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Understanding Research in Evidence-Based PracticeRESE 1173

Introduction - Understanding Research in Evidence-Based PracticeRESE 1173

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This essay is based on the "Evidence-based practice" in nursing, and the article has an in-depth critical review. The essay has focused on the experiences of shame of alcoholic people and their feelings related to barriers in terms of sobriety. The essay provides an overall research method of the article and a critiquing tool for the analysis. Additionally, an in-depth analysis of the article's findings has been emphasised in this essay. Evidence-based practices have also been evaluated in this essay. The thesis statement will be argued in context with an evaluation of evidence-based practices through the comprehensive study of the chosen article.

Research Methods

Background of the research article:

The research article has been based on the experiences of shame that alcoholic people have had and their feelings related to the obstacles that stand in the way of them achieving sobriety. In the UK, excessive drinking is considered one of death's most significant risk factors. More than 600,000 people have been identified as dependent drinkers in the UK, and 82% have not assessed any treatment (Alcoholchange.org.uk, 2022). When it comes to how people feel about guilt, shame is directly linked to how often they drink alcohol or other drinks.On the other hand, different social attitudes and emotions, including shame and guilt, have arisen for people addicted to a particular thing (Bucki et al.,2019). The main result of consuming alcohol has created different physical and mental issues that affect the overall lifestyle of the person and their family members (Risso et al. 2020).

It is necessary to develop the role that treatment and acceptance groups play to make them suitable for participation in social life. As Madras et al. (2020) stated, evidence-based practice (EVP) can be considered effective and necessary in the case of treatment for patients.

Methods that have been used in the article:

Research type

The research has been followed in a primary qualitative way through interviewing around eight participants. As a result, a set of questionnaires has been developed that are all open-ended and suitable for qualitative data collection. In addition, this research was conducted through focus group interview sessions to gather knowledge and opinions of their personal beliefs and experiences. Spiby et al. (2022) opined that focus group interview sessions could effectively conduct primary qualitative research by gathering in-depth knowledge about the research topic. In the case of this research, the questionnaire has been set to gain the participants' knowledge regarding their recovery phases and overall experiences.

Sampling Method

This research study is based on the "Purposive sampling" method that helps analyse the research topic into in-depth concepts. Campbell et al. (2020) state that this sampling method has been effective for primary qualitative research. In the case of that research article, participants were selected to gain the proper observation and behaviour that the participants have shown. Along with that, the experiences and their recovery stories have been collected in the form of interview sessions with the help of useful questionnaires about the research topic. Around eight people have been selected for the interview, and they all are identified as adults. Among the total 8 participants, five people are males, and the rest are females. Additionally, the participants' age ratio has been selected from 27 to 74 years,with participants staying in sobriety from around 21 months to 35 years (Sawer et al. 2020). Through the participants' overall experiences and shame stories, different opinions have been collected as the research data.

Data Collection Method

Based on research quotations, a set of questionnaires has been developed to collect the data on the research topic for further analysis and evaluation.

The research question of the article is as follows:

Q1: How do the patients describe their shame stories?

Q2: How do feelings of shame help the patients recover from alcohol dependency?

The interview session started with an overall understanding of the aim and research importance to the interviewers and a general discussion with the participants. Then, based on two research questions, the interviewees were asked different open-ended questions regarding their recovery process and overall experiences (Sawer et al., 2020). In addition to that, the participants' greatest and worst experiences, both positive and negative, have been captured as part of the data.

Data analysis method

A narrative, thematic analysis has been done for the article's research based on qualitative research. Along with that, through collection through interviews of a focus group, the data analysis method has been followed by the primary qualitative data analysis for the research topic. As per Barbazza et al. (2021), this type of data analysis can effectively evaluate the overall data and analyse them properly to research an effective conclusion.

Ethical concerns

All the participants have been taken for the interview as per their will on the particular research topic, and they all are adults. The proper identification of the participants has not been disclosed, along with pseudo names that have been used to replace their original names. During this study, neither the participants' physical nor mental well-being has been compromised, nor has their participation impeded or altered the research results.

Potential for bias

The main source of bias might come from the participants presenting the research datadifferently from the actual.

