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Unit 16: Operations and Project Management Assignment Sample

Pages Pages: 25

Words Words: 6335

Unit 16: Operations and Project Management

1. Introduction of chosen organization

Developing strategies and planning is essential to make sure that the objectives and goals are being achieved by getting in improvement that can be done. Improvement planning is a very essential factor which a business must have and Sainsbury’s is making sure that they are taking the right operation and operation management for them to gain competitive edge. Sainsbury’s is a public organization which is having its headquarters in London, United Kingdom. The company is operating in the market since 1869 and has more than 1,428 locations as of 2019. Sainsbury’s is having a net income of £152 million as of 2020 despite of the lockdown and the pandemic situation which rose (J Sainsbury Net Income 2006-2020, 2021). The company is trying to have higher competitive profit in the market so that they would be able to overcome businesses like Tesco, Marks & Spencer, etc in the country and gain a higher consumer base. For being able to perform well the quality of the products and services must be focused upon which is going to make sure that there is better processing. The report discusses the operation management functioning and methods to implement them in business so that there is a higher working which the business will be able to have.

2. Explanation of operation vs. operations management

BASIC

OPERATION

OPERATION MANAGEMENT

Definition

The tasks that are involved in the operations for producing the product. This process would include planning, organizing, directing and supervision so that there is going to be good controlling of the activities that present so that there is a good service and goods (Habibi, Barzinpour and Sadjadi, 2018).

Operation management takes care of all the operations which are taking place in a business. Controlling and designing of this field of study is essential. This can improve the quality and standards of the product and services which the company is having.

Objectives

Quality of the good and services would be higher which matches the quantity of the product as well which is going to be served by business.

This management would focus on the satisfaction level of the clients by using the right resources which is good for the long run of the company.

Decision making

This process would be on the production of the business which would be making decisions to it.

Activities of the business are going to decide the operation management to take place in the company.

Occurrence

When the manufacturing process is raised in the market which would impact the outputs of the company.

Manufacturing input of the company’s services and goods are going to impact the processing (Arasteh, 2020).

Capital

There is a requirement of high investment which needs to be present in operations to take place in the company from the beginning to the end process.

Operation management would require less capital as compared to operations since the focus is on the immediate outcomes which the business can have.

 Other differences between operation and operation management are as follows.

  • To convert the raw material into finished goods both the processes are very essential for the company to have. But on the other hand operation management works on the design of the products and services which the clients are receiving.
  • Quality of the products is worried about by the operations but the design and satisfaction of the clients is a very essential factor for the company to have for the operation management is concerned with (Wedel and Behnezhad, 2019).
  • Satisfaction of the clients is very important for the company to have so that there is a stable working and positioning. Operation and operations management are very important for the services and convert the input into output.

3. Operations management meets the requirement of the business

Operations management would make sure that the business is being able to match the standards and working which they are having in the market. Businesses in the market have to make sure that they have good knowledge and working in the market so that they would be able to gain the right working.

Advantages of operations management which Sainsbury’s would have are that there is a high level of advancement which would be present in the processing of the company so that they would be able to increase their standards in the competition which is existing. Resource management in the company is going to be better and make sure that there is a good capital saving which the business would have for higher smooth working and manufacturing for the long run of the company (Visser, 2020). Maximising the growth of the company in all aspect is very essential for the business to have so that there is going to be better working and functioning which the business would have. Delivering of goods and services according to the clients is also going to be present. This would make the processing and working is better and products are going to be well kept so that there is good delivery that is present.

There are a lot of disadvantages as well which are going to be present in operation management as well which is that there can be a problem with the human error in Sainsbury’s. Requirement of good coordination for operations management to take place so that there is higher working and processing which is present so that the company would have the right manufacturing to make sure that the clients are getting the best. Sainsbury’s is not going to have a problem with coordination which is a great factor and make the business be able to have higher processing and working.

