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Identifying how Coronary Heart Diseases affect the community

Introduction: Identifying how Coronary Heart Diseases affect the community

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In the modern world, one of the most prevalent health issues is coronary heart disease. It is a disease that affects the Coronary Arteries, that supply the heart's blood. Coronary artery disease defines the narrowness or obstructions to coronary arteries, which is mostly done by plaque buildup. “The coronary arteries” do supply heart with “oxygen-rich” blood. The buildup of plaque in the arteries limits the amount of blood which can go into heart. Suppose, due to congestion, traffic in two lanes is getting merged into one. It still moves, but more slowly now. When an individual are suffering from coronary artery disease, that person may not be able to notice something is wrong until the plaque causes a blood clot. The clotting of blood could be compared to a concrete wall in the middle of the road. Traffic has stopped. This causes a heart attack similar to how heart cannot receive blood. Thus, an individual might not even be aware that have CAD up until have a heart attack. This makes CAD a "silent killer." Additional names for CAD include coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic heart disease. Additionally, when people use the term "heart disease" they typically mean this.

The prevalence of “Coronary Artery Disease”

“Coronary artery disease” is affecting a bunch of people. In the United States, there are about 18 million persons who are suffering from coronary artery disease (Musunuruet al, 2019). That almost equals the population of Houston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and new york city altogether. In the United States, coronary artery disease claimed 360900 lives in 2019(Bauersachset al, 2019). That number of individuals could fill Yankee stadium like eight times.

Identifying who is affected by Coronary Artery Disease

The main reason for death in both the US and other countries is “Coronary Artery disease”. Both men and those who were declared male at the time of birth as well as women and those who were declared female at the time of birth are affected by this. In the United States, “about 1 in 10 adults between the ages of 40 and 80 have coronary artery disease” (Thujiset al, 2019). People under 65 accounts for about 1 in 5 have faced issues of coronary artery disease deaths (Chen et al, 2021).

Analysing what effects would coronary artery diseases have on the body:

The biggest effect that “Coronary Artery Disease” creates is a “heart attack”. It is a life-threatening medical problem. Because of not getting enough blood, the heart muscles begin to deteriorate. To revive and restore the flow of blood in the heart, urgently require medical care.

Additionally, Coronary Artery Disease can weaken heart over time and cause issues like:

1. Arrhythmia: An erratic heartbeat is what is known as “Arrhythmia”.  Individual’s heart may be beating more fastly or slowly than it would in the absence of “arrhythmia” if individuals have one. Thus, the heart may be beating erratically due to several types of problems, and the reason determines the appropriate course of treatment. It is possible for an arrhythmia to be silent and have no symptoms (Kwiecinskiet al, 2020). During an examination, a doctor can detect an irregular heartbeat by measuring the pulse, listening to the heart with the help of a stethoscope or doing diagnostic tests. If an individual experience chest pain, dizziness, or a racing heart, or if someone experience any of the following symptoms, need to seek a healthcare professional.

Symptoms: The symptoms that may occur include:

  • A skipped heartbeat sensation, or the sensation that heart is “fluttering”, “running away”, or doing “flip-flops”
  • My heart is pounding
  • Feeling lightheaded or dizzy
  • Breath shortness
  • Pain in the chest
  • Loss of energy

Cause: This may result from:

  • Irritable heart tissue
  • Alteration to the cardiac muscle
  • Abnormalities in sodium or potassium levels of electrolytes in the blood
  • The recovery period following cardiac surgery.

2.Cardiac Arrest: When the heartbeat stops or it beats so quickly that it cannot pump blood, it causes Cardiac arrest. People often fall during cardiac arrest. Symptoms appear suddenly. Because of this, it is often referred to as abrupt cardiac arrest(Sudaet al, 2019). When an individual experience cardiac arrest, the default impulses which initiate heartbeat is quickly replaced by abnormal, that reflects fast impulses. There is no way for oxygenated blood to reach the rest of body if heart is not pumping. If an individual do not receive quick treatment, the situation could turn fatal.