In a survey based research the potentiality of bia is a vital factor. Bias for a survey process or research work is the weak point for the entire research. This research is based on the “Primary qualitative” data analysis and the researchers of this research have faced the bias that is related to the “Sampling bias” and “non response bias” (Pannucci and Wilkins, 2018). The sampling bias is faced by the researchers during their survey process. Their survey sample was not so random and that caused the main problem behind the research. Minimisation of the sampling bias is much needed to maintain the proper research strategies. On the other hand, the researchers have also faced the problem that is related to the bias of “non response”. Unequal distribution of the sample file and questionnaires has caused this bias. The researchers have not got the equal number of responders and that hampered the research.  

Critical analysis of findings

Through the comprehensive data collection from the interview sessions, two major findings have been identified for the research, such as most of the participants' parents are additive and acknowledge the shame. Therefore, through this part of the essay, an overall critical analysis of those two factors has been evaluated, giving an overall idea about those two major findings of the research.

According to the chosen article, it has been observed that all of the participants of the interview session have shared their personal experiences and stories about their lives (Sawer et al. 2020). Through the overall analysis, it has been identified that the participants expressed their history of addiction to alcohol along with their experiences in terms of recovering from those habits. In addition, it has been identified that most participants have come from parents who have had an addiction. On the other hand, around four people in the interview have faced a past having addictive parents that trigger their habit of alcohol consumption. As stated by Yurasek et al. (2019), a child of a family with parents with addiction triggers the child to make the same kind of mistakes in terms of addiction or consumption of alcohol.

In context with that, the article "The Effects of Parent, Sibling and Peer Substance Use on Adolescent Drinking Behaviours" can be considered as the same kind of research that has been presented in similar situations, and it identifies the impacts of parents with an addictive nature on their children (Yurasek et al. 2019). Along with that, the role of subconscious minds and the surrounding nature can also negatively impact people in terms of addiction. The children and the parents both were being interviewed and the researchers of this research have come to know about the vulnerability and the ethical issues related to this research matter. In this aspect, the researchers of this research have organised an awareness program to inform the parents of the children who got affected by the alcoholic nature of the patients (Jovancic, 2019). Some children start to take alcohol from a very young age due to this. Thus, some ethical issues have been seen during the research work, such as use of unethical words and languages from the participants of the survey. 

Through the critical analysis of the interview data, it has been identified that adverse conditions, addictive parents, and surroundings can be considered the major reason for becoming addictedto alcohol of those patients. Through the critical evaluation of their interview-related data on the research topic, the major outcomes have been identified as that most of the participants have become addicted, and the parental addictive nature has been considered one of the main reasons for that addictiveness towards alcohol. Regarding this, in the awareness program, the researchers have promote the awareness campaign that enhance the awareness related to that the consequence of the alcohol intaking is harmful for health. It caused liver damage, heart disease, brain damage, breast cancer and some major problems.

After the overall critical analysis of the experiences and stories of the participants, it has been identified that the participants have acknowledged their shame,which helped them to recover from the addition of alcohol. Verhaar et al. (2022) opined that behaviours played an important role in mental health, which has been considered a major reason for becoming addicted to nature. Along with that, parental behaviours and lack of self-esteem can be considered as other important factors of the addition of alcohol (Morris et al. 2020). Through the overall analysis of the interview data, it has been found that acknowledging shame has been considered the major factor that can help treat participants' addiction to alcohol. Along with that, acknowledging the shame can be effective in terms of recovering from health issues (Sawer et al. 2020). Therefore, acknowledging the shame and other related feelings about the addiction can help any patient recover from the addiction through evidence-based practice.

Through the overall data collection method for the research paper that has been conducted through an interview, it has been found that most of the participants have faced shame about their addiction, and they have acknowledged that (Sawer et al. 2020). Along with that, the participants have acknowledged that alcoholism can be considered an addictive illness and recovery from that illness has not been successful without acknowledging it. As opined by Dodge and Clarke (2018), the inferiority complex of a patient has been identified as the key factor that triggers the addictive nature of an individual to alcohol. The research article has highlighted another major outcome with the context, as specific inner shame can be effective in recovery from the addictive nature of alcohol. The research article "Shame is bad and guilt is good: An examination of the Impaired Control Over Drinking Pathway to alcohol use and related problems"has been centred on the importance of shame in personal life in terms of improved self-control (Patock-Peckham et al.,2018). Along with that, acknowledging the shame and personal strengths and weaknesses has been provided as effective for the patient in terms of recovery from the addiction to alcohol.