Requirement of Sainsbury’s is to gain the right position, profit margins and reputation in the market so that they would be able to increase the accurate competitive edge and larger customer base. The business will be able to have a good working and positioning when there is good use of operation management and make sure that the business is having the accurate decision making and planning according to it (Mihalescu, Gheorghe and Boiangiu, 2017). Management would have an effective monitoring and controlling that the employees have the right expected working for the company and make sure that they gains higher profitability in the market.

4. Continuous improvement and lean principles

Continuous improvement is going to make sure that there are better standards which the company is having and lean principles make sure that there is a creation of good knowledge that is present. Building quality in existing products and services that would make the organization have higher profit as well that would be discussed in the further report.

Kaizen philosophy of continuous development

Kaizen is a Japanese word which means changing for the good and is a continuous development. Different factors are included in this philosophy are going to be discussed in the further report.

  • Improved morale

Management and managers must have good self confidence and morale of their own so that they would be able to make sure that there is good working environment. Sainsbury’s is having a well motivated workforce by providing them with training and development from time to time so that they would be able to perform better in the competitive market (Chelcea, Filiuta and Boiangiu, 2017).

  • Teamwork’s

Operation management team needs to work as a team so that they would be able to develop a continuous improvement in the working and performance that would be there. Improvement according to the changes of technology which are coming in the market is very important for Sainsbury’s so that there is better working.

  • Personal discipline

Discipline towards work and motivation in the working environment is very important for all the individuals of the company to have. For the operation manager it is very important to have a follow up all the time of the operations management team so that they would be able to make sure that they all are equally accountable for the working of Sainsbury’s.

  • Quality circles

Quality products and services have to be present in the quality circle so that there is a good offering that would exist in the market of the company (Romano, 2017). Type of working environment is also going to be improved and there is going to be fewer people which would be required for the processing as well.

Continuous improvement Lean principle

  • Create knowledge

Awareness of the products and services needs to be higher in order to be able to have the right client base and make the people have better trust in the business.

  • Deliver fast

There is a development in Sainsbury’s to make sure that there would be faster delivery that is present in the business. This way there is good performance that the company can have and the branding is going to be higher as well.

  • Eliminate waste

Waste management needs to be higher so that the company would be able to have higher profit margins. The company can save on the raw material which is not being used for production and processing (Miterev, 2017). There is a lot of transportation which would have to make sure that there is good costing and other elements like over production, motion, etc. which have to controlled in the company for being able to have a better standards.

  • Optimize whole

Technology has to be increased and software development is very important for the business strategies for development in working.

  • Build in quality

Pair programming quality is essential in Sainsbury’s to make sure that there is good response that they would have a better working. There is a lot of amount which is spent on the raw material that could be avoided by the company for having cost saving processing which is present for the long run.

  • Respect people

Importance of the workforce which is present in Sainsbury’s is very important for the company to have. There has to be good helping for the employees that must be there so that the value would be higher of the company in the market.

5. Implementation of operations management principles in Sainsbury’s

To be able to have an overall improvement and working balance they would be making good operations management principles which are present for Sainsbury’s to follow. Motivation is going to play a very crucial role in making sure that the business is having the right operations management processing with accurate skills and knowledge to make sure that the organization is having a good working in the market (Madan and Gnanendran, 2020). This would make the results and achievements of the organization are higher and the performance of the employees would be higher as well. Training and development programs must exist for the employees so that the investment is done accordingly to make sure that there would be right saving and profits which the company is going to have. There are a lot of issues and problems which a business can have so that there would accurate development by making regular checking of the business would be there. Roots are very strong which is why taking a risk is not going to be difficult for the organization to include good improvement and operations management that is there.

Controlling the issues is very important otherwise the environment of the business is going to get affected. Product and services of the development of Sainsbury’s which would make the main aim of the business has to be higher so that there would be right working. Sainsbury’s belongs from the retailing industry which is that there is a lot of competition in this field and the organization will have to make sure that there is right working that they are adopting so that there are profits (Noveiri, 2019). The focus is going to be on the satisfaction of the clients and the internal environment so that they will be able to have the right working and performance that a business must work upon. Problems like resistance from employees, etc can be solved when there is a good relationship and operations management is going to make sure that there is good cost saving and investment which the company is having for themselves in the market.

