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Understanding Dementia Care Assignment Help

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Understanding Dementia Care Assignment Help

Task 1 

1.1: Discuss the reasons for the increase in dementia in the population.

Dementia is a wide term which is used for a range of progressive conditions that affect the brain. Though it can affect people of any age but most commonly in the UK, it is seen in people above the age of 65. There are 850,000 people affected by this disease in the UK which is about to rise to 1 million by 2025 (Nhs.uk. 2020).

The reason behind the spread of this disease in the United Kingdom is mainly the increasing life expectancy. As people tend to live longer due to medical advancement, people tend to survive heart diseases and strokes and also cancer. Hence, the number of people being affected by dementia is also increasing due to growing age. It has also been recorded by the ONS in 2018 that, dementia has been the leading cause of death among the old age in the UK and has listed 12.8% of death certificates (Nhs.uk. 2020). The Death registration summary table released by ONS in 2019 has placed dementia in the second position and the reason for the growth of this disease is still under research (Refer Appendix Figure 1). But increased life expectancy has been so far reported to be the main cause for the rise of the disease.

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1.2: Explain the signs and symptoms of dementia.

As per the report of the World Health Organisation, dementia affects every person differently which depends on the impact of the disease on the person before falling ill. The signs and symptom of this disease can be well understood in three stages which are as follows:

  • Early-stage: The early stage of this disease is often overlooked by the affected person as the symptom are gradual which includes forgetfulness, losing track of time and becoming lost in even familiar places.
  • Middle stage: At this stage, the symptoms are more visible which includes forgetting recent event and names of people, lost at home, communication difficulty, needing help in personal care, behavioural changes like repeated questions and wandering (Alzheimer's Society. 2020).
  • Late-stage: This stage is the stage of total dependence and inactivity including symptoms like unawareness of time and places, difficulty in walking, failure in recognition of people and friends and increased aggression.

Along with the symptoms, WHO has also identified the people who are affected by this disease (World Health Organization. 2020). It has also recognised the cause of the disease along with the cost for its treatment (Refer Appendix Figure 2).

 

Task 2

2.1: Compare and contrast the available investigations associated with the diagnosis of dementia.

The investigation for the diagnosis of dementia may be done through various tests and diagnosis of the brain like:

  • Cognitive and neuropsychological tests: These are those tests which assess memory, language skills, mathematics skills and other abilities which relate to the functions of the brain.
  • Laboratory tests: The testing of the blood and other fluids of the affected person may help to check the level of chemicals, hormones and vitamins which can help rule out the possible causes for dementia.
  • Brain scans: This test may identify strokes and tumours which may be a cause for dementia. Brain scans can also identify the structure of the brain and its functions. The following tests may be done to scan the brain:
    • CT- Computed Tomography which uses x-ray for producing brain images.
    • MRI- Magnetic Resonance Imaging which uses the magnetic field for body images.
    • PET- It makes use of radiations (Chalfont, et. al., 2019).
  • Evaluation by a psychiatrist: This evaluation shall help in knowing whether mental depression is a reason for dementia.
  • Genes test: This test shall help in knowing whether the affected person is at risk of dementia due to any genetic defect.


Task 3

3.1: Explain the treatment and support available for service users when initially diagnosed with dementia.

There is no prescribed cure for the treatment of dementia but there are medicines which can help deal with the symptom. The main medicines used are:

  • Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors which help in the communication of nerve cells
  • Donepezil which is used to cure mild Alzheimer
  • Memantine used to cure severe Alzheimer and dementia with Lewy bodies and also vascular dementia (Chalfont, et. al., 2019).

Apart from medicines, there are also alternate remedies available for the treatment of dementia which includes the treatment through therapies.

  • (CST) Cognitive Stimulation Therapy
  • Cognitive Rehabilitation
  • Reminiscence and life story work

In case of depression is the reason for the disease, the doctor may prescribe antidepressants like Fluoxetine (Chalfont, et. al., 2019).

3.2: Discuss the long-term complications associated with dementia.

Complications associated with dementia may include the following:

  • Loss of ability to function and self-care
  • Falling and broken bones
  • Inability to interact with people
  • Failure of body systems
  • Malnutrition and dehydration as the person may not eat and drink properly
  • The person becomes easily confused and frustrated
  • Harmful and violent behaviour (Herron, et. al., 2020).

Major complication due to dementia may include the following:

  • Inability in recognising family members
  • Inability in the understanding of language
  • Inability in daily activities like using the toilet, bathing, eating and dressing
  • Bedsores
  • Loss of muscle functions and hence, inability in moving
  • Infections such as urinary and pneumonia (Herron, et. al., 2020).

3.3: Explain the treatment and support available for service users at the end stages of dementia.

At the end stage of life, it shall be easier for the patient if person-centred care is provided which shall completely focus on what the patient wants and what he needs. This type of care shall help know the likes and dislikes of the patients and also the type of care they want from the acre givers (Dementia UK. 2020). Other ways relating to care in the end stage of dementia include:

  • The main focus on communication
  • Managing the pain of the patients
  • Awareness regarding their eating and drinking
  • Regular check on their advance care plan
  • Supporting their cultural and spiritual needs
  • Support for family and friends (Reeves, et. al., 2019).

3.4: Explain the support available for families with relatives with end-stage dementia.

In the United Kingdom, various organisations are working to support the families of patients who are suffering from dementia or has lost their life due to the disease. One such organisation registered in England and Wales is Dementia UK. The organisation provides the facility of nurse for the caretaking of the patient suffering from the disease. Further, the organisation also raises funds for providing financial support to the family of patients. The government of the United Kingdom also provides the facility of benefits calculator where the families of the patients can calculate the benefits for which they are entitled (Dementia UK. 2020). Further, the government has also introduced attendance allowances for the patients who are suffering from the disease to given financial support to them and their family members.

 

References

Alzheimer's Society. 2020. The UK'S Biggest Killer: Why Are Deaths from Dementia on The Rise? [Online] Available at: <https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/blog/research-dementia-UK-biggest-killer-on-the-rise#:~:text=Due%20to%20medical%20advances%2C%20more,people%20developing%20dementia%20is%20increasing.> [Accessed 11th November 2020].

Chalfont, G., Simpson, J., Davies, S., Morris, D., Wilde, R., Willoughby, L. and Milligan, C., 2019. Personalised Medicine for Dementia: Collaborative Research of Multimodal Non-pharmacological Treatment with the UK National Health Service (NHS). OBM Geriatrics3(3).

Dementia UK. 2020. Sources of Support and Advice - Dementia UK. [Online] Available at: <https://www.dementiauk.org/get-support/diagnosis-and-next-steps/sources-of-support-and-advice/> [Accessed 11th November 2020].

Herron, D.L., Priest, H.M. and Read, S., 2020. Supporting people with an intellectual disability and dementia: A constructivist grounded theory study exploring care providers' views and experiences in the UK. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities.

Nhs.uk. 2020. Causes of Dementia. [Online] Available at: <https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/dementia/causes/> [Accessed 11th November 2020].

Reeves, C., Lillie, A.K. and Burrow, S., 2019. End-of-life care for people with dementia in the UK care homes. Journal of Community Nursing33(2).

World Health Organization. 2020. Infographic on Dementia. [Online] Available at: <https://www.who.int/mental_health/neurology/dementia/infographic_dementia/en/> [Accessed 11th November 2020].

 

 

Appendices

 

Figure 1: Death Registration Summary Table by ONS

Figure 2: Infographic on Dementia

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