review mainly investigates the importance of psychological of the athlete's sleep, which include the current tools for the monitoring of the sleep of the athletes, the role of the sleep in the athlete's performance and cognitive functioning, the prevalence of potential mechanisms and sleep disturbances which cause disturbance in sleep, napping role and various strategies of intervention for improving sleep. 

According to Sawczuk et al (2018), the authors focus on the influence of the load training, exposure to the match play, and sleeping duration on the measures of wellbeing in youth athletes. The study mainly assessed the training load influence, exposure to sleep, and playing duration on wellbeing measures. The recovery status scale of perceived focus on providing the details on training loads and sleep duration which are self-reported every three weeks. The assessment of the linear model mixed effect of the TL, mainly exposed in sleep and matching on the DWB and PRS. The effects do not focus on reaching the threshold which is pre-determined for the practical significance. The sleep influence on the subscales of DWB and PRS suggests which practitioners mainly consider in the recovery of the alongside athletes which are imposed to training with considerations in the measures of wellbeing. It is important that there should be an optimal balance between the recovery and stress which is reached when there are development programs for the construction of athletes. The balance in the stress-recovery states that when the body is stressor subjected, there needs to be a focus on the appropriate recovery time for maintaining equilibrium. The study's aim was in assessing the training load influence, exposure to sleep duration, and match playing in DWB, with the individual PRS and subscales. The findings state that a load of training has a negative effect on the soreness of muscle and in PRS, which includes that the negative impact is mainly enhanced by the effect of the additive effect in a match playing on both the measures. The influence of exposure to match play and training load on measures of wellbeing was trivial. 

In the views of Gratwicke et al (2021), the authors focus on the interventions of nutrition in improving sleep in the athletes with the narrative review. The athletes mainly experience poor sleep and sleep disturbances of the extended travel, the timing of competition and training, and soreness of muscle. Nutrition mainly focuses on playing a vital role in sports recovery and performance, and a variety of supplements, beverages, and food have the capacity in improving sleep quantity and quality. The review which is narrative was supported by the approach of semi-systematic the searching of articles and the specific exclusion and inclusion criteria, which include articles that are reviewed in the sporting environment and athletes. The research on sleep nutrition in the population of athletes was expanded for the criteria which are inclusive to include the studies which reported the interventions of nutrition in improving sleep in healthy adults. The findings state that the effective way to improve sleep quantity and quality includes the determination of the appropriate timing, source, and dose in relation to competition, travel, and training requirements. The research focused on the competition of night time which is associated with the athlete and sleep issues with the substantial disruptions to sleep quantity and quality which is compared with the competition daytime (Bonnar et al 2018). 

According to Halson et al (2019), the authors focus on the sleep monitoring in the athletes with the miscalculations, methods, motivation, and why it matters. Sleep is mainly considered essential for optimal mental, athlete performance and wellbeing. The increase in recognition is the concomitant increase in the monitoring of the athlete's address and sleep presenting the disturbances and sleep concerns. It is recognized that the athletes have the quality of poor sleep quality which is despite the knowledge advances which is in regard of the sleep importance for the population of athletes. The research in sleep treatment and assessment mainly focus on insomnia medical disorder and is also relevant for athletes. There are currently no guidelines for the assessment standardization, behavior changes, and strategies of feedback in the athletes. The review focus on outlining the potential resources for the disturbances in sleep, disadvantages, and advantages of various range of methods in assessing sleep, monitoring activity, the technology of consumer sleep, and considerations of the feedback in provision with the challenges and strategies of behavior change and potential interventions. The objective includes the focus on reviewing in providing the practitioners with the various evidence in the area with rapid progress in athletes' engagement, consumerism, and awareness. The research was conducted for examination of the sleep quantity and quality with the typical utilization of monitoring activity and studies that focus on demonstration of the athlete's insufficient sleep. 

In the views of Doherty et al (2019), the authors gain their focus on well-being and sleep which include now and in the future. The processes of moving, eating, and sleeping in concert with learning and cognition include the focus on supporting life and health. Sleeping occurs in the rest phase which includes the behaviors of others in the active phase. The research confirms that the dictum applies same to the nutrition and sleep. Sleep is considered a medicine, whereas nutrition and exercise are medicine. Well-being focus on including the various aspects which include happiness feeling, anger, pain, stress, and satisfaction of life with a sense of meaning and purpose in life. Sleep mainly affects psychological wellbeing. Sleep mainly serves as the function which is synthetic of the new structures of the nerve which follows the memory and learning consolidation (Bonnar et al 2018). The study includes that there is a feature of memory for the major existence which include recognition of ability, acquiring motor procedures, and learning. This includes the focus on various issues which are considered in the sleep disorder which causes a lack of functioning of the athletes because their sleep cycle is not completed. The focus on nutritious food is given major importance as for the effective food adequacy there should be needed focus on eating healthy food and maintaining the focus on regular and good sleep. The behaviours of the sleep should be given the appropriate attention which includes gaining the attention to the difficulties of sleep and working for the same. 