6. Continuous improvement plan

Strategies and method which the company is having are all planned well so that the company will be able to develop effectively. Continuous improvement plan helps the company be able to monitor, control, design the plans well, commitments are higher and the act of processing which is a very important factor. Six sigma and lean manufacturing are very practical methods for continuous improvement which is necessary for the development of the company (Whyte and Nussbaum, 2020). Profits which the business can have by implementing them is that there is faster processing and make the right planning which is making the company save on production of the products. There are long term goals which can be achieved and make sure that there is less wastage as well which can be avoided by the organizations.

Figure 1: Six sigma

(Source: Six Sigma for Improved Quality Management, 2020)

  • Plan Do Check Act (PDCA) cycle

This process is for making sure that the changes are being understood in the company and impact would be lower in adapting them. Improvement of people processing has to be higher so that the company will be able to have a better lean manufacturing that is present.

  • Plan

The organization works according to the plan, best of strategies are implemented so that there is higher improvement that the company would have for the better. Solved problems and other resources have to be worked upon so that the company can have better working.

  • Do

Efficiency of the development has to be higher and planning must be done well so that there is a good action plan that would be there.

  • Check

Vital checking has to be done in the company so that there would be understood improvement that the company would have.

  • Act

Perfect management is changing and continues development has to be present in actions which are present which is going to make the company have a competitive edge (Franco Franco, Guzmán Cortés and González Rodríguez, 2018).

  • Performance Measure

Understanding performance from the past has to be present for improvement by Sainsbury’s to make sure that there is higher working. International platform is also explored by the business which has to be well handled by the company so that there is good development. Operations management has to be higher as well so that the performance of the company can have the right information and make sure that there are better standards.

  • Commitments

Commitment of employees and customers has to be present in order to make sure that there is good productivity and services. Crucial working and understanding of this aspect is going to make sure that the commitment for products and services would be higher and make the awareness be present as well so that there is a good development in the working that would be there. There are goals and aims which the businesses are going to have for themselves and that would make the standards of the company be higher.

  • Process

There has to be continuous development that requires good mapping and analysis which would be required for matching the objectives of the business.

7. Recommendation to improve operations

  • The problems which the Sainsbury’s is having with the workplace, that the employees are not having a common ground of working. The focus of the company is upon the customers and for that to continue the organization will have to make sure that they are taking the right measures to focus and solve the issues which are rising (Nicholas and Steyn, 2020). Strategies can only be well adapted when there is good team working and for that the company will have to make sure for better profits.
  • Technological aspect in Sainsbury’s has to be improved so that they are going to have a better operations management and planning which is present. There is a lot of help with the company can get from technologies and errors are also going to be lower. This would help the company be able to gain trust and loyalty from the market. Getting Lewin change theory would be helpful for Sainsbury’s to be able to adapt to the operation managements processing which must be involved.

TASK 2

1. Overview of the case study

The case study is on Cadbury India which is about incident of October 2003, in which there were cases of worms being found in their products. It was not the fault of the production department of the company but the problem was with their retailers who did not have the right equipments to store them safely. It was because of this negative influence and publicity the company went down with their sales by 30% which is not a good factor to be able to maintain their reputation (Cadbury: Case study analysis, 2016). There were a lot of employees which are briefed about the actions and meetings were held with the senior managers with emails also being passed on so that there is a higher working.

The company came up with instant solutions very quickly which is a very good factor for the company to have. Indian population was negatively harmed which is a bad thing for the company to have and this factor must be improved. The package of Cadbury also changed in 2004 so that they would be able to make sure that the clients are going to have a different impact of the company. It is because of the packaging the company was able to make sure that there would be a growth in the sales by 15 percent which is going to make the company be able to gain their competitive edge again in the market.

