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Reading And Comprehension Of Scientific Writing

Introduction - Reading And Comprehension Of Scientific Writing

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 i) The Theory of Evolution


The evolution is a term that is generally mentioned in Biology. But nowadays, it is present in every sphere of life. Let's discuss the evolutionary theory of stress response.

The evolution theory that is based on the shapes and emotional connections with the objects, ratios of the preferred mate body and so many aspects of the aesthetic examinations is especially known as Aesthetic Evolution.


In accordance with the author, all organisms on the earth have stress levels better able to give stress response to coupe witty the threats of the concerned environment. Stress is nothing but a process with the help of which the animals enable the organism to get along with the factors by which they are stressed, in their surroundings.

The researchers say that there was a long-time debate between Charles Darwin and Wallace. Wallace strongly defends the position that biota is highly not liked in case of choice of mate in nature and the nature of selection is adequate.


 The stress may be the extreme condition of weather, the deficiency of resources, predators, pathogens, etc. Naturally, all organisms have stress responses. That is mainly maintained by the hormones such as Glucocorticoids in the case of vertebrates. The model of evolution can able to predict the way of variation of the stress hormones with age, seasonal changes as well as experience.

The process of aesthetic evolution takes in not only the arbitrary evolution but also the process of determining the sexual partners in order to survive the organisms (Spiridonov, 2018). Although this is distinct from the natural mode of selection as it is a kind of underrated to the fitness of maximizes. The deficiency of such measures is that it is able, to sum up, all the influences from external to internal on the capacity of the particular capacity of the reproduction.

Reasoned argument

According to the author, having a good understanding of the field of evolution in case of the stress response as well as the constraints that are related to this field determines how the organism reacts to the changes in the environment.

The researcher tells that aesthetic evolution is a new area for sake of applying the understanding of the segment of the macro evolutionary theory of evolution. It is welcomed as a new development in biology that will more or less catalyze the mode of future research.

Use of examples

Figure 1: Evo-Mecho Prediction for the stress response

(Source: Taborsky, et al. 2021 )

The stress response in the optimal case can be pointed out by the dynamic programming that depends on the state of the organism denoted by the grey line. That is compared with the light blue lines symbolizing evolved stress response from a kind of simulation model in a mechanistic way. In the response to the threat that is going to be detected at the time t=0 means at the first level.

Figure 2: Aesthetic Evolution

(Source: Spiridonov, 2018)

In the above Venn diagram, it is shown that the richness of the evolutionary process at an evolutionary dynamics at a single level. The dynamics of the specified regions mentioned as A, B, C, D, and E denoted the outcomes of the directional genetic as well as the phenotypic.

ii) The knowledge that is necessary to know in order to go through this topic

First of all, the reader should properly read the biology. Then the minimum interest in the topic of evolution is needed. That will help to study the topic. In order to get a good lesson, the readers should follow the original theory of evolution of the father of evolution Charles Darwin. That will help to create a clear concept in this field (Coccia, 2019). Asv the topic of evolution is related to nthe3 nature directly, so observation is also needed for proper understanding. The macroevolution is related to the anatomy, molecular biology, biogeography as w2ell as the study of fossils. Therefore it is needed for the readers to study such topics at first if he or she has another background or has a deficiency in such kinds of knowledge. Evolution plays a very important role in the field of our daily lives (Fábregas-Tejeda and Vergara-Silva, 2018). There are so many examples of evolution in the field of medicine too. In order to stay updated or step ahead of any kind of disease related to the pathogen, the researchers have to understand the evolutionary process of the organisms related to the diseases.

iii) Comment upon the examples

The theory of evolution has a great impact on the stress response (Taborsky, et al. 2021).It will help to research in the field of the mathematical theory of the stress response as well as the concerned ecosystem too.

Aesthetic evolution is a new area for sake of applying the understanding of the segment of the macro evolutionary theory of evolution (Spiridonov, 2018). Although the example produced above is based on a formal survey. This kind of research has not been satisfactorily updated.


Question i)

Figure 3: Carbon Flows

(Source: Provided)

In the given carbon cycle, the formation of atmospheric carbon is explained. The amount of CO2 that dissolved in the ocean has a reversible relationship with that of the atmospheric CO2. The Photosynthesis is process through which plant makes its food with the help of CO2 in the presence of sunlight. Through this process, carbon is digested by the green organisms of nature. The plants and microorganisms also exhale CO2 and ethanol by the biochemical process of anaerobic respiration at night time. There are so many other sources that emit carbon di oxide in the environment. The process of combustion of the green plants and the fossils emits CO2 in the atmosphere which helps to make a cycling process of CO2 in the environment. So many materials like chalk and limestone also are the source of atmospheric carbon. Many industrial activities like the cement production industry also release high amount of CO2 in the environment.

