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With intense globalization, businesses have been exploiting their resources to maximize their profit by carrying out their operations and processes across boundaries. Many firms have carried out projects in countries where they were getting better margins or have high demand. Managing projects across boundaries have been prone to higher risks due to dynamism of external factors. For managing projects, it is desirable and highly recommended by experts to adopt a project management system. This paper will discuss the vitality and application of project management system for projects carried out across boundaries. This paper will focus on construction projects and its aspects that help the business to determine which project management to adopt for carrying out projects across borders. The paper will critically express elements such as cultural factors, economic, political, and technological factors that are significant in impacting the project management system. Each Project management system focuses upon the need of the project and objective of the business associated with such projects. In this paper we will discuss how construction projects are affected by choice of the Project Management System
Construction projects in India are influenced by several external factors such as topography, supporting infrastructure, legislature governing such projects, labor laws, and like. India is a country of diversity and therefore managing projects is sensitive to dynamism of the market as well as society of the country. This paper will aim to achieve a comprehensive understanding about choice of Project management system in context of construction projects in PSP Projects and elements that are significant to making such choices.
With exponential rise in FDI, India has emerged as one of the most attractive nations for investment purposes. India has seen a healthy growth in inflows for carrying out construction projects (Singh, 2019). With the 1991 policy of privatization and globalization, India opened routes for foreign companies and favorable policies for carrying out construction projects has been the main driver of choosing the project management system regarding construction (Singh, Deep, and Banerjee, 2017). In the last decade, India had witnessed an enormous inflow of 25.69 billion USD as foreign investment in construction development along with 16.97 billion USD allocated directly to construction activities. Constructions in SEZ area, industrial parks, and in completed townships are subject to 100% FDI. Sharma (2018) views the project management system as a pivotal element that has paved the way for construction projects to be carried out in India. Whether it is monitoring the project using tools and techniques or laying the foundation by adopting management principles guiding the project, the Project management system has benefited construction projects to be completed timely and smoothly in India (Singh, Deep, and Banerjee, 2017). “PSP projects” was significantly affected by political factors and economic decisions by central authority that will be discussed in the paper. With increase in household income, these types of projects have also seen rise due to the rise in demand of housing projects, malls, shops, and other physical premises. Ogunde et al., (2017) highlight the role of project management systems to streamline the country’s market. Governments of different states have also stated their participation in boosting the economy of the nation by launching industrial estates for manufacturing purposes. With exponential rise in associated industries such as IT, Steel, Cement industries, construction industry has attracted many foreign investors. Recently, the government declared in the union budget, 2022, that it will inject finance in the market due to which construction projects were greatly impacted. Ogunde et al., (2017) state that the project management system works as a guide for managing projects in foreign countries and the best part is that it can be modified according to the environment. In case of construction projects, topography, economic factors, labor laws, and political factors are major factors that decide the project management system. Sharma (2018) states that construction projects of PSP projects have been carried out by following a definite and predetermined project management system and such projects have high success rates. Moreover, the research also focuses on determining the success of such projects that followed a definite system for project management. Singh, Deep, and Banerjee (2017) opined that for the success of construction projects, it is vital for the business to have a definite framework that governs the whole project. The system adopted provides the base for such projects and helps the business to minimize wastage to great extent. The large-scale projects are outsourced to construction companies that have their system to carry out construction activities. In India, construction activities have surged after the Covid-19 pandemic. These constructions were mainly carried out by the government and handed over to companies like PSP projects, Ashoka Buildcon, PNC Infratech which have a high success rate of completing construction projects. With strong fundamentals and a definite system, PSP projects have attracted many foreign investors. Likewise, foreign companies have observed that construction projects in India are highly dependent on the choice of project management system. Mavi and Standing, (2018) opine that the project management system does not direct the business or the company but provides a set of rules, guidelines, tools, and techniques to take decisions that streamline with their objectives. These aspects of the Project management system regarding PSP projects will be discussed in the paper for critically reviewing the success of executing projects following the project management system in India.
The study is aimed towards reviewing the project management system in the Indian construction company, PSP projects and determining the role of economic, political, and social factors in determining the Project Management System to recommend appropriate systems in the company
The research questions are based on the above description of the case. Following questions will be the base of the whole research. The research will streamline with these questions to maintain objectivity and reach a concrete and lucid conclusion.