According to Kim et al (2018), the authors focus on consumers of sports technology which includes the segmentation of the users in the devices of sports wearable based on the technology of readiness. The purpose of the study is to focus on the development of wearable technology with the significant change in the way people are participating in physical activities. The methodology used in the study includes a focus on a convenience sample of 365 participants with the use of the devices in South Korea. The study aligned the focus on the cluster analysis which helped in the identification of the wearable sports based on the TR which included inhibiting and motivation of beliefs in regard to technology. The findings state that the identification of the three groups of the sports users with the wearable device helped in the exploration of the low inhibition and high motivation which included the demonstration of the differences in the TR which include innovations, insecurity, discomfort, and optimism. The study explored the characteristics of the different market segments and provided an effective understanding of the sports user profile of the wearable devices. The findings helped in providing insights and implications of the sports market and tailoring the marketing strategies in each segment. The following also helped in understanding the needed difference of how technology can help in appropriate effectiveness of the sports and leading to proper knowledge of how it will help in boosting the morale of the sportsperson. 

In the views of Mancini (2018), the authors focus on the role of functional beverages on sports recovery and performance. The functional beverages focus on representing the efficient and palatable way to reintegrate and hydrate carbohydrates, electrolytes, and the various employed nutrients. Effective hydration helps in the activities of sport which is considered the best indicator in the health of the athletes and an effective factor for increasing the performance in the sports. The study focused on the review of the ongoing knowledge of the beverages of macronutrient-enriched in taking the sport into the account the health of athletes, recovery, and sports performance. There are various types of functional food that are considered to be available in the market freely and have the major benefits which lead to the effective features and enduring benefits in the performance of the individuals. There are intense efforts of marketing made for the encouragement in consumption of the functional beverages which include focusing on the various claims and benefits related to the same. Therefore, the popular drinks focus on representing the compromise designed for meeting the needs of the people in various situations and fulfilment because of the variability of individuals. It is considered that there are various benefits related to the functional drinks which help boost the energy and also help in increasing the productivity and morale of the athletes. 

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The literature review study emphasized the focus on the review from various authors about the study with the consideration of the various methods applied by them for the study. The diverse range in outcomes, methods, and sports provide the various facts which are stylized and can inform the research on sleep and the competitive athletes. The review of the various published research, states towards finding a negative association between the duration of sleep and outcome performance (O’Donnell et al 2018). The results which are reviewed showcased that the increase in the duration of sleep has a positive effect on the performance of the athlete or with the neutral results. The studies mainly report that the positive results initiate the focus on the various differences and sizes. There has been a difference in the sleep duration which leads to deprivation and extension of sleep and differences in the measured outcomes (Vlahoyiannis et al 2021). The next includes the consideration of sports with anaerobic and aerobic characteristics, which seems that the activity of aerobics is more sensitive to the duration of the sleep-in comparison to the activity of anaerobic including the testing of strength. It includes the attention to the identification of the adverse effects of the various exercises of weightlifting which is examined (Bonnar et al 2018). 

Both the explosive and endurance, exercises that are power-based have been documented to deprivation of sleep which is associated with an increase in the efforts perceived. The relationship between the objective and perceived performance has been validated widely and for future investigation (Sawczuk et al 2018). The studies measured that the outcomes mainly require the technical and tactical skills which focus on benefitting the performance of sleep. The studies which were conducted for the players include sports teams that have the outcomes of decision making and incorporated tactics with the broader extent with the exhibited players and the night deficits of the decreased duration of sleep. The review helped in summarizing the objectives which are measured by the sleep data with the various population athlete for development of the integrative perspective of sleep of athletes, identification of the issues of potential sleep and factors which are risk-related, with the revealing of the possible gaps in the knowledge currently. The recommendations and norms reveal that the quantity of sleep in athletes is reduced which is insufficient potentially with the various consensus of the healthy adult’s non-athlete (Halson 2019). 

The quality of sleep focus on highlighting the interventions in sleep optimization which are for adolescent and children through which the various guidelines are not available. The periods of the heavy training are identified to be sensitive to the alterations which are potential in the quality of sleep which include the architecture of sleep that can be modified during the pre-season (Vlahoyiannis et al 2021). The various evidence from the study state that the duration of sleep for the athletes should be 7.2 hours per night. The authors also state that the athletes also find it difficult in falling asleep and maintaining prior sleep to the competition which includes the stress which includes the disorders sleep. Sleep disorders are considered to be difficult in diagnosing self which includes that the individuals do not know that they are snoring or having disrupted sleep (Doherty et al 2018). 