2. Project life cycle

Project life cycle is the process which is used in the businesses to be able to get in the right development and changes which are required by the company to have for the long run. Managers of the company have to understand the stages which are included in this process as well as understand the methods as well. Cadbury worked on their reputation and negative social media impact which the product of the business has caused in the market. There are a lot of changes which were got in like the right equipments and the packaging the products and services of the company which were changed. Changed need the right communication and interest level of the employees which are present in the company (Petrillo and et.al., 2021). Working on the right points to make sure that the company would not be losing on their loyalty and trustworthy clients of the company is very essential.

Project plan is good for making sure that the company is being able to have the right manufacturing so that there is a good development. Performance of the company has to be higher and because of the worms the company lot the control on the market as well. Management must take the right development plans in order to make sure that there is right manufacturing and trust from the consumers which can be gained again (Alves, Ferreira and de Nadae, 2021). CSR projects have to be developed in order to make sure that the company is having the right portfolio and strength of the brand can be gained easily in the market as well. There were campaigns and other factors which were involved as well to make sure that there is a good development which the company is going to have for the long run.

Project life cycle is divided into 4 stages which are as follow:

  • Project initiation

There has to be good planning of projects which are present in the company therefore there are essential stages which must be followed. Identifying the problem is very essential for the planning and this stage is also going to include the objectives and aims which have to be achieved by the company for the long run. Cadbury will have to work on the social media influence and make the image be positive again in the market. The issue is that monitoring the processing till the consumer contains the product is very essential therefore this action needs to be taken effectively by the company (Caramia, 2020). Lifestyle of the consumers is developing and they are getting aware of the safety and health factors as well therefore developing in this aspect is very essential for the company to have.

  • Project planning

The second stage there is good planning, which is that after initiating the objective which needs to be accomplished. There has to be detailed information and development on the objectives so that the company would be able to have a higher working. Lifestyle of the employees also has to be worked upon so that there is a better topic which is going to be present and the risk factor present in the company is going to lower down. Crucial business plans have to be made in order to have the right working and functioning so that there is a higher profit which Cadbury will have for the future as well (Yaghtin and Abbasi, 2018). One sense of direction is very essential in any organization so that they can achieve the targets and goals. Detailed planning would make sure that there is good development in the processing and working so that there are better opportunities which Cadbury will be able to build upon again.

  • Project execution

Processing of the execution of the plan has to be done effectively and smoothly so that there is going to be less pressure on the internal working of the company. Planning is easily done but for being able to implement them there has to be right knowledge and understanding of it. Changes will have resistance but they have to be over come easily and faster to make sure that there is better development that is present (Kasimo?lu and Akgün, 2021). Conflicts of understanding and responsibilities would change therefore this aspect has to be attended to effectively so that there is going to be right processing of operations and higher achievements can be made as well. Budget is also going to be limited by Cadbury to make the changes and branding of the company is present therefore higher working and processing has to be done so that there is better development that is present.

  • Project closure

In this stage there is a calculation and closing down of all the phases which were involved in the project to be successful. This is going to make sure that the performance from the team is right and make the right documentation for the further working which is very important. This documentation is going to be very helpful for the future as the company will be able to get in improvement in the project when and were required. Budget has to be well understood after the execution and other aspects of the project to make sure that there was right planning so that this experience can be used in the future as well.

3. Analysis of the project life cycle, methodologies and tools used

Analysis of project life cycle is very effective for the company with the right methodologies which can be used by the company. Methodologies are of different kind as well which has to be calculative and well understood so that there is higher working and processing which is present (Cortés, Rodríguez and Franco, 2019). Costing and budgeting is included in these methodologies as well so that there is going to be right risks, flexibilities, timelines, stakeholders, etc which would be involved as well so that there is better achievement of the objectives that are there. There is a lifestyle of the employees as well which has to be well understood to get in changes and make Cadbury be able to match the coming up demand and needs of the clients in the future.

Methodologies which Cadbury are going to require are going to be related to the marketing and promotions of the company in the market so that there is an increase of the sales again. There are traditional and modern practices which are present in project management and it is very important to understand which one has to be used in which situation. There has to be clear definition of objectives and aims so that the project is done well making the standards of the company be higher and make sure that there is higher profitability.

