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The concerned report is a detailed synopsis of the global health society keeping the focus on the challenges and their feasible mitigation. The evaluation of the current global challenges in the present world offers an opportunity for immediate reform. The report also discusses the link between demographic shift and the effect of globalisation on health. The layered relationship between socio-cultural and socio-spatial factors is highlighted to establish its connection with health issues. The reports related to global health strategies are established in this report through social theories of global health. These strategies are important to perform a thorough analysis of the grey areas related to health in the global retrospect.
The prevailing challenges of global health are the topic of discussion in this following topic. The existing concerns that are of immediate detection according to WHO are listed to be the prevailing tension in Russia and Ukraine which has led to the immediate dispatch of healthcare in these war hotspots. The inequity faced in the health standards in developed, developing, densely, or sparsely populated countries is striking, which has dispersed the norms established by the WHO. The infectious diseases and the greatest ongoing emergency of the Covid-19 pandemic have turned the health standards of the world upside down. The non-communicable diseases and their particular remedies are also major challenges to global health. On average, the infant mortality rate is around 10 million globally for under one year despite the advancement in medical science (Olsson et al., 2019).
The advancement in the medical sciences has no control over the mortality rate globally. It is important for the global health strategies to be aligned with the involvement of the health disorders. Furthermore, the diseases are to be controlled so that the pathogens, more precisely the viruses, cannot mutate to become resistant to the discovered and corresponding drugs. The strategies are involved in performing global control of the population and taking precautionary measures to restrict it. The outbreak of the pandemic was the ultimate test of these strategies, with the preliminary precautions to the precise treatment offered by medical professionals all under the control of global health strategies. Thus, the immediate identification of global health strategies is important in disease detection, the discovery of complementary drugs, and the eradication of its prevention (Haslam et al., 2018).
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Global health can be referred to as the aid in maintaining the integrity of global security relating to population-level prevention and others. The evaluation of global health in the 21st century can be deciphered in the alternative measures required to curb the adverse effect of rapid population outbursts. It can be demonstrated in the mortality related to recent developments in non-communicable diseases. The evaluation of global health challenges is also faced by the antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance for bacteria and other microbes. It leads to the shutdown of the majority of the pharmaceutical industry. The 21st century also witnessed the complexities involved in humans travelling to remote areas and being a carrier of deadly contamination (Corrigan-Curay et al., 2018).
The evaluation is important, and it requires a thorough knowledge of the specific disease. It offers an opportunity for the convention to accumulate every research involved in the particular disease and select the most desirable option among them. Moreover, it is directed toward the world population at large, and even the slightest mistake can induce life-altering implications. Only experienced and insightful individuals are responsible for handling such delicate challenges. The security of the world is at stake, and in case of emergencies that are witnessed, most strategies are to be effectively imposed immediately. Thus, the evaluation of global health strategies is important to bring out the actual condition of the prevailing protocol and, if possible, find more advanced alternatives (Afzal, 2021).
The evolution of the global demographic change and the impact of globalisation is the main focus of the following report. The impact of globalisation has majorly brought advanced medical technologies with low infrastructure and maintenance costs. It has additionally brought down medical expenses. It has also liberalised human rights ethics in the health domain, which brought about issues related to morality. Globalisation and advancement of medical sciences made it reachable to the common people, with new experimental treatment options being feasible. Undoubtedly, it has broadened the treatment spectrum but has also sparked issues about mortality and deviation from standard treatment protocols (Bhugra et al., 2019).
The global demographic change has sparked issues about population uprising and ageing due to an increase in life expectancy due to reformed medical aid. These issues might have extended the average lifespan of humans but have crippled the facilities with an increased mortality rate of non-communicable diseases like cancer and cardiovascular attacks. The drastic change in lifestyle due to the advancement of culture in certain demographic profiles has added to the risks of terminating health issues like cancer and some autoimmune diseases. The gene alteration due to the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima, mutations in genes by the Covid virus, and others are some of the era-defining causes of global demographic change. Such reformations are hereditary and can deform the mass population for decades to come, as noticed in the Hiroshima area and its vicinity. Thus the evolution of global demographic change and the impact of globalisation is scrutinised with the help of prevailing and tested examples (Buffel et al., 2018).
