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Project Management for Healthcare: Theories, Processes, and Models 

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Introduction -Applying Project Management to Improve Healthcare Services

The main purpose of project management in health maintenance institutes is to resolve the issues present in the implementation of policies and present operations. The respective purposes help in maximizing patient care along with fostering positive coordination with stakeholders. The facilities that are provided in the healthcare sector, as well as the effectiveness of hospitals, are completely based on the theory of healthcare management that is used by the healthcare organizations. In the report there is clear declaration of the different project management processes that are used in healthcare sectors.

Discussion on different project management theories for managing healthcare service

The management of healthcare is counted to be a growing area as it is respectable for providing medical facilities to the citizens of all the nations. As stated by Chao et al. (2020), in a recent survey, it has been found that the managers in the healthcare sector are forecasted to be having a huge opportunity in the job market. The managers of the healthcare sectors play an important role in managing important tasks related to the administration of the entire system of healthcare which includes hospitals as well. The managers have the opportunity the presence of different options for running the healthcare system effectively by the application of different project management theories.

One of the main theories of healthcare management that are used by most organizations presents not only in the UK yet rather in all the nations of the world is attribution theory. According to Siefkes-Andrew and Alexopoulos (2019), the application of attribution theory in the management of healthcare is considered to be a pathway for gaining the success as well as the failure of systems or programs of healthcare. Attribution theory is depicted to be a management theory used in healthcare institutes in order to develop a better environment for patients. It is possible to make the environment in the healthcare sector safer by the implementation of attribute theory for patients. The attribute theory is considered to be a conceptual framework as the advantage gained from it is proving a positive as well as a safer working environment for the healthcare providers such as doctors and nurses. The assumption that is made by the attribution theory is that healthcare management can be improved properly by accepting the fact that the occurrence of an error in a particular field is natural.

Illustration of different processes used to manage projects

The presence of project management is responsible for assisting the healthcare in providing medical facilities to run the organization smoothly. As mentioned by Ardito et al. (2019), one of the main activities that are performed by the healthcare manager is managing and designing all the phases of the project. The entire process of project management consists of four stages which are initiation, execution, planning and conclusion. The first stage of the project management process is the initial stage which is an important stage for the managers of healthcare.

In the respective stage, the managers perform different activities such as determining of project extent and project purpose. As per the view of Hashem and El-Fatah (2020), cost estimation is performed as well, where the manager has to predict the sources of the finance of the project for its requirement. The second stage is the planning stage and is responsible for outlining all the tasks that are present in a project. Deadlines are established by the project managers only in order to complete the tasks as they are professionally responsible for completing the entire project within time. The third stage is execution, where the project is executed as the individuals of the group perform the assigned tasks. The project progress is monitored as well as there is the presence of challenges which allows the managers to modify the object of the project (Cui et al. 2018). The final stage is the conclusion, the entire project is completed in this phase, and the evaluation of the success of the effort of team members is done by the project manager.

Analysis of different project management models in project management processes

Project management in healthcare is known as a project that has the capability of improving the functionalities of healthcare organizations. According to the view of Thesing et al. (2021), the evolution of the respective industry is occurring continuously, which is counted to be one of the reasons behind the increase of pressure to save money and become more efficient in improvising patient care quality. The healthcare system, hospitals, and other institutes of the industry are noticed to try hard to execute the project continuously to ameliorate the operations that are performed in healthcare. The different project management models that are used in the processes of project management are the waterfall project management model, agile project management model and hybrid project management model.

In most healthcares, the waterfall model is used during project management as it assists in organizing the project in linear as well as sequel process consisting of multiple phases. As argued by Prasetya and Pratama (2021), in the waterfall model, it is not possible to stage a phase unless the previous phase is completed, as the phases are interlinked with each other. The agile model is mainly used for the development of software that is used in software for various activities such as managing the patient record. In comparison with the waterfall model, the agile model is better due to the variability of continuous change of variables in the healthcare process and work. The team of project management of healthcare is found to be using the hybrid model, which is the combination of waterfall and agile model for managing the project suitably.