As per the analysis of this article, the research method of this research has been evaluated as Secondary qualitative analysis. Four facets of the research factors have been developed and identified here, such as, “premeditation”, “perseverance”, “sensation seeking (SS)”, and “negative urgency” (Pubs.niaaa.nih.gov, 2019). The pre-meditation factor enhances the idea of the methodical plan. On the other hand perseverance is the ability to reflect. Then, sensation seeking is the ability to seek novelty and negative urgency is another factor or research method of impulsive response. Regarding this “Impaired Control” is another basic factor that reflect the loss of the behavior and self control is not maintained by maintain the drinking situation.

Evaluate EBP

"Evidence-based practices" can be described as the opinions and works of medical experts in providing any type of treatment regarding any medical issues. Therefore, Evidence-based practices can be considered the main opportunity in terms of providing treatments to the necessary patients after analysis of their traits regarding the health issues (Aveyard and Sharp, 2017). Per Parahoo (2014) opinion, "Co-occurring psychiatric disorders" can also be treated through Evidence-based practices. As 'EVP'are based on the experiences and knowledge of medical experts, therefore the overall treatments for each person have been different from the other person. The overall treatment process has been prepared after analysing the traits of the medical issues. Ellis (2018) opined that a single person's observation process was conducted to enhance the overall traits of the symptoms and clinical issues through proper evidence-based practices.

As opined by Brayford et al. (2008), different practices of medical staff can provide valuable information regarding the treatment of the patients for particular symptoms of medical issues that have been considered in Evidence-based practices. Evidence-based practices can also be considered beneficial for the treatment as it provides evidence-based medicines for specific patients. In the case of treatment of alcohol-consumed patients, Evidence-based practices can effectively manage the symptoms of that person (Ceyhan et al., 2019). As the article is based on the issues regarding experiences of shame of the alcoholic people and their feelings related to barriers in terms of sobriety, evidence-based practices can be considered effective treatment for those patients. As per the opinion of Mikkelsen et al. (2020), through Evidence-based practices, affected people can get benefits in terms of gaining treatment for better outcomes and better lives. Evidence-based practices have been acquired from medical experts and professionals' practical knowledge and experiences. Therefore, it can be considered an effective treatment for patients suffering from shame and guilt in consuming alcohol.

Evidence-based practices are more patient-centric and help the patients express their issues with the health problem and benefit from the treatments (Norcross and Wampold, 2018). Along with that, as Evidence-based practices are done after the overall analysis of the patients regarding the health issues, the evaluation of the health issues can be specified more easily,which helps in the overall treatment of the health issues (McGovern and Carroll, 2003). On the other hand, as opined by Bowling (2014), understanding the basic cause of the patients' issues helps enhance the overall relationships that further help the patients recover from their health issues with the different evidence-based practices of the medical experts and clinical staff. Along with that, evidence-based clinical interventions can also be considered effective in the case of implementing those interventions in solving practical health issues such as habits of alcohol consumption. In the case of treatment through evidence-based practices, asking the patients about their journey toward addiction to alcohol consumption can be helpful for the medical experts to prepare evidence-based treatment plans for better outcomes. As per the opinion of Cluett (2006), people's evidence-based practices can be returned to their normal life by implementing proper treatment and acknowledging the self condition of the patients.


Through the analysis of the research article, it can be concluded that evidence-based practices have been considered the effective treatment process for recovering from the addictive nature of alcohol. The major outcomes identified from that article have been described as the majority of the participants had parents who were addictive in nature and acknowledging the shame of the alcohol-addicted patients that helps them recover from the addictive nature. On the other hand, parental behaviours, anxiety, depression, and surroundings behaviours are the major reason that triggers the addictiveness of consuming alcohol. Evidence-based practices such as improving observation and person-centric processes can effectively treat alcohol-addicted patients.The overall research method and data collection method that has been considered primary qualitative have effectively met the research questions and helped the research to find a meaningful conclusion.


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