Tools

Tools would help to make sure that there is better management calculation for analysing the project as well. Planning and collaboration is very important for the well help in documentation as well. Effective business case study always helps the other businesses as well to make sure that they are taking the right standards of working for themselves.

  • Critical path method

Calculating the path which the organization is going to follow is very essential to make sure that there is a better long term working which the business is going to have (Camarena Gil, 2019). Delay in the entire project would only make the situation for Cadbury be worst and this aspect or factor has to be improved by the company for the long run.

  • Network diagrams

Information is well analysed and then better creation of the project planning would take place which is very essential for the company to have. Arrows are present in the diagrams for simplicity of the working which is very important for the company to have for the long run.

  • Gantt charts

Gantt chart gets in a better sense of direction since the timeline is defined and following that to achieve the objectives would be easier for the company. Starting date and end date is present which would make the standards of the working be better and make the project be achieved by the organization.

Task

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Week 6

Week 7

Week 8

Week 9

Introduction

Analysis of Operation management

Review of operations management principles

Operation Management Requirement

Discussion Continues Improvement and Its Plan

Project Life Cycle

Conclusion and Recommendation

4. Effectiveness of the project life cycle theories and concept

Effectiveness of project life cycle is present which are discussed in the further report.

  • Ability to design project stage

Cadbury is having large manufacturing therefore they have to develop the right methodology for the higher working and functioning. Planning the stages is important to be able to make sure that they are getting in the right execution for the company. Management works well when there is good planning which the company is having for the long run (Eyers and Naim, 2019).

  • Sufficient consideration is given to arranging stage

The project is going to be more efficient when there is a good planning and this impacts the quality improvement as well which is essential for Cadbury to have. Creating better performance is the goals of the company to have clarity in working so that the completion of the working is going to be present. Developing quality in the products and services of Cadbury was very essential for the company when the worms made the company have a negative influence in the consumers.

  • Help and give comprehension of required assets

Project life cycle is helpful for the company to be able to require the right resources and make the solutions of the company be higher so that there is a better solution which is found. Depth level of working is present and makes the development be according to that so that there is a good resource value which is present in the company and make sure that there is a good development as well.

  • Ensure continued project viability

Issues and obstacles are going to rise in the company which has to be over come so that there is a good continuous growth which the company can have. Better management is very important to be successful for Cadbury since they are having the right working and making sure that there is a higher development (Ravinder and Kollikkathara, 2017). This can be done by the company can have easily because of the value of the company in market.

  • Progress can be linked directly to phases

Impact of the project has to be higher for Cadbury in the market so that there is a better change value which the business can have for them. Effective planning is very essential in the company to be able to get the right working and platform for Cadbury in the market again so that they can gain competitive edge as well as make sure that there is good profit margins.

5. Evaluate the PLC

Project life cycle is a very important planning process which all the businesses must have so that they would be able to develop the right standards of working for themselves. Cadbury will have to make sure that they are having the right implementation and changes. Cadbury risked their reputation in the market by not having the right retailers which made the company lose their 30% of the clients in the market (Oliveira and Martins, 2017). The company was having a good economic factor as well as the right economic factor which made the organization is able to gain the attention and the clients back. It is important to make sure that there is a good experience which the company is having in the market so that they would be able to gain the profits which is expected. Development of the project would make sure that there are right working and standards which the organization is having for the long run. It will help for better standard of working and will restore their loyalty not just from the clients but also from the employees.

REFERENCES

Books and Journals

Alves, J.L., Ferreira, E.A. and de Nadae, J., 2021. Crisis and Risks in Engineering Project Management: A Review. Brazilian Journal of Operations & Production Management. 18(4). pp.1-17.

Arasteh, A., 2020, December. Considering Project Management Activities for Engineering Design Groups. In SN Operations Research Forum (Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 1-29). Springer International Publishing.

Camarena Gil, E., 2019. Operations management GADE practice exercise nº 8. Project Management.