This research is based on determining the role and impact of the project management system on the success of carrying out construction projects in India which is chosen based on external factors of the country. The research is significant as it will help the reader to get insight about the execution of projects in the construction industry and to determine the degree of sensitivity of these projects concerning the external environment (Verma, 2017). It is inevitable for a project to meet its objective while being cost-effective. The paper will discuss how a project management system helped PSP projects to achieve its goals by remaining cost effective. It will help the reader to gain knowledge about analytical and aid decision-making regarding the choice of project management system for different types of projects, especially in the case of the construction industry (Singh, Deep, and Banerjee, 2017). It will also help the reader to become enlightened about the difference between executing a project in the home country and executing a project in the host country. It is vital to study about the factors that affect the choice of project management system concerning different industries. One system adopted for one type of project might not be effective for another project because of certain differences and the different factors that affect them. An IT project is totally different from a construction project and therefore the factors affecting these projects will be different (Mavi and Standing, 2018). Therefore, it is vital to know what factors affect a specific project. Working conditions in India are totally different from that in America and therefore one should also be well educated about such differences that might impede the working of a project management system (Sharma, 2018). For instance, labor laws in America are more rigid and articulated than those in India. Because of loopholes in the legislature that governs labor laws and practices, PSP projects had to adopt a different project management system. For these reasons, it is advisable for the practitioner and project associates to know about the factors of the external market of the host country before choosing a project management system (Verma, 2017). This paper is focused on construction projects executed by PSP projects and how they are affected by the choice of Project management system based on factors that will affect the project during its implementation and therefore it will be a lucid research paper aiming to fulfill the research objectives and giving concrete answers after thorough study of empirical data used in this research (Singh, 2019).
Chapter 2: Literature review
All the factors have been thoroughly discussed in this report: how much of a social shortfall is there for the workers and what kind of problems are faced in their security in the construction. How the economic factor affects the construction industry has also been informed about it and how the political problem has to be faced. Some such factors have also been discussed in the report which gives information about the external variables of the UK and India and how they differ from each other. How the two countries work differently in creativity, in management systems and in a final way. This report also discusses which project management system is suitable for building projects in any country. In it, 5 types of processes have been discussed, which is the scope of recognition of the project, planning, execution, monitoring and closing of the project. And lastly, it has been told on how the political, economic and social sectors impact in planning the construction project.
Factors Affecting the Construction Industry Socially
Factors Affecting the Construction Industry Economically
Factors Affecting the Construction Industry Politically
Differences between UK and Indian external variables in the context of the construction industry
A project Management system that works well for PSP Projects in the country
Seven project management system models can improve the project management system in the country.
Chapter 3 – Research Methodology
Research methodology refers to the specific techniques or procedures that can be adopted by the researchers for identifying, selecting, processing and critically analyzing the collected information or data with respect to the research topic. By making use of the suitable research methodologies, the readers can evaluate the reliability as well as the validity of the entire research report. It is important to choose the best and the most appropriate research methodologies for clarifying the research inquiry and carrying out the whole research in a systematic manner. For this purpose, the Saunders Onion research model has been applied which involved the detailed explanation for each stage of the research process. This model has greatly helped in designing the research methodology process and in ensuring its adaptability. Saunders had adopted the research onion framework to go from the outer layer of the research onion to the inner layer of the research onion. All the stages of the research methodology have been discussed as below with respect to the chosen onion research model and the research topic.
Figure: Saunders onion research model
Source: Saunders et al., 2007
Research philosophy helps in dealing with the scope, nature and the development of the research knowledge or it is the belief that helps in collecting, using and analyzing data about a particular phenomenon. In addition to this, research philosophy further helps in making the researchers aware about the beliefs and assumptions that have been made for the research project. The basic assumptions being made by the researchers are reflected by the research philosophy on the basis of which the research strategies are being formulated (Melnikovas, 2018).
For this research project, the pragmatism research philosophy has been adopted which believes that the research project can be evaluated, interpreted and undertaken in different ways as there are multiple realities through which the project can be made understood. According to this philosophy, the implications of project management system can be ascertained for the success of PSP project from the perspectives of different researchers. The research questions have been considered as the important determinants during the application of pragmatism philosophy (Al-Ababneh, 2020). The chosen philosophy has further helped in the integration of multiple research methods and approaches for understanding the research project in a detailed manner.
