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The present research will focus on exploring the topic 'Youth transition, Unemployment and Underemployment'. Different social issues are being faced by different nations and also at the global level, which needs to be addressed. There are several issues which need to be focused related to different age groups, but the young population needs more attention. In general terms, youth transition is referred to as thetransition of the individuals from their schooling to the post-schooling studies and then to the employment phase (Tran, 2018). As the youth population is moving from this transition phase, they are facing several social issues related to the employment which is a major social issue in all the nations and a major issue at the global level also (Gordon, et. al. 2019). In general terms transition is referred as the process of changing from one state to another one.During the transition phase the human being undergoes several changes such as physiological changes and psychological changes and these multiples changes makes this stage more complex(Lebrun-Harris, et. al. 2018). For reducing or managing the issues related to the transition phase,both state and nationalgovernments of all the different nations develops several social policies.
Youth population contributes to larger section of world populationand they demand better job opportunities due to which generating jobs for them is an important concern for the nations. The present report will focus on explaining that how the UK government is solving this issue. For exploring these issues in detail in the context of UK wide range of literature are being analysed in this research. The entire research is being divided into different sections which can help the readers in understand the issues in an effective manner. The report includes the different sections such as introduction, literature review and key finding and conclusion.
Unemployment is already a major issue for both developing and developed nation, which is an ongoing process, and for this, the nation needs to develop better jobs so that unemployment can be decreased (Ibrahim, &Mahyuddin, 2017). With the increasing unemployment and lesser availability of the jobs, the individuals are working in a different field which is not associated with their education, and this is referred to as underemployment. When the individual is working as a part-time employee or in the different sectors different from the one in which they have been graduated or have attained the training. It can be said that due to unemployment, only the underemployment is increasing because the individuals need to work for their survival (Bolton, 2016).Government of all the diverse nations work for developing several policies for managing the different social issues which are being faced by the youth population in there nation. This report will explore how the organisations are responding to these issues and what are the different social policies which are being made by the organisations for addressing these social issues at both national and international level. The present report will critically analyse some of the major social issues. The report will explore the issues related to the youth transition, unemployment and underemployment, which are major social issues.
Background of the study
In the present world, the youth population is increasing, and the different issues associated with them are also increasing rapidly, and these issues had gained a lot of importance in the present world (Sukarieh, &Tannock, 2018).Society in which we live is having several social issues, and it is important to focus on all these issues and focus on identifying their impact on the society. Among all the different sections of the society,the youth population is very important and due to this reason the UK government should focus on all the different issues faced by this section of the society (Searle, 2019). When the youth is in the transition phase, different social issues are affecting them to a greater extent. The policy-making organisations are making several policies which can help the UK government in reducing these issues to a greater extent at both the national and international issues. All the three issues, unemployment, youth transition and underemployment are interconnected with each other and are important for the society as they have an impact on the society and the policy-making organisations need to focus on these issues.
The rationale of the study
Society is having different aspects and there are different factors which are having an influence on the society. There are diverse social issues which are being faced by the entire society and needs to be managed effectively. From the wide range of social issues, the researcher had selected the topic of Youth transition, unemployment and underemployment. This is an important social issue as it is affecting the majority of the peoples and is having a greater impact on the standard of living of the individuals and also affect the entire society (Seng, 2018). This topic needs to be explored in an effective manner so that better knowledge can be gathered in this context. These issues are having an negative impact on several other social issues as well due to which this research topic become an important topic for research.