Caramia, M., 2020. Project management and scheduling. Annals of Operations Research285(1), pp.1-8.

Chelcea, A.G., Filiuta, A.C. and Boiangiu, C.A., 2017. Teaching Software Project Management: The Collaborative Versus Independent Approach. Journal of Information Systems & Operations Management. p.118.

Cortés, D.C.G., Rodríguez, L.J.G. and Franco, C., 2019. Collaborative strategies for humanitarian logistics with system dynamics and project management. In Decision-making in humanitarian operations (pp. 249-273). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Eyers, D. and Naim, M., 2019. Project Management for Effective Operations Management. In Contemporary Operations and Logistics (pp. 11-27). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Franco Franco, C.A., Guzmán Cortés, D.C. and González Rodríguez, L.J., 2018. Collaborative strategies for humanitarian logistics with System Dynamics and Project Management. Decision-making in Humanitarian Operations, ISBN: 978-3-319-91508-1 (2019); pp. 249-273.

Habibi, F., Barzinpour, F. and Sadjadi, S., 2018. Resource-constrained project scheduling problem: review of past and recent developments. Journal of project management. 3(2). pp.55-88.

Kasimo?lu, F. and Akgün, ?., 2021. Project management in a competitive environment: interdicting a CPM based project and its implications. RAIRO-Operations Research. 55. pp.S365-S384.

Madan, M. and Gnanendran, K., 2020. Course Planning in Educational Programs: A Project Management Approach. Operations and Supply Chain Management: An International Journal. 13(4). pp.349-358.

Mihalescu, G.A., Gheorghe, A.G. and Boiangiu, C.A., 2017. TEACHING SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT: THE COLLABORATIVE VERSUS COMPETITIVE APPROACH. Journal of Information Systems & Operations Management. 11(1).

Miterev, M., 2017. Organizing project-based operations: The interplay of content, context and social processes (Doctoral dissertation, Kungliga Tekniska högskolan).

Nicholas, J.M. and Steyn, H., 2020. Project management for engineering, business and technology. Routledge.

Noveiri, A.J.S., 2019. OPTIMIZATION OF EXECUTIVE OPERATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS USING PROJECT PLANNING AND CONTROL SYSTEM.

Oliveira, R.R. and Martins, H.C., 2017. Strategy, People and Operations as influencing agents of the Project Management Office performance: an analysis through Structural Equation Modeling. Gestão & Produção. 25. pp.410-429.

Petrillo, A and et.al., 2021. Operations Management: Emerging Trend in the Digital Era. BoD–Books on Demand.

Ravinder, H. and Kollikkathara, N., 2017. Project management in operations management textbooks: Closing the gap. Journal of the Academy of Business Education. 18.

Romano, L. ed., 2017. Project Portfolio Management Strategies for Effective Organizational Operations. IGI Global.

Visser, W.F., 2020. A Blueprint for Performance-Driven Operations Management. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration. pp.1-9.

Wedel, T. and Behnezhad, A., 2019. Precision Auto Clone: an integrated quantitative operations management case. International Journal of Teaching and Case Studies. 10(3). pp.209-234.

Whyte, J. and Nussbaum, T., 2020. Transition and Temporalities: Spanning Temporal Boundaries as Projects End and Operations Begin. Project Management Journal. 51(5). pp.505-521.

Yaghtin, M. and Abbasi, M., 2018. Selecting appropriate operations strategy using project management concepts: an economic analysis approach. International Journal of Business and Systems Research. 12(2). pp.148-161.

Online

Cadbury: Case study analysis, 2016. [Online]. Available Through: < https://simconblog.wordpress.com/2016/06/19/cadbury-case-study-analysis/>.

J Sainsbury Net Income 2006-2020, 2021. [Online]. Available Through: < https://www.macrotrends.net/stocks/charts/JSAIY/j-sainsbury/net-income>.

Six Sigma for Improved Quality Management, 2020. [Online]. Available Through: <https://www.hqts.com/six-sigma-for-improved-quality-management/>.

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