The second layer of the research onion is the research approach and for carrying out this research project, induction research approach has been followed that is also known as the inductive reasoning. This approach involves the critical observations and relevant theories that have been proposed for evaluating the final results of the research project. This approach did not required the researchers to formulate theories or generate research hypothesis and the data has been collected regarding the factors that affect the planning and application of project management system within the construction companies of India, especially within the context of PSP projects (Melnikovas, 2018).
The meanings have been generated by determining patterns and developing relationships between significant theories associated with the project management system being followed by the PSP project. For exploring the developed research questions, the existing theories in related of the project management systems have been taken into consideration for better and in-depth understanding. The detailed observations have been reviewed and abstract generalizations and ideas were reviewed for identifying crucial relationships between the economic, social and other factors that might influence the decision of the choice of project management system by the construction companies of India (Al-Ababneh, 2020). Inductive reasoning is also termed as the bottom-up approach as the researcher initiates the studying of the research project from observations and then move upwards towards developing the patterns and applying the existing theories.
This is the third layer of the research onion that has greatly helped the researchers in carrying out the research work. The research strategy involves multiple approaches and the researchers choose among them depending upon the scope and nature of the research project. For this research project, mainly two research strategies were used including the case study and systematic literature review (Sahay, 2016). The strategy of case study has enabled the researchers to particularly focus on one or single area i.e. the PSP project and offering the insights about the implications of project management system by giving the significant examples with relation to the PSP project. The case study research strategy has been considered as the single unit for establishing the key features about the particular system of project management and drawing key generalizations.
Another adopted research strategy of critical literature review has helped in carrying out the critical and in-depth investigation of the research questions by reviewing and evaluating different perspectives of different researchers. The systematic literature review has been undertaken by reviewing the peer-reviewed journal articles and investigating the latest sources that published information and knowledge about the trending factors that have been affecting or greatly influencing the project management system. This particular research strategy has been proven to be the best strategy as it has worked as the greatest evidence about the research topic (Snyder, 2019). The systematic literature review has enabled the researchers to determine the research gaps with respect to the recent understanding about the chosen field of the research project.
It is the fourth layer of research onion which reflects three choices of research including the mono, mixed and multi methods of research. The mixed research choice has been reflected throughout this research project as the investigation of both the qualitative and quantitative has been combined with each other for developing a precise set of data. Depending on this research choice, the qualitative and quantitative forms of methodology were applied for analyzing and evaluating the collected data with respect to the developed research questions (Sahay, 2016).
This layer of the research onion describes the total time being taken for completing the entire research project. As this research project has got completed within the specific period i.e. before the final submission of the research project; therefore this project is said to be the cross-sectional time horizon.
Data collection is considered as the most important stage or layer of the research onion as it is necessary for the researchers to collect reliable data that is being further investigated and analyzed during the process of data analysis. For this research project, the secondary data has been collected which was derived from identifying various opinions and perspectives of different researchers. For the purpose of collecting the secondary data, the recently published peer-reviewed journal articles have been searched and critically reviewed and many e-books about the factors affecting the success of project management system have been studied in-depth (Sahay, 2016). Other than this, the online websites of the PSP project were also evaluated and studied for ensuring the success of the particular project management system adopted and applied by it.
It has been further made sure that no data prior to the year 2015 must have been considered as the focus has been made on collecting data and information about the latest factors and trends in association with the advanced or updated project management systems. While choosing the journal articles and other sources for collecting the secondary data, some factors have been taken into account such as the date of publication, reliability and validity of the source, depth of analysis made in the source, credentials or background of the author and quality of discussions made within the source (Snyder, 2019).
For analyzing the collected secondary form of data, the qualitative data analysis method was adopted which refers to the non-numeric information such as analyzing the text and information from multiple documents. The particular category of narrative analysis has been focused for reflecting the data by taking into account the context of the chosen case of PSP project and evaluating difference experiences of the researchers through reviewing the journal articles, e-books and other online sources (Mohajan, 2018). The collected data has been analyzed by using graphical representations and tabular presentations for demonstrating the proper understanding of the factors that might affect the success of PSP project with respect to the particular system of project management being used by the Company. During the analysis, the research questions have been explored and answered by linking the findings with the literature review discussion to reflect and support the generated findings with the proper evidence as given in the section of literature review (Mohajan, 2018).
In this chapter, the Saunders model of research onion has been applied for choosing the applying the right methodologies in a systematic manner. The suitable and effective research methods were adopted for answering the developed research questions and meeting the research objectives of the research project. The secondary form of data has been collected and the narrative analysis method was used for carrying out the research analysis process. In this chapter, some relevant research strategies have also been discussed along with the appropriate ways in which the data has been collected, gathered, analyzed and in-depth discussion was made.