Structure of the Study
The present report is a critical analytical paper which is being conducted in the form of research so that all the different concepts can be explained in a systematic manner. The different sections of this report will explain the research topic "Youth transition, Unemployment and Underemployment" in an well represented manner. The introduction is the first section of the report which will introduce the topic and will explain that why the particular topic has been selected by the research and what is the importance of this research topic or the social issue which is being explored in the research. The next section of the report literature review will represent the literature related to the research topic "Youth transition, Unemployment and Underemployment" through different literature sources. The research topic is well critically analysed in this section, and the different policies which are being made for addressing the selected social issue are also critically analysed. The key finding will represent the results in an effective manner, and what are the different thought of the different authors related to this research topic is also well represented in this section. The last section of the report will conclude the research and will summarise all the important things which are being found in the context of the selected social issue and will make recommendations for reducing or managing this issue in an effective manner.
The young population goes through several changes in their transition phase and due to the complexity in the youth transition; it has become an important issue for the studies related to social science. Several social issues are also associated with the young population of all the different nations which needs to be addressed in an effective manner. The transition phase of the youth from the school to work had gained a lot of importance as it involves different sub-transactions as well. The social policies or the welfare policies had gained a lot of importance in the context of the youth transition as they are having a major impact on them (Edwards, et. al. 2016). These policies are having a greater impact on the young people although all of them are affected by these policies, some of them are at higher risk of social exclusions due to which this issue had gained a lot of importance. When the young peoples are in the transition phase at that time, there are several issues which are being faced by them which might include underemployment, unemployment, precarious employment, early school leaving and many more. It is important that better policies should be developed for addressing these social issues.
Cacciattolo (2015) had mentioned in their study regarding the transition of children from childhood to adulthood. The study mentioned that the family, work and the school are having a greater impact on the children and the way they behave and live their life. The researcher had explained the transition to adulthood as a concept which is associated with the social, economic and interpersonal factors, and these factors play a major role in the transition of the adults. It can be said that for the successful transition, it is important that all the different factors should support the adults in their adulthood so that better results can be received. According to this study, usually, adulthood is defined as the period at which the youngsters more towards their adulthood and become more responsible and get involved in the employment activities and focus on becoming self-sufficient. This is being defined as the most critical stage at which the adults needs better assistance and proper support so that they can pass through this transition phase successfully. The major issues which are being faced by the adults at the time of adulthood transition involve the risks associated with personal relationships, employment, higher education, housing and many more. For proper adulthood, it is important for the adult to have a secure job and at the time of transition, it is important that the adults should get better employment opportunities which are important for them as an adult. The study mentioned that parenting play a major role in the adulting, and if the children receive better parenting than it can help them in the proper transition from childhood to adulthood.
The transition phase of the children from childhood to adulthood is referred to as the youth transition. Greeson (2013) had mentioned in their study regarding the youth transition in detail. The study mentions that the time of youth transition, the individual goes through different changes, and there are several risk and opportunities which are being available for the individuals in this phase. The young population is one of the most important section of society, and it is important that they should be passed this transition phase successfully. The study mentions that if the individual gets better support from the family during the transition that it will help them in successful transition and on the other hand if the support is not provided that it may lead to several short terms and long term issues for the adults. Some of the youth faces the issue such as lack of proper education, facing issues related to the employment and might face several issues related to the health of the individual. It can be said that if the adult is getting better support that it canhelp them in achieving better adulthood and receiving great opportunities as well. The study described regarding the different government organisations which are working effectively for the implementing better practices and policies which can help them the adults in getting better transition and for reducing the risk of several things for the adults. Government had developed several welfare policies which are working for the welfare of the adults so that better life and secured future as well.
In the view of Narendorf, & McMillen, (2010)adulthood is not just the increasing age of the adults, but it is the phase where the children move to his adulthood which is a very crucial and complex process. The study had mentioned that there are some of the major factors which indicate adulthood, and it is important for adults to receive better support from all the factors. The major indicators of adulthood involve finishing the education, getting a job, moving out of the parental home, getting married and having children. All these factors are interconnected with each other, and these factors are very important for a successful transition from childhood to adulthood. Among these factors, some of the factors are more important for adults as they are highly affecting the other factors. The author mentions that if the adult receives better education and get involved in a good job, then it will help him in getting into a better and positive relationship. It can be said that getting married and having children is not much important in comparison to proper education and employment. As per the study youth transition is a complexprocess;it is important that the individuals should get better support from the society, welfare organisation and family as well. The organisations either government-owned or welfare organisations plays a major role in ensuring that the adults should get better support in their adult transition and can get better adulting opportunities. Apart from these organisations, families of the adults also play a major role in their adulthood, and the overall transition is highly affected by the support which they receive from the family.