As stated above, the global demographic changes and the impact of globalisation are correlated. In the 21st century, there is rapid adaptation and mutation in the prevailing lifestyle procured by a particular demographic profile. These changes can be temporary and permanent. It directs towards the overall perception of health. There was no prior hype about mediclaim or medical insurance, which are now necessary for the reformation of global demography. The consciousness about securing the medical expenses for emergencies has made the world aware of the prevailing health risks and advancement of more deadly viruses. These added expenses could be encouraged by the population through increased pay scale and overall knowledge about an ideal lifestyle (Perraton, 2019).
The impact of globalisation comes into play in this situation of improving employment opportunities. The outbreak of technological advancement and tools required for supporting such reformation is paved by the norms of globalisation. The impact is widespread in every aspect of life-dominating the medical science and approach to treatment for all age groups. It has helped in narrowing the barriers to medicine, drugs, and operating limitations. Such advancement has awakened the urge to secure one’s lifespan through certain demographic profiles. Thus the demographic changes and impact of globalisation are related to each other socially, politically, and most importantly, economically (Ulucak et al., 2020).
The socio-cultural factors tied to health concerns such as educational backgrounds, cultural differences, ethnic trends, and economic conditions are tied to the socio-spatial factors. The highlighted socio-spatial factors can be stated as human mobility, settlement trends, and population merging. The socio-cultural factors are dependent mostly on the economic balance and perception of individual population graphs shown in that area. The socio-spatial factors are more inclined towards the overall trend shown by that demographic profile. These factors, though dispersed variables, are related through complex interactions. The prevailing contrast between these concerned factors forms the balance in profile for the health regulations (Mossabir et al., 2021).
An individual’s inclination towards mobility or shifting his entire lifestyle is dependent on the current prospects and salary withdrawn in the present job. This is a classical interaction between economic profile (socio-cultural) and mobility tendency (socio-spatial) factor. From the global health perspective, it can be witnessed by the mobility of a particular family to a new location for the treatment of their family members. It highlights the incapability of the current medical facilities to provide the care required. This decision is backed up by the particular individual’s financial stability to provide the medical expenses and subsidiaries like food and lodging for treatment purposes. The complexity of interaction between the two factors is not entirely direct and mostly through perception and thinking (Glenn et al., 2020).
The prevailing agenda of the key data and reports related to global health strategies in the UK are highlighted in this section. The global health strategies in the UK are named under Public Health England. The primary focus of working of this organisation, as supported by prominent data, is directed towards antibacterial resistance, overcoming bioterrorism, and emergency response to travel and migration. The full involvement in the prevention of international threats and outbreaks of human health disasters. It also involves the reformation of health standards in low average income countries. Public Health England is liable for cementing the partnership between prominent international health mitigations (Shannon et al., 2019).
These reports are supported by utilising the strength of the Public Health England. It improves the health conditions in underdeveloped countries through public health delivery, imposition and training. It believes in working coherently by encouraging the PHE employees to better the standards and including subsidiary health communities to improve the global health facilities. It takes the initiative in defining the global health norms to acquire the facilities in their own favour. The organisation’s growth is highlighted in reports with an increase in 12% diversification of activities through the utilisation of prior experiences. The data and reports related to global health strategies in the UK support the prevalence of these agendas (World Health Organization, 2019).
The friction between global politics and local reality is contrasting with the medical standards prevailing in the UK. These include the complications in the HIV/AIDS treatment with contrasting approaches between the conservative UK government and the global norms. It also includes the demonstrations of direct and indirect approaches to treating influenza-affected patients in the concerned country. The influence of local ethnic norms and their subsidiary impacts shape a particular approach of the PHE employees in handling a disease, its prevention, and its aftermath (Tsvetkov, 2019).
It involves errors in the medical system, which leads to the mistreatment of the particular disease. It primarily refers to the suffering caused by a number of internal and external factors in the system leading to harmful implications on global health. It leads to government regulations and subsidiary causes such as political intervention in hindering efficient medical attention. In the UK, the constant intervention of the government and its complementary bodies in the health regulations has adverse effects on the established norms. The sufferings caused by these implications are more prominent in the suburbs of England, where the standard of caregiving is deteriorating rapidly. Thus, this theory of global health strategy highlights the importance of control and its overdoing in the global retrospect (Soldatic and St Guillaume, 2022).