  • Rapid heart rate
  • The person gets dizzy
  • Vomiting 

Cause: Arrhythmias, or irregular heartbeats, are what trigger cardiac arrest in the first stages. The underlying factors that induce sudden cardiac arrest are events and conditions that can result in these heart rhythms. These consist of:

  • Various prescription medications, such as cold medications
  • Consumption of deadly drugs like LSD
  • Inherited cardiac conditions
  • Severe disease or trauma with significant blood loss

3. Cardiogenic Shock: Cardiogenic shock, a life-threatening disorder, occurs quickly when heart cannot keep up with the demand for blood from body (Fox et al, 2020). The most frequent trigger of this is a heart attack. Individual’s cells are dependent on oxygen to survive and function. This may result in catastrophic organ failure. It is a deadly illness that develops when the heart is unable to provide body with the necessary amounts of oxygen-rich blood. Thus, organs failing due to oxygen deprivation can be fatal. This ailment is an emergency that has to be treated right away at a hospital. The most frequent causes of cardiogenic shock are heart attacks and heart failure.

Stages: There are a few stages in this disease:

  • Heart disease without any indications of shock, such as a heart attack or heart failure.
  • Low pulse or blood pressure.
  • Need for drugs or tools to aid in getting blood to organs.
  • Not responding to treatments or technology and deteriorating.
  • Cardiac arrest requiring a ventilator, defibrillator, and CPR.

Symptoms: An individual should be taking medical help if are experiencing any of the following symptoms of a heart attack:

  • Upper body ache or soreness that may extend to the left arm.
  • Upper abdominal, throat, or jaw pain.
  • The problem in breathing.
  • Rapid or erratic heartbeat.
  • Lack of energy in the body.
  • Being unobservant.
  • Less heartbeat than normal.

Cause: The most frequent reason for cardiogenic shock is a heart attack. The primary pumping sector of heart may get damaged by a serious heart attack (left ventricle). The body can not acquire enough oxygenated blood when this occurs (Yang et al, 2020). Rarely, the right ventricle, the bottom chamber of heart, might sustain damage from cardiogenic shock. Blood is pumped from the right ventricle to lungs, where it receives oxygen before continuing to the rest of body. The following conditions can also cause heart to weaken and cause cardiogenic shock:

  • A cardiac attack that has caused damage to the heart muscle
  • Muscular inflammation in heart
  • An infected  heart valve and inner lining
  • An unnatural heartbeat
  • Having too much blood or fluid close to heart
  • or a problem with heart valves, such as damage in the valve supporting muscles valve or a malfunctioning prosthetic valve.
  • Damage to the heart's septum, which separates the left and right ventricles.
  • Chest has been hurt.

Diagnosis: Some diagnostics tests need to be done to find out if someone has cardiogenic shock, like

  • Check if the blood pressure is low
  • The cardiac catheterisation technique assists the doctor in locating obstructions in the “arteries” that provide blood to the heart. Additionally, the doctor may perform a catheterization to measure the volume of blood that the heart can pump. Through a tiny hole, most frequently in the wrist or groyne, a long, thin tube known as a catheter is put in an artery.
  • Transcription of the electrical activity of the heart is known as ECG.
  • A cardiac ultrasound enables the doctor to assess the health of the heart and search for any structural issues, such as valve issues, as well as how strong it is which is known as an Echocardiogram.
  • To acquire images of the heart and blood arteries, as well as check for fluid in the lungs a chest x-ray can be done.
  • A blood test needs to be done to monitor blood's oxygen content and look for damage to heart, liver, kidneys, or other vital organs. Additionally, electrolyte level will be examined.

4.“Heart failure”: Congestive failure of the heart, also known as heart failure, is a degenerative “chronic condition”. Despite what the term might imply, “heart failure” is a condition where the heart is not pumping blood as effectively as it could. Hus, an individual’s organs may become damaged and fluid may build up in lungs if heart's pumping capacity is reduced. Over 870,000 people suffer from heart problems every year, and nearly six million Americans currently have the condition (Yang et al, 2020). Congestive heart failure is the most common reason for hospitalisation in adults over 65 (Yang et al, 2020).