The study mentions that the adulting in the 21st century had changed significantly from the early adulting. The major social and economic changes in recent decades had created several new opportunities and risks for the adults in the transition phase. The economic instability of the nations is having a greater impact on society and is affecting the transition of adults to a greater extent. In the present era, the receiving better higher education had become more important for the adults as the employment is becoming a major issue for the adults and due to lack of job opportunities it had become important for the individuals to receive a better education. The study had mentioned that adulting as a social concept which required better support from the society and also from the organisations working for their welfare so that successful transition from childhood to adulthood can be received by the individuals. The study had concluded that the family and the entire society are the influencers which are having a significant impact on the adulting or the transition of the adults from childhood and adults. The study also had concluded that the increased risk for the adulthood is due to the major changes in the labour markets, lack of job opportunities, increased demand of education and skills and increasing ideology of the adults towards marriage and parenthood as well. Along with this, the transition of adulthood and factors affecting it varies from nation to nation and one social class to another.
In the present world, unemployment is referred to as one of the major issuesfor the entire world, which is affecting all the different sections of the society belonging to different nations. In general terms, unemployment is referred to as the individual who is having better education but is not able to get a job. The employment rate of the nation is the reflection of the economic position and stability of the nation, or it can be said that it is an economic factor which is having a greater impact on the economy of the nation and the entire society as well. Unemployment is an important factor which is having an negative impact on the economic development, GDP and also on the living standard of the peoples living in the society.
Vali?nien?, (2016) had mentioned that employment plays a major role in the life of every individual and if the adult is unable to find and job than it would have a negative impact on his life and will affect the standard of living as well. For living a better life, it is important for an adult to have a good job. Fox & Kaul, (2018) had mentioned in their study that the unemployment rate is higher for among the youth which reflects that the freshers are having least job opportunities and are facing youth unemployment, and this is a major issue in most of the nations. The study had mentioned that there are several factors which are affecting the employment rate in all the different nations. GDP is an important factor which is affecting the employment in all the nations and had mentioned that unemployment is the result of the fall in the demand and financial crisis and economic instability are also the important factors which are affecting the employment in the country. The study mentions that the financial crises in a country are having an impact on the overall unemployment in the nation, but its significance is more for the youth employment and it reduces the job opportunities for the adults to a greater extent. Along with this, several other factors which are affecting the unemployment are trade openness, aggregate demand, inflation rates, interest rates and several other factors. The demographic factors of the nation such as population density, migration flow in the nation and the youth percentage in the population are also the important factors which are having an impact on the employment rate of the country. Along with this, the researcher had also mentioned that there are different institutional variables which are having a major impact on the labour market and the employment rate of the nation (O'Higgins, 2017). The different institutional factors which are being explained include the factors such as employment protection legislation, the incidence of temporary contracts, labour market policies, structure of collective bargaining, labour taxes, unemployment benefits and many more. The study concluded that there are several factors associate with education, labour market and macroeconomic factors which are having a significant impact on the overall employment rate and also on the youth unemployment. It can be said that the nations need to address the impact of these factors of the labour market and the employment rates which can help them in reducing the unemployment rates which is important for the better economic development of the country.