Figure 4: Carbon Flows

(Source: Provided)

The carbon flows between each reservoir in interchange is better known as the carbon cycle (Li, et al. 2019). The main aim of the carbon cycle is to shift out the carbon component from one reservoir putting more carbon in the other reservoir. On the earth, the ocean is the largest source of carbon. The figure mentioned above informs us that there is a carbon cycle that exists in our surroundings and has a great impact on our life (Hare, et al. 2019). The above figure tells that in the era of 1500 AD the amount of carbon dioxide that was present in the atmosphere had a reverse process too with the carbon present in the biosphere. Although there is also another reversible process of carbon is presented in between an Oceanic source of carbon and atmospheric carbon. The carbon of the oceanic source has the possibility of conversion to the atmospheric carbon which means the oceanic carbon may become the carbonic compound of the air too. This also has a vice versa process. The carbon that comes from the lithosphere zone is easy to become part of the carbon compound of the environment.

Figure 5: Carbon Flows

(Source: Provided)

The carbon flow in the area of 2000AD describes that the amount of carbon dioxide that is present in the atmosphere has a reverse process too with the carbon present in the biosphere. Although there is also another reversible process of carbon is presented here (Hopper, et al. 2021). On account of the increase of acidity level in the ocean for the reason of water pollution, the amount of carbon dioxide has been increased in the ocean. That is also responsible for the swelling of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (Antil and Warma, 2018). But the amount of carbon that existed in the biosphere in 2000AD is going to be low in case of volume in the comparison with the 1500 AD. It is responsible for minimizing the carbon amount in the lithospheric region of the earth compared to the previous era.

Comparison between the provided diagram and chosen diagram

Figure 6: The Carbon cycle (Provided) Figure 7: Carbon Cycle (Chosen)

(Source: https://www.researchgate.net)


Figure 6

Figure 7

About the diagram

In this cycle, it is described that what the sources of the carbon di oxide are in the environment.

Diagram 2 specifically describes 2 types of carbon cycle named as the biogeochemical carbon cycle and the geological carbon cycle.

Sources of Carbon di oxide in the atmosphere

In accordance with the diagram 1, it is clear that the main sources of carbon di oxide in the atmosphere is green plants and some microorganisms. Although it is fact that through the process of Photosynthesis the green component of the nature absorb CO2 to makes their food in the presence of the sunlight. But, at night time evidently, the plants along with some microorganisms such as yeast excreted the carbon di oxide along with ethanol to produce energy.

According to diagram 2,

Along with respiration of green plants, the respiration of the animals that consumes the organic compounds also are one of the eminent source of carbon di oxide in the atmosphere. During the respiration, the animal inhales Oxygen from the nature and exhales the Carbon di oxide in return to the environment.


Diagram 1 says that after year and year the dead plants become fossils that stored carbon in a huge amount. When it turn into minerals like coal, oil, gas it becomes a big source of carbon dioxide. At the time of combustion, in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, such oil gas or fossils release huge amount of carbon dioxide in the environment.

According to the diagram 2,

After death, the body of the animals, and the plants emit carbon through the dead organic matter such as ashes, dried bones, etc. Such kind of dead materials are decomposed by the many bacteria that are responsible for the degradation of these materials. This helps to return carbon to the environment as a form of carbon dioxide. Through the process of fossilization, it is possible the formation of carbon from the green compounds. After that, the fossils are used in the fuels. Now the fuels release the carbon in the form of carbon dioxide through the process of combustion in nature in the presence of the atmospheric oxygen.


Figure 8: Population Density

(Source: provided)

  1. i) The above graph shows the population density of the Beatles. The vertical axis of the graph denotes the number of inhabitants that exist per square meter area, whereas the horizontal axis of the graph notifies the years. That is the year-wise variation of the number of beetles in one square meter area. A total of 3 types of species are described here. The dotted line that lightly draws notified species A (Granqvist, 2021).. The bold dotted line denotes species C whereas the solid line notifies species B. In the year 1964, it is shown that the number of species C is lowest which approx. 5 is whereas the amount of species B is the highest which 30 is. But the amount of the beetle species is approx. 20 which can say slightly above the average of the other two (Orr, et al. 2022). In the year 1996, from the graph, it is clear that the region of intersection of species B and species C is created here. Species A is just above the point of intersection having a value of 20 in the year 1996.
  2. ii) The key factors that are highly responsible for the changes in the population of the beetles are pollution and climate. These two factors influence highly the beetles' inhabitants. In a research, it is found that the increase of temperature by 2.5 to 3 degrees in the region of northwestern Russia as well as the emission of sulfur dioxide at an outstanding level affects the survival of the beetles heavily. The factor of increasing the herbivore with the global warming better say climate warning for the beetles, the species come to be more abundant in the course of past 20 years. Although there is the amount of host plant quality is also increased in that region. But the graph only shows that the beetles of type B are under the two factors only. There is a loophole that the data should be appropriate in the case of the other two species of beetles too in accordance with the factors that are climate and pollution.