In this chapter, the crucial findings and in-depth analysis will be presented of the research project. For demonstrating the findings and discussions, all the research questions will be critically reviewed and graphical representations will be used for discussing the answers. Further, all the findings will be supported by the evidence and will be linked with the discussions been made in the section of literature review. The findings will be elaborated with respect to the generated arguments made by different authors and researchers. The studies and theories will be used or applied as discussed in various journal articles. In addition to this, some online sources and documents of PSP project will be taken into consideration for the final review and evaluation of the findings. This chapter is structured systematically for answering and reflecting the findings of each research question separately. Multiple sources and secondary documents/ information will be analyzed and critiqued with supporting evidences and in association with the chosen case of PSP project.
Factors affecting the planning of PSP project and other construction projects in India
Singh, M.K., Deep, S. and Banerjee, R., 2017. Risk management in construction projects as per Indian scenario. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 8(3), pp.127-136.
Sharma, R.K., 2018. Factors affecting financial leveraging for BSE listed real estate development companies in India. Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction.
Verma, S., 2017. Labour policy and global indian diaspora. In Routledge Handbook of the Indian Diaspora (pp. 77-89). Routledge.
Singh, S., 2019. Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in India. Journal of General Management Research, 6(1), pp.41-53.
Ogunde, A., Olaolu, O., Afolabi, A.O., Owolabi, J. and Ojelabi, R.A., 2017. Challenges confronting construction project management system for sustainable construction in developing countries: Professionals perspectives (a case study of Nigeria). Journal of Building Performance, 8(1), pp.1-11.
Mavi, R.K. and Standing, C., 2018. Critical success factors of sustainable project management in construction: A fuzzy DEMATEL-ANP approach. Journal of cleaner production, 194, pp.751-765.
Guo, B.H., Yiu, T.W. and González, V.A., 2016. Predicting safety behaviour in the construction industry: Development and test of an integrative model. Safety science, 84, pp.1-11.
Bilal, M., Oyedele, L.O., Qadir, J., Munir, K., Ajayi, S.O., Akinade, O.O., Owolabi, H.A., Alaka, H.A. and Pasha, M., 2016. Big Data in the construction industry: A review of present status, opportunities, and future trends. Advanced engineering informatics, 30(3), pp.500-521.
Lin, N., 2017. Building a network theory of social capital. Social capital, pp.3-28.
Smol, M., Kulczycka, J., Henclik, A., Gorazda, K. and Wzorek, Z., 2015. The possible use of sewage sludge ash (SSA) in the construction industry as a way towards a circular economy. Journal of Cleaner Production, 95, pp.45-54.
McLeod, J.M. and Chaffee, S.R., 2017. The construction of social reality. In The social influence processes (pp. 50-99). Routledge.
Aggarwal, D. and Padhan, P.C., 2017. Impact of capital structure on firm value: Evidence from Indian hospitality industry. Theoretical Economics Letters, 7(4), pp.982-1000.
Al-ahdal, W.M., Alsamhi, M.H., Tabash, M.I. and Farhan, N.H., 2020. The impact of corporate governance on financial performance of Indian and GCC listed firms: An empirical investigation. Research in International Business and Finance, 51, p.101083.
Patil, P., Tamilmani, K., Rana, N.P. and Raghavan, V., 2020. Understanding consumer adoption of mobile payment in India: Extending Meta-UTAUT model with personal innovativeness, anxiety, trust, and grievance redressal. International Journal of Information Management, 54, p.102144.
Golini, R., Kalchschmidt, M. and Landoni, P., 2015. Adoption of project management practices: The impact on international development projects of non-governmental organizations. International journal of project management, 33(3), pp.650-663.
Melnikovas, A., 2018. Towards an explicit research methodology: Adapting research onion model for futures studies. Journal of Futures Studies, 23(2), pp.29-44.
Sahay, A., 2016. Peeling Saunder's research onion. Research Gate, Art, pp.1-5.
Al-Ababneh, M., 2020. Linking ontology, epistemology and research methodology. Science & Philosophy, 8(1), pp.75-91.
Snyder, H., 2019. Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines. Journal of business research, 104, pp.333-339.
Mohajan, H.K., 2018. Qualitative research methodology in social sciences and related subjects. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People, 7(1), pp.23-48.
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