In the view of Ayhan, (2016) the unemployment is a major global threat which is affecting both the developed and developing nations. The study had mentioned that there are several factors of the micro and macroeconomic factors which are having a significant impact on the employment rate of the country. According to this after the world crises majority of the nations are facing the issue related to the unemployment and this is having an impact on the economic stability of the individual nations and also affects the overall economy of the world. The study had mentioned that unemployment is highly affecting the young population, which is having a significant adverse effect on them. As a result of the unemployment, the adult population or the youth population in their transition phase is moving towards several negative things which are affecting the entire society. The study mentions some of the major social and economic issuesas a result of unemployment which includes increasing poverty, loss of human capital, increasing rate of drug and human trafficking, increasing illegal trade activities, immigration, social unrest. Along with the unemployment is also having a negative impact on the psychological factors of the populations and may results in mental disorders, suicide attempts, feeling of depression and social exclusion. It can be said that increasing unemployment is a major issue for the countries as it is having a major impact on the social and economic factors of the country which is not good for the overall development of the nations.
Underemployment occurs when the individuals do not have a better job opportunity due to which they start working as a part-time employee or in another field different from which they have studied or had received the training. Both the underemployment and unemployment are different concepts, but they are interconnected. It can be said that due to unemployment, only the individuals are working in the conditions of underemployment as they need to earn money for their survival. Bell, & Blanchflower, (2018) had mentioned in their study that underemployment reflects that the employee is working in the poor quality jobs or is working in the organisation which is not meant for him as he had received the training and education in a different sector.
The study of Heyes, et. al. (2017) due to some of the lack of job the individuals both adults and the youths are ready to work as an underemployed employee become they just want to earn money for their survival which is important for them. The study mentions that due to instability in the supply and demand of the employees, the individuals are working under underemployment conditions. As a result of increasing unemployment, the skilled workers are working under low-income jobs because they do not have better job opportunities it can be said that the underemployment is the result of increased unemployment rates in the different nations and at the global level as well. Working as underemployment is having a significant impact on the individuals because they are having better skills and can work as a full-time employee, but due to lack of jobs, they are working under this situation. It can be said that the countries need to address the unemployment in an effective manner so that underemployment can also be reduced and this is also having a negative impact on the overall economy as well.
Youth Transition, Unemployment and Underemployment
Woodman (2015) had mentioned as the youth population need to get special importance as they are a very important section of the society and will play a major role in the national and global economy. In the social studies, youth transition had gained a lot of importance, and it had become important to research on all the different factors which are affecting the youth population to a greater extent. The study mentioned that the major changes in the factors associated with the economic and cultural aspects of society are affecting the youth population to a greater extent. The youth population is facing major challenges at the time of transition phase from childhood to adulthood which includes the issues related to the employment when the shift from the getting education to getting employment. The researcher mentions that due to lack of job opportunity,the majority of the youth face issues in getting appropriate or desired job of their choice. Also, due to lack of employment if the individuals are not getting better job opportunities that they start working under the conditions ofunderemployment. The study mentions that the increased unemployment across the globe is affecting the transitions of the youth population to a greater extent, and it had become important for the countries to focus on these issues.
According to the study of Dev and Motkuri, (2011), the youth of all the nations are the major resource for the country as they are the one who isresponsible for bringing economic., social and technological development in the country. The study mentions that as this age group is important for all the nations than it is important for the government and all the other organisations to address an issue which are being faced by them in an effective manner. It is important for the country to develop better job opportunities for the youth so that they can lead the nation towards development, and for these better jobs are required. Unemployment being a major social issue across the world is having a greater impact on the youth population and is affecting them to a greater extent as well. It is important for the government to develop better strategies, plans and policies for creating better job opportunities and leading the nation towards development. Good labour market and decreased unemployment are essential for the development of the country. It can be said that youth employment is an important issue for both the developing and developed nations which needs to be addressed in an effective manner.