Figure 9: Concentration of Oxygen

(Source: Provided)

iii) From the above table, it is come known that the amount of Oxygen in the freshwater is always greater than that in seawater. In the extreme cold region, where the temperature is almost 1 degree, the amount of oxygen present in the freshwater is 14 ppm whereas it is 11 ppm in the seawater (Markey-Towler, 2019). In the region where the temperature is as high as 30 degrees the amount of oxygen is 1.5 ppm greater than that of in the seawater.

  1. iv) The increment of the amount of oxygen in the ocean water not only the governments but also people as well as the industrial emissions are also should be aware of the release of carbon dioxide. To achieve the previous oxygen level in the ocean water again, the rate of emission of carbon dioxide must be cut down (Vanchurin, et al. 2022). Along with this, it is also needed to minimize ocean nutrient pollution too. With the condition of the environment, the provided table of oxygen concentration can be told as more or less authentic.

Reference list


Antil, H. and Warma, M., 2018. OPTIMAL CONTROL OF THE COEFFICIENT FOR FRACTIONAL $ P $-LAPLACE EQUATION: APPROXIMATION AND CONVERGENCE (Theory of Evolution Equation and Mathematical Analysis of Nonlinear Phenomena). 2090, pp.102-116.

Arnocky, S., Bozek, E., Dufort, C., Rybka, S. and Hebert, R., 2018. Celebrity opinion influences public acceptance of human evolution. Evolutionary Psychology, 16(3), p.1474704918800656.

Coccia, M., 2019. The theory of technological parasitism for the measurement of the evolution of technology and technological forecasting. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 141, pp.289-304.

Fábregas-Tejeda, A. and Vergara-Silva, F., 2018. Hierarchy theory of evolution and the extended evolutionary synthesis: some epistemic bridges, some conceptual rifts. Evolutionary Biology, 45(2), pp.127-139.

Granqvist, P., 2021. Attachment, culture, and gene-culture co-evolution: expanding the evolutionary toolbox of attachment theory. Attachment & Human Development, 23(1), pp.90-113.

Hare, D., Blossey, B. and Reeve, H.K., 2018. Value of species and the evolution of conservation ethics. Royal Society open science, 5(11), p.181038.

Hart, S.P., Turcotte, M.M. and Levine, J.M., 2019. Effects of rapid evolution on species coexistence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(6), pp.2112-2117.

Hopper, S.D., Lambers, H., Silveira, F.A. and Fiedler, P.L., 2021. OCBIL theory examined: reassessing evolution, ecology and conservation in the world’s ancient, climatically buffered and infertile landscapes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 133(2), pp.266-296.

Li, L.G., Zhang, P.Y., Tan, J.T. and GUAN, H.M., 2019. Review on the evolution of resilience concept and research progress on regional economic resilience. Human Geography, 34(02), pp.1-7.

Markey-Towler, B., 2019. The competition and evolution of ideas in the public sphere: A new foundation for institutional theory. Journal of Institutional Economics, 15(1), pp.27-48.

Muthukrishna, M. and Henrich, J., 2019. A problem in theory. Nature Human Behaviour, 3(3), pp.221-229.

Orr, J.A., Luijckx, P., Arnoldi, J.F., Jackson, A.L. and Piggott, J.J., 2022. Rapid evolution generates synergism between multiple stressors: Linking theory and an evolution experiment. Global Change Biology, 28(5), pp.1740-1752.

Spiridonov, A., 2018. Prum’s Aesthetic Theory of Evolution: Beauty Happens and it can Change a Great Many Things. Biosemiotics, 11(3), pp.455-462.

Taborsky, B., English, S., Fawcett, T.W., Kuijper, B., Leimar, O., McNamara, J.M., Ruuskanen, S. and Sandi, C., 2021. Towards an evolutionary theory of stress responses. Trends in ecology & evolution, 36(1), pp.39-48.

Vanchurin, V., Wolf, Y.I., Katsnelson, M.I. and Koonin, E.V., 2022. Toward a theory of evolution as multilevel learning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 119(6), p.e2120037119.

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