Types of heart failure: Heart failure can have a variety of reasons, however, it typically falls under one of the following categories:

1. Left-sided:

  • Decreased left ventricular function in Heart failure- The heart's left ventricle, the lower left chamber enlarges and becomes unable to squeeze forcefully enough to supply the rest of the body with the appropriate volume of oxygen-rich blood.
  • Maintained left ventricular function in heart failure- Thus, heart pumps and contracts appropriately, but the ventricles at its bottom are bigger and stiffer than they should be.

2.Right-sided: The right side of heart might also experience cardiac failure. The most frequent cause of this is left-sided heart failure. Some lung conditions and difficulties with other organs are additional factors.

Types of coronary artery diseases: 

Most people think that coronary heart disease is only about the build-up of plaque in the arteries, or atherosclerosis. But this happens in only a single type of “coronary artery disease”. There are mainly three types of “coronary artery disease”, which includes:

1. Obstructive coronary artery disease: When plaque buildup causes coronary arteries to gradually narrow down, it is called obstructive “coronary artery disease”. It is the type of “coronary artery disease” that is most prevalent and well-known. Hence, heart's blood supply may eventually be blocked as artery constriction progresses. An unexpected obstruction is a crisis. A heart attack is what it is, and it needs to be treated right away to prevent more heart damage. 

2. Non-obstructive coronary artery disease: This disease does not occur because of plaque buildup like obstructive coronary disease. It happens due to other artery issues, like:

  • restrictions imposed at the wrong periods (coronary vasospasm)
  • Arterial lining being harmed (endothelial dysfunction)
  • Malfunctions in the smallest branches of arteries (microvascular dysfunction)
  • Heart muscle compressing or squeezing coronary arteries (myocardial bridging)

This type of coronary disease still causes some of the main symptoms of “coronary artery disease”, like pain in the chest and shortness of taking breath. . Chest pain is a common symptom of nonobstructive coronary artery disease. While anyone can acquire non-occlusive heart disease, women are more likely than men to do so. 

3. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: This type of disease happens when the blood flow in the system gets partially or fully blocked by a tear in coronary arteries wall. This kind of tear can occur unexpectedly and often results in a “heart attack”. The signs of a “heart attack” might differ from person to person, but they may include:

  • Chest discomfort, particularly on the left side or in the middle of chest
  • Pain in the jaw, neck or back
  • Chest pain that travels through the shoulders or arms
  • Feeling like chest is being squeezed, full, or under pressure.
  • Breath shortness, even when resting

Signs of coronary artery disease

An individual might go for a very long time without exhibiting any symptoms of coronary artery disease. CAD is a persistent disorder (Lee et al, 2018). It could take years or even decades for a plaque to grow. However, if arteries thin, an individual can feel a little uncomfortable. These symptoms demonstrate that heart tries harder to pump oxygenated blood to body. Other signs that indicate the chance of having coronary artery disease include:

  • Pain in the chest
  • Problem in breathing
  • Dizziness
  • Having palpitations in the heart
  • Tiredness
  • Pain in the stomach or vomiting problem

What are the coronary artery disease risk factors?

There are some risk factors associated with “coronary heart disease”. Some risk factors are uncontrollable too. Some factors can be controlled by making changes to the lifestyle or by taking proper meditations.

Uncontrollable risk factors:

  • Age: As an individual get older, begin to be diagnosed with various kinds of health problems, and coronary heart disease is no exception. After the age of 45, the risk is higher for men and the ones who were declared male at the time of birth, whereas for women and the ones declared female at the time of birth the age barrier is 55.  
  • Genetics: It has been identified that biological parents of an individual are already suffering from heart diseases; the chances of getting a heart problem also may increase. 