The study mentions thatunemployment is a major social and economic issue which is affecting all the different sections of the society among with youth population is highly affected. Lack of unemployment leads to a serious negative impact on youth transition from childhood to adulthood as employment is a major indicator which reflects a successful transition. Suppose the youth population has better jobs than it will have a positive impact on the other factors of the youth transition such as relationships, marriage and parenting. Also as the unemployment had increased to a greater extent,the youth population and the adults have started working as a part-time employee or in low salary due to which the issue of underemployment had also increased to a greater extent. It can be said that both underemployment and unemployment are interconnected with each other, and these factors are having a significant impact on the youth transition.
KEY FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Youth transition being an important practice for all nations. The study had represented different definitions for youth transition; it can be said that life transition involves multiple factors it does not only involves the physiological changes, but it involves several other factors also. The study had found that youth is one of the important parts of society, and it is important for social studies to focus on conducting youth studies (Sherif, 2017). As the social changes are driving several changes in the youth transition, it had become an important topic for discussion and to research. The increased changes in the family setting, lack of job opportunities, raising the educational status and increasing importance of training had increased, and the demand for advanced skills is also increasing due to which it had become important to focus on these factors.
The study found that the individuals in the transition phase go through several changes, and for the successful transition, it is important for them to receive the best support from their family as well as from the entire society. Family is having a greater influence on the transition of children from childhood to adulthood (Tran, 2018). It is being found that if the individuals are having foster parents than it can help them in getting through this transition phase successfully without facing many issues but if the individual is not having foster parents than there are chances that he might have to face several challenges and risk factors during the transition phase. Suppose the individual is getting better support from the parents than he will be able to face the challenges of the transition in an effective manner and can get out of this successfully and can live a better life in adulthood (Thompson, &Swartout, 2018). Also, the parents are the one who is guiding the children in his studies and making a choice in employment which affects the transition phase in an effective manner. Along with this, the entire society is having an impact on the transition of the youth, and it is important forsociety to support the youth population in this transition.
Employment is a major issue for all the developing and developed nations, and it is important for the counties to general better job opportunities for the youth and adult population of the country. The literature critically analysed in this report found that employment is a major social and economic issue which is affecting the world and the majority of the section of the society is highly affected by this. The countries are not able to develop better job opportunities for the population due to which the issue of unemployment and underemployment had increased to a greater extent. The report found that there are different factors of the microeconomics and macroeconomic, which are affecting the employment rate and the labour market to a greater extent. The nations need to focus on all these factors in an effective manner and have to focus on creating a balance between supply and demand so that better job opportunities can be created and the issue of employment can be managed in an effective manner (Berzin, et. al. 2014).
The study had found a great connection between the underemployment, unemployment and youth transition. With the increasing issues in the employment, the individuals are facing major issues in their transition phase as they are not getting better jobs which are affecting their future to a greater extent. Employment is very important for all the individuals and all of them should get better jobs so that they can live a better job. Unemployment is becoming a great issue in not only the developing nations but across the globe and with the increasing unemployment the skilled labour is not getting better jobs and are it is affecting all the different sections of the society. Different factors are responsible for the increasing unemployment such as unstable economic condition, lack of proper educational planning and the increasing gap between the educated candidates and the availability of the jobs. In this study, it is being found that unemployment is having a greater negative impact on several other economic factors due to which it had become important to address this issue effectively.
If the individual gets a job as per his skills and educational status that it will help him in living a well-balanced life and will also have a positive impact on all the other important factors of theyouth transition. Along with this if the individuals are having better employment than the issue of underemployment will be reduced to a greater extent, and all the individuals will have a secured job with better salary and benefits. The study found that all the three factors are having a greater impact on each other and are interconnect and are the major social issues which need to be focused by the government organisations at both national and international level (Burt, &Paysnick, 2012).
The study had found that all the different organisation working for child welfare and supporting the youth population needs to focus on these issues in an effective manner. These organisations need to focus on developing better policies and should focus on supporting the individuals who are not having family support so that they can also get a successful transition and can have a bright future. Along with this, all the other peoples who are involved in the youth transition or the one who is having an influence on the children should also try to support the children in their youth transition.