The athletes can focus on the various strategies of sleep hygiene which are adhered to the travel schedules and strict competition, and maintaining the training is rigorous has interfered in the ability towards maintaining the quality sleep. Making sleep is considered a priority which is considered an important recommendation some the individuals have difficulty maintaining and initiating sleep. The athletes are benefited from the improved hygiene of sleep. Healthy sleep can be improved and trained with the utilization of regular routines and the creation of an optimal environment for sleep (Kirschen et al 2020). The optimization for the three pillars is considered to be important in overall recovery and health which is considered the best strategy which resorts to the energy drinks and supplements that the athletes should turn to when lacking adequate sleep or fatigued. The increase in the awareness of the benefits of sleep for the athletes has been considered to have resulted in an increase in monitoring of sleep with include effective feedback and assessment. The understanding of sleep is considered the effective basis importance for following the daily effective schedule of the athletes and measuring the attention on increasing the tools and strategies for an effective sleep cycle (Kirschen et al 2020). 

Section C: Conclusion and implications for practice

In a nutshell, the research concludes that sleep is considered an important aspect of the effective working and performance of sports athletes. It includes that there should be an effective focus on the benefits which are related to sleep and how it helps in performance and recovery. There should be managing attention on following the various sleep cycle with the consideration of the benefits related to it. The lack of sleep leads to the person feeling irritated and also not allowing the attention towards making the effective decisions and taking risks, it leads to inactiveness the whole day due to which the people feel lethargic and not effective functioning. It concludes that there should be an effective focus on sleep and it should be appropriate which will help in developing the overall attention on the effective recovery and performance of the athletes. Therefore, there should be effective attention on following the benefits associated with sleep which will help in leading to effectiveness and control on following the effective concerns towards fitness. 


The following research and information are valuable for those working in fitness and sports including that it helps them in knowing and getting effective knowledge about the key benefits associated with sleep. The sportsperson should focus on getting more than seven to nine hours of sleep which will help them in encouraging and working effectively with giving their best performance. It gives the major importance to being trained when they have no lethargies in mind and they are fresh from their mood which is because of the effective sleep taken by them. Therefore, the effective following of the stage of sleep will help in effective focus towards the improved and effective performance. The following helps the athletes in knowing the considerations and also managing the attention on following the benefits associated with the same (Kim et al 2018). 

Directions for future research and technological development 

The future research directions and technological development in the subject area are considered to be involving a focus on tips for sleep hygiene for the athletes. It includes that there should be effective benefits that are associated with sleep should be communicated to the sports and fitness. The benefits related to sleep are also related to mental health which includes that it will help them in managing the overall working directions towards following the various stages witnessed in the sleep cycle. Future research includes that there should be effective attention on following the research which states that the athletes who take proper sleep are more productive than those who are lacking their schedule of sleep. The technological development includes that there should be a major focus on understanding the negative impact which is associated with taking long hours of sleep which can lead to not focusing on the work and leading to low morale and not being involved in the practices which lead to productivity. Sleep helps in reducing medical concerns with effective attention to mental health. 


Bonnar, D., Bartel, K., Kakoschke, N. and Lang, C., 2018. Sleep interventions designed to improve athletic performance and recovery: a systematic review of current approaches. Sports medicine, 48(3), pp.683-703. 

Doherty, R., Madigan, S., Warrington, G. and Ellis, J., 2019. Sleep and nutrition interactions: implications for athletes. Nutrients, 11(4), p.822. 

Gratwicke, M., Miles, K.H., Pyne, D.B., Pumpa, K.L. and Clark, B., 2021. Nutritional interventions to improve sleep in team-sport athletes: a narrative review. Nutrients, 13(5), p.1586. 

Halson, S.L., 2019. Sleep monitoring in athletes: motivation, methods, miscalculations and why it matters. Sports medicine, 49(10), pp.1487-1497. 

Kim, T., Chiu, W. and Chow, M.K.F., 2018. Sport technology consumers: Segmenting users of sports wearable devices based on technology readiness. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 9(2), pp.134-145.

Kirschen, G.W., Jones, J.J. and Hale, L., 2020. The impact of sleep duration on performance among competitive athletes: a systematic literature review. Clinical journal of sport medicine, 30(5), pp.503-512. 

O’Donnell, S., Beaven, C.M. and Driller, M.W., 2018. From pillow to podium: a review on understanding sleep for elite athletes. Nature and science of sleep, 10, p.243. doi: 

Orrù, S., Imperlini, E., Nigro, E., Alfieri, A., Cevenini, A., Polito, R., Daniele, A., Buono, P. and Mancini, A., 2018. Role of functional beverages on sport performance and recovery. Nutrients, 10(10), p.1470. 

Sawczuk, T., Jones, B., Scantlebury, S. and Till, K., 2018. The influence of training load, exposure to match play and sleep duration on daily wellbeing measures in youth athletes. Journal of sports sciences, 36(21), pp.2431-2437. 

Vlahoyiannis, A., Aphamis, G., Bogdanis, G.C., Sakkas, G.K., Andreou, E. and Giannaki, C.D., 2021. Deconstructing athletes’ sleep: A systematic review of the influence of age, sex, athletic expertise, sport type, and season on sleep characteristics. Journal of sport and health science, 10(4), pp.387-402. 

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