Critical evaluation and review of project management processes using theories of project management

In healthcare, the waterfall model is used for the construction as well as manufacturing of the activities that are performed in healthcare. As mentioned by Dima and Maassen (2018), the waterfall project management model is used for managing the healthcare projects such as developing a laboratory for cardiac catheterizations. The different phases of the waterfall model are construction, conception, design, initiation, analysis, testing, maintenance and production. On the other hand, Bhavsar et al. (2020) stated that the agile model is known as an approach that is continuously evolving and incremental in comparison to the other model, which is a waterfall. The cyclical process is used in the agile model as it encourages experimentation, adaptability and flexibility.

One of the main opportunities that are gained from the agile model in assisting the projects healthcare is the team is able to adjust easily in case any kind of changes occur as the method is flexible in nature. According to Pirro (2019), the iterations which are depicted to be the change in processes in agile are shorter than in the waterfall model. The mistakes that are formed during the development of the project can be recognized easily in agile, unlike the other approaches, such as waterfall, which assist in resolving the issues accurately. The respective model is used for only developing the construction projects, which consists of defined phases that are known to be accomplished in a linear manner. In the agile method, the deadlines are short-termed, which encourages efficiency and productivity and is therefore largely used than the waterfall model.


Based on the above discussion it can be concluded that the agile model, waterfalls model, and hybrid approached are used in healthcare for improving the functionalities of the organizations. Project management is known as an organizational process in healthcare that improvises the functions of the medical facilities. The different areas which are improved by effective project management are productivity, communication, and allocation of resources. Apart from only making application of proper health care management theory, it is necessary to implement it properly such that the management team is able to perform their duty appropriately.


Ardito, L., Ferraris, A., Petruzzelli, A.M., Bresciani, S. and Del Giudice, M., (2019). The role of universities in the knowledge management of smart city projects. Technological Forecasting and Social Change142, pp.312-321.

Bhavsar, K., Shah, V. and Gopalan, S., (2020). Scrumbanfall: an agile integration of scrum and kanban with waterfall in software engineering. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE)9(4), pp.2075-2084.

Chao, H.J., Lien, Y.J., Kao, Y.C., Tasi, I.C., Lin, H.S. and Lien, Y.Y., (2020). Mental health literacy in healthcare students: An expansion of the Mental Health Literacy Scale. International journal of environmental research and public health17(3), p.948.

Cui, C., Liu, Y., Hope, A. and Wang, J., (2018). Review of studies on the public–private partnerships (PPP) for infrastructure projects. International journal of project management36(5), pp.773-794.

Dima, A.M. and Maassen, M.A., (2018). From Waterfall to Agile software: Development models in the IT sector, 2006 to (2018). Impacts on company management. Journal of International Studies11(2), pp.315-326.

Hashem, A. and El-Fatah, A., (2020). VALUE MANAGEMENT OF THE RISKS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF FAST-TRACKING (SDFT) CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. Journal of Al-Azhar University Engineering Sector15(57), pp.1064-1073.

Pirro, L., (2019). How agile project management can work for your research. idea7, p.27.

Prasetya, K.D. and Pratama, D., (2021). Effectiveness Analysis of Distributed Scrum Model Compared to Waterfall approach in Third-Party Application Development. Procedia Computer Science179, pp.103-111.

Siefkes-Andrew, A.J. and Alexopoulos, C., (2019). Framing blame in sexual assault: An analysis of attribution in news stories about sexual assault on college campuses. Violence against women25(6), pp.743-762.

Thesing, T., Feldmann, C. and Burchardt, M., (2021). Agile versus waterfall project management: decision model for selecting the appropriate approach to a project. Procedia Computer Science181, pp.746-756.

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