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Moreover, symmetrical key encryption must be carried out as a block cipher (or at least 128-bit support sizes and 128-bit, 192-bit and 256-bit key sizes). On 20 August 1998, during the First SEA Conference, NIST released 15 AES algorithms (AES1). These algorithms were contributed from across the globe by members of the cryptography community. NIST requested public opinions on the candidates at that conference and a concurrently published federal register notice ("Round 1"). In March 1999, a 2nd AES Candidate Conference (AES2) focused on the findings of an investigation of candidate algorithms carried out by the worldwide cryptographic community. The public assessment of the algorithms ended on 15 April 1999. The general feedback periods. NIST picked five algorithms from the fifteen using the analyses and comments received in round 1.
A cryptographic method authorized by FIPS may be used to protect electronic data under the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) (Abdullah, 2017). The AES algorithm is a symmetrical block chip that encodes and decrypts information (decipher). Encryption changes data for an incomprehensible form called ciphertext, which is termed plaintext when decrypted. The Advanced Encryption Standard, or AES, is a US government-selected symmetric block chip to protect classified information and is used worldwide to encrypt data sensitive to software and hardware. AES was initiated in 1997 by NIST, announcing the need for the Data Encryption Standard (DES), a successor algorithm that has become susceptible to brute force aggression. According to the NIST announcements of developing an advanced encryption standard algorithm, this new advanced encryption algorithm would be declassified. It should "be able to safeguard sensitive government data long into the next century” (Gohwong, 2019). It was meant to be straightforward to implement in hardware and software and provide excellent defenses against different attack tactics in constrained contexts (such as in a smart card).
Figure 1: Crypted email
(Source - Melšová, 2020)
Abdullah, A., 2017. Advanced encryption standard (AES) algorithm to encrypt and decrypt data. Cryptography and Network Security, 16.
Ahmed Ab M, R., Madani, A., Wahdan, A.M. and Selim, G.M., 2019, October. Hybrid cryptosystems for protecting IoT smart devices with comparative analysis and evaluation. In Proceedings of the Future Technologies Conference (pp. 862-876). Springer, Cham.
Athanasiou, K., Cook, B., Emmi, M., MacCarthaigh, C., Schwartz-Narbonne, D. and Tadiran, S., 2018, July. Side trail: Verifying time-balancing of cryptosystems. In Working Conference on Verified Software: Theories, Tools, and Experiments (pp. 215-228). Springer, Cham.
Bhatt, P.P. and Savant, R., 2017. A Technical Review on Comparison and Estimation of Steganographic Tools. National Journal of System and Information Technology, 10(1), p.47.
Gohwong, S.G., 2019. The State of the Art of Cryptography-Based Cyber-Attacks. International Journal of Crime, Law and Social Issues, 6(2).
Langenberg, B., Pham, H. and Steinwandt, R., 2020. Reducing the cost of implementing the advanced encryption standard as a quantum circuit. IEEE Transactions on Quantum Engineering, 1, pp.1-12.
Melšová, Z., 2020. PGP (GPG) encryption for small and medium enterprises.
Ren, A., 2019. Embedded Surface Attack on Multivariate Public Key Cryptosystems from Diophantine Equation (Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati).
Ullah, S. and Din, N., 2021. Blind signcryption scheme based on hyperelliptic curves cryptosystem. Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications, 14(2), pp.917-932.
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