Risk factors that can be controlled: 


  • Eating habits: An individual need to maintain a diet which is low in saturated fat.
  • Exercise: Regular exercise helps in reducing heart problems
  • Proper sleep: To have a good pumping heart one needs to give the body proper rest.
  • Reduction of alcohol and smoking: Too much alcohol consumption or smoking increases the chance of this kind of problem. So one needs to control that.


The diagnosis of coronary artery disease:

Through physical examination and laboratory tests(Ghaiasiet al, 2020), healthcare professionals identify coronary artery disease. During the examination, the healthcare professional will check  these things:

  • They will measure the blood pressure
  • Check the heart with the help of a stethoscope 
  • Try to find out what symptoms an individual have and for how long
  •  Check previous health history
  • Try to understand the lifestyle 
  • Enquire about ancestors. They will inquire about the prevalence of heart disease in biological family members.

These pieces of information will help them to know the root cause of heart problems.

Treatment for coronary artery disease: Medications, risk factor management, and lifestyle change are frequently recommended by healthcare professionals to treat coronary artery diseases. Surgery could also be advantageous for some people (Khidoyatovaet al, 2022). The ideal course of treatment for an individual will be discussed with that person by healthcare professional. Following treatment plan is crucial if that person want to reduce risk of developing severe coronary artery disease problems.

Medications: An individual can use medications to both treat coronary artery disease symptoms and manage risk factors. Some medications that are mostly suggested by healthcare professionals are listed below:

  • Medicines to maintain the blood pressure
  • Medicines which help in lowering the cholesterol level
  • Drugs to treat stable angina

Strategies should be anticipated for “coronary artery disease”:

The only person can ask these are healthcare professional. Results vary depending on the individual. The fundamental things are age, existing medical circumstances, risk factors, and symptoms will all be taken into consideration by doctor (Troseid et al, 2020). Hence, the chances of having a favourable prognosis can be increased by making lifestyle adjustments and receiving additional therapies.

Is “coronary artery disease” curable:

“Coronary artery disease” is incurable. However, an individual can control illness and stop it from growing worse. Then the person has to follow treatment plan provided by the healthcare professional. If an individual can change by following the plan, the chances of living a better life will increase.

Taking care plan for coronary artery disease:

Maintaining compliance with the treatment plan is the most crucial action an individual can do. Medications can only help to a certain point but lifestyle changes are necessary to help the body recover faster. Additionally, it could entail a procedure or surgery, as well as the subsequent recovery period. The healthcare professional can suggest cardiac rehab in addition to the treatment. For those who are suffering from heart problems, a cardiac rehab programme is extremely beneficial. Hence, an individual can manage stress with the help of exercise, dietary adjustments, and cardiac rehab. 

How mental health is affected due to coronary artery disease: 

An individual may start thinking about heart more than usual when go through a coronary artery disease diagnosis (Nowbaret al, 2019). This maybe is intimidating and draining. Then, an individual could be stressing over symptoms or the potential outcomes a lot. It is hardly unexpected that many individuals with these diseases struggle with anxiety and sadness. That person may have a condition that could potentially be fatal. Being concerned is common. But the worry should not get to a point where it affects daily life. Even if an individual have heart disease, an individual still can have a thrilling and exciting life. Thus, the individual should have an active and fulfilling life. Hence, the person should consult a counsellor if the diagnosis is impacting mental well-being. Look for a group who has similar kinds of worries, as that person may connect with them. 


Coronary heart disease is becoming one of the biggest health problems in the world. Our irregular lifestyle is only increasing the chance of getting a heart attack more and more. It does not happen to only elderly people but it can happen to children too. It is getting really common nowadays. To encounter diseases like this our lifestyle has to change. The healthcare professionals would help with that. They would give an individual a proper plan to maintain health. But everyone should be aware of the risk factors that come with “coronary artery diseases”. When can this occur or when should seek medical help for this, what type of medicines can lower the risk and what side effects they can leave on the body? That is why this study has been done to make people aware of the disease and the consequences that come with it. It will help them to have a healthier and longer life.

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