Social cognitive theory is focused on the impact of environmental distractions, approaches of particular delegates, and individual experiences in dealing with health crises. The social determinant of culture, as well as individual determinants, are highlighted in this theory. It believes in reforming the entire social practices prevailing to bring about a sustainable change of health approaches. In the UK, the conservative approaches of the government, as well as the citizens, acts as a hindrance to introducing new vaccines and treatment options in the multispecialty hospitals. The country is one of the leading ones in the world and is evidently responsible for maintaining the overall administration and integrity of the global health strategies. Thus, by utilising the social cognitive theory, the PHE can bring forward the complications imposed through cultural preferences and find its immediate recrimination (Schunk and DiBenedetto, 2020).
In conclusion, the report brings forward the importance of causes influencing global health strategies. It suggests the immediate mitigations imposed by the concerned nation to prevent the damaging aftermath of these conflicts. These conflicts are divided into several factorial categories like socio-cultural and socio-spatial. It does an attempt to formulate the layered relationship between these two factors so that its observation is more precise. The following studies are supported by relevant data and charts. The application of major social theories related to global health is also discussed at length in this specific section.
Afzal, M.H.B., (2021), May. The Detrimental Impacts of Restrictive Immigration Policies During Global Health Crises: Health Inequities and Mobility Crisis. In 2021 IEEE Technology & Engineering Management Conference-Europe (TEMSCON-EUR) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
Bhugra, D., Ventriglio, A., Castaldelli-Maia, J. and McCay, L. eds., (2019). Urban mental health. Oxford University Press.
Buffel, T. and Handler, S. eds., (2018). Age-friendly cities and communities: A global perspective. Policy Press.
Corrigan-Curay, J., Sacks, L. and Woodcock, J., (2018). Real-world evidence and real-world data for evaluating drug safety and effectiveness. Jama, 320(9), pp.867-868.
Glenn, N.M., Frohlich, K.L. and Vallée, J., (2020). Socio-spatial inequalities in smoking among young adults: What a ‘go-along’study says about local smoking practices. Social Science & Medicine, 253, p.112920.
Haslam, C., Jetten, J., Cruwys, T., Dingle, G.A. and Haslam, S.A., (2018). The new psychology of health: Unlocking the social cure. Routledge.
Mossabir, R., Milligan, C. and Froggatt, K., (2021). Therapeutic landscape experiences of everyday geographies within the wider community: A scoping review. Social Science & Medicine, 279, p.113980.
Olsson, M., Järbrink, K., Divakar, U., Bajpai, R., Upton, Z., Schmidtchen, A. and Car, J., (2019). The humanistic and economic burden of chronic wounds: a systematic review. Wound Repair and Regeneration, 27(1), pp.114-125.
Perraton, J., (2019). The scope and implications of globalisation. In The Handbook of Globalisation, Third Edition. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Schunk, D.H. and DiBenedetto, M.K., (2020). Motivation and social cognitive theory. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 60, p.101832.
Shannon, G., Jansen, M., Williams, K., Cáceres, C., Motta, A., Odhiambo, A., Eleveld, A. and Mannell, J., (2019). Gender equality in science, medicine, and global health: where are we at and why does it matter?. The Lancet, 393(10171), pp.560-569.
Soldatic, K. and St Guillaume, L. eds., (2022). Social Suffering in the Neoliberal Age: State Power, Logics and Resistance. Routledge.
Tsvetkov, A., (2019). Epistemology in the context of social construction of reality. ?????????, 28(2), pp.150-155.
Ulucak, R., Koçak, E., Erdo?an, S. and Kassouri, Y., (2020). Investigating the non-linear effects of globalization on material consumption in the EU countries: Evidence from PSTR estimation. Resources policy, 67, p.101667.
World Health Organization, (2019). Global action plan on physical activity 2018-2030: more active people for a healthier world. World Health Organization.
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