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Project 3 Web Search Exercise

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  1. In this task, I used Amazon.com because it is the largest eCommerce website globally, and I knew that I would find a unique cryptosystem. When I reached the page, I discovered they utilized a cryptosystem like RSA. I asked for payment details. There is a public key that can only be deciphered by the host using public encryption. The host of the transaction also has private access (Athanasiou et al., 2018). This is a system that substitutes for the NBS algorithm. The procedure consists of 4 phases. I noticed a few cryptosystems and protocols in place on Amazon.com. The most intriguing thing I could find was that there were 12,292 blank lines of code before anything was written. By encrypting information from the user on the users' end, Amazon assures a safe transaction and then deciphers information about their future (Ahmed et al., 2019).
  • Key generation
  • Encryption
  • Key distribution
  • Decryption
  1. I went to eBay instead of going to Amazon. I realized eBay had an Amazon-like structure. The user's information is encrypted and then sent to an ebook server (Ullah and Din, 2021). Once an eBay server is reached, the server decrypts and reloads the chosen user account. Sites like Amazon and eBay essentially utilize a self-known encryption scheme and routinely make modest encryption changes to guarantee their organization does not lose, steal or abuse any data (Ren, 2019).There wereblank pages like amazon, and the entire cryptosystem is very similar to the system of Amazon.
  1. NIST has developed an Advanced Encryption Standard with business and the cryptography community starting in 1997(AES). The ultimate objective was to build an encryption algorithm to protect sensitive government information in the 21st century to the Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS). Voluntarily, the private sector was supposed to employ the algorithm (Langenberg, Pham, and Steinwandt, 2020). AES development efforts were announced on 2 January 1997 by NIST, and several remarks were sent. On 12 September 1997, NIST then issued an official algorithm call. The appeal said AES would indicate a global free royalty-free unclassified, publicly divulged encryption algorithm(s).

Moreover, symmetrical key encryption must be carried out as a block cipher (or at least 128-bit support sizes and 128-bit, 192-bit and 256-bit key sizes). On 20 August 1998, during the First SEA Conference, NIST released 15 AES algorithms (AES1). These algorithms were contributed from across the globe by members of the cryptography community. NIST requested public opinions on the candidates at that conference and a concurrently published federal register notice ("Round 1"). In March 1999, a 2nd AES Candidate Conference (AES2) focused on the findings of an investigation of candidate algorithms carried out by the worldwide cryptographic community. The public assessment of the algorithms ended on 15 April 1999. The general feedback periods. NIST picked five algorithms from the fifteen using the analyses and comments received in round 1.

A cryptographic method authorized by FIPS may be used to protect electronic data under the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) (Abdullah, 2017). The AES algorithm is a symmetrical block chip that encodes and decrypts information (decipher). Encryption changes data for an incomprehensible form called ciphertext, which is termed plaintext when decrypted. The Advanced Encryption Standard, or AES, is a US government-selected symmetric block chip to protect classified information and is used worldwide to encrypt data sensitive to software and hardware. AES was initiated in 1997 by NIST, announcing the need for the Data Encryption Standard (DES), a successor algorithm that has become susceptible to brute force aggression. According to the NIST announcements of developing an advanced encryption standard algorithm, this new advanced encryption algorithm would be declassified. It should "be able to safeguard sensitive government data long into the next century” (Gohwong, 2019). It was meant to be straightforward to implement in hardware and software and provide excellent defenses against different attack tactics in constrained contexts (such as in a smart card).

  1. Symantec's email desktop cryptography gives a resolution for email encrypting and decrypting emails from one shopper to the next. Emails are encrypted all the time. In addition, the email on Symantec employs keys for ciphering, signing, decrypting and checking. It will enable us to build a PGP key pair when we install the Symantec desktop email. This email seemed more prominent and more confused than any other email I have ever sent (Melšová, 2020). I opted not to encrypt email as I was puzzled but emailed my professor with the encryption key. I hope she takes the key as evidence that I attempted this exercise at least. It took me around 30 minutes to perform this exercise since I was confused and had to do about five times using Google.However, finally saw an encrypted message, and all of the words have been replaced by numbers and alphabets.

Figure 1: Crypted email

(Source - Melšová, 2020)

  1. In my study, I discovered that steganographic tools enable a user to insert concealed data into a carrier file, such as a picture or video, and to retrieve that information afterward. "This message should not be disguised in the original file, as stated in the reports. Therefore, the original file is not essential to edit; therefore, anything is hard to discover. If a section is subjected to sequential bit-specific alteration to create a ciphertext, the original file shows no trace that a file is used to encrypt." I couldn't notice a difference between the original picture and the picture with the embedded file after downloading a test version of StegFS and incorporating a temporary text file into an image (Bhatt and Savant, 2017). The fingerprint image shows that all of the photos are very simple. All the fingerprint ridges are the same size and width. However, only one specific difference I observed in image c. there was a small ridge than other ridges. Still, I had to look into the picture very critically in order to find these minor details.


Abdullah, A., 2017. Advanced encryption standard (AES) algorithm to encrypt and decrypt data. Cryptography and Network Security16.

Ahmed Ab M, R., Madani, A., Wahdan, A.M. and Selim, G.M., 2019, October. Hybrid cryptosystems for protecting IoT smart devices with comparative analysis and evaluation. In Proceedings of the Future Technologies Conference (pp. 862-876). Springer, Cham.

Athanasiou, K., Cook, B., Emmi, M., MacCarthaigh, C., Schwartz-Narbonne, D. and Tadiran, S., 2018, July. Side trail: Verifying time-balancing of cryptosystems. In Working Conference on Verified Software: Theories, Tools, and Experiments (pp. 215-228). Springer, Cham.

Bhatt, P.P. and Savant, R., 2017. A Technical Review on Comparison and Estimation of Steganographic Tools. National Journal of System and Information Technology10(1), p.47.

Gohwong, S.G., 2019. The State of the Art of Cryptography-Based Cyber-Attacks. International Journal of Crime, Law and Social Issues6(2).

Langenberg, B., Pham, H. and Steinwandt, R., 2020. Reducing the cost of implementing the advanced encryption standard as a quantum circuit. IEEE Transactions on Quantum Engineering1, pp.1-12.

Melšová, Z., 2020. PGP (GPG) encryption for small and medium enterprises.

Ren, A., 2019. Embedded Surface Attack on Multivariate Public Key Cryptosystems from Diophantine Equation (Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati).

Ullah, S. and Din, N., 2021. Blind signcryption scheme based on hyperelliptic curves cryptosystem. Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications14(2), pp.917-932.

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