Conclusion and Recommendations
The above-mentioned report is being conducted in the context of increasing social issues and the rising demands for managing these issues in an effective manner. The youth population is an important section of the society needs to get better attention and the different issues which are being faced by then should also need to be addressed effectively. The report had mentioned that the youth transition is a complex process which involved different important factors which are having an impact on the entire society. Youth transition is referred to as the transition phase in which the children move from their childhood to adulthood which is a very important phase for them. In this transition period,it is important that the individuals to get better support so that they can become cross this phase successfully and can become a successful individual in the future.
The study mentions that it is important for the countries to work better for the young population of the nation and should ensure that they get all the necessary support required in their transitional phase. Different welfare societies and different government and non-government owned organisations which are working for child welfare need to develop better plans which can help the children in their youth transition. Along with this, all the different individual whoisworking in all the different organisation also need to focus on providing better support and guidance to all the individuals at the time of youth transition. It is important for the children to select an appropriate field for themselves, which can provide them with better job opportunities in future so that they should not face issues at the time of getting employment.
In this study, it is being found that unemployment and underemployment are the major issues which are affecting the youth transition to a greater extent due to multiple factors. Unemployment is a major issue for all the developing and developed nations which needs to be addressed. The study recommends that it is crucial for all the nations to develop better strategies which can help them in generating better job opportunities for the citizens of the country. All the different organisations operating at both national and international which are managing the affairs related to the economies need to focus enhancing the economic growth of the country which will have a positive impact on the employment rates and the labour markets.
The study recommends that for reducing unemployment and underemployment, it is important that the countries should focus on applying better policies which can help them in managing these issues. The fiscal policy can help the countries in addressing this issue, and it will help the government in increasing the demand and the rate of economic growth which would help them in solving this issue of unemployment to a greater extent. The government can also opt the monetary policy which will help them in reducing their interest rates so that it will motivate the peoples to spend and invest more which would have a positive impact on the labour market. Along with these policies, the government organisations can also focus on developing better strategies which can help them in reducing the unemployment and creating better job opportunities which can help then in creating a balance between demand and supply of the human resource in all the different industries.
As all the three factors described in the report are interconnected, it is important that all the different organisation which are involved in generating job opportunities and the organisations which are working for social welfare and for child welfare needs to make combined efforts so that these issues can be solved and managed in an effective manner. Through the above-mentioned report, it can be concluded that youth transition is one of the major social issues which needs to be directed in an effective manner so that the youth population can move to their adulthood in an effective manner. The two major issues unemployment and underemployment also needs to be addressed in an effective manner as they are having a greater impact on the youth transition. It can be concluded that it is important for all the organisations to develop better social policies which can help them in solving these social issues in an effective manner. If the recommendations are well implemented that it can help these organisations in managing the issue in an effective manner.
Ayhan, F. (2016). Youth unemployment as a growing global threat [Online]. Available through: <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/306208380_Youth_unemployment_as_a_growing_global_threat/link/5a65bb584585158bca52b185/download>. [Accessed on 26th Dec 2020].
Cacciattolo, K. (2015). The Transition to Adulthood: An Analysis of the Importance of Family, School and Work [Online]. Available through: <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281108912_Transition_to_Adulthood/link/55d5e96108ae9d65948a0cc3/download>. [Accessed on 26th Dec 2020].
Dev, S.M. and Motkuri, V. (2011). Youth employment and unemployment in India [Online]. Available through: < researchgate.net/publication/241760522_Youth_employment_and_unemployment_in_India>>. [Accessed on 26th Dec 2020].
Woodman, D. (2015). Time and Space in Youth studies [Online]. Available through:<https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283470280_Time_and_Space_in_Youth_Studies/link/57da18eb08ae5f03b49a1b4a/download>. [Accessed on 26th Dec 2020].
Books and Journals
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