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Project Management For Civil Engineers

1.0 Ensuring Health & Safety Management

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There can be several issues and challenges related to the health and environment of the word cards, which are engaged in the project of railway bridge construction.

  • Accident: accidents can happen now and then in the construction of bridges. It is one of the greatest health risks for workers. There is the provision of helmets for all the workers in the construction project of the railway as it can protect the head, the most important parts of the body. Inflammable components are also used for various work construction projects (Zhang et al., 2018).For welding reinforcement in various structural components like columns and slabs, a Mixture of hydrogen and asetilin gases word used as the primary fuel of the welding machine. This produces 1600 to 1200 degree Celsius of heat for welding. Special types of glasses were used by the workers to prevent the damaging effect of the spark on the eyes (Bait and Sui., 2018). during the welding process, contagious gases are also produced by the building reinforcements, which can damage the lungs if inhaled.
  • Implementing modern tools: For the development of the safety of the workers, modern tools and techniques has been used in the project. It can provide the surety of safety in a significant manner (Liu et al., 2019). It is a great step for the protection of the employees of the railway construction.
  • Survey: After implementing the tools for the safety of the worker's health and condition survey on a regular basis will be conducted. It is for the checking of those employees or workers health condition and fitness of the workers.
  • Provision of rest: There is a provision of taking rest of 20 minutes after the continuous working of the 3 hours. It can improve the workforce of the project. Besides this, physical safety is also considered with that process (Gaoet al., 2018).
  • Eyeglasses utilization: Every worker in the railway bridge project will have been offered transparent sunglasses for eye protection as there can be issues with the eye of the workers in this project.
  • Proper uniform: The uniform for the project will be according to the comfort them.

2.0 Project Risk Management Hazard

There can be several hazardous issues and challenges that have to be managed with proper strategy and implications.

  • Cash flow issue: There can be a risk with cash flow for this project of railway bridge in the urban side. It is because the clients may be short of money at time or before the time of delivery of the project (Tiwari, and Latha, 2020). The cost of raw material is increasing, and there is no additional funding for this project.
  • The risk can be in completing the work in time.
  • Injuries and accidents in the sight of the project
  • Risk of poor material and working skill of the tendered workers
  • Change of schedule due to many reasons are also an important risk
  • There can risk of structural failure
  • Risk of theft from the project site

Mitigating the risk

  • Proper agreement is there for mitigating the first risk
  • Enthusiasm of the workers has to be grown by the team leader of every team of the project. It can increase the workforce of the project, and the competition can be done within time.
  • Proper measurement of safety is there for the workers of the project (Yu et al., 2017). It can reduce the accidents and injuries on the site, and all the rules and regulations will be followed.
  • Avoiding the poor quality of work, skilful workers have to be employed in this bridge construction (CalderónGarcíaet al., 2017). It can help to grow in the workforce, and there will be a minimum chance of poor work.
  • The management is ready for any economic and schedule changes in the project.

3.0 Implementation of CDM

The construction design and management regulation are necessarily a set of guidelines that need to be followed by a given high profile project that is commercial or public, involving the risk of a high number of people in case of its collapse. It is pertinent that the given project must abide by the construction design and management regulation latest of which came in the year 2015, replacing the old guidelines that were laid in the year 2015. It is important that any of these governing projects must comply with the standard protocols of design set by the construction design and management regulations to meet the legal requirements unless it is bound to be penalized strictly on the basis of the contractual options.

The intended project, which is considered here of a truss type bridge design, railway track design as well as an adjacent access road design, is a very high-level project that must adhere to the construction design and management regulations for which the given project will be duly completed (Li et al., 2021). The construction design and management regulations will be implemented in the design and monitoring of this project in the form of suitable inspection teams and auditors that will highly evaluate the project during the particular stages of the construction, confirming the safety. The responsibility to adhere to the legal guidelines of the construction design and management regulations would be shared by the contractors in providing the safe and sustainable practices of construction amounting to the greater notion of constructional development in the given civil structure.

4.0 Typical cash flow model

It is probable that any form of a constructional project will have a certain form of cost flow model involved as the estimation and costing forms the basis of any project. In this construction project, various elements of construction are involved, such as bridge design, railway track design, as well as a pavement design consisting of a large portion of financial estimation entailing the overall project, is involved. It will be highly complicated to develop the cash flow model for the overall construction project underlying various construction activities for the system for which every form of activity that is present is avoided. For the simplicity of the cash flow model, only the abutment and pier design for the bridge design is considered (Kaewunruen and Mirza, 2017). It is assumed that all the work activities till that part are completed, and the suppliers and subcontractor for that particular part of the project are selected adequately as well. Since the pier design and abutment design is considered, the foundation design for them is considered as well for the supplier for these works are chosen separately. The amount which is collected from the client is considered based on the sum to be paid to the suppliers as well as the financier of this project.

The interest of 5% is considered for the financier of this project, and the rest of the sum is considered as the profit that will be accumulated for the project (Kaewunruen and Lian, 2019). The cash model is developed on the basis of a 12 month instalment period over which it is estimated that the abutment design, as well as the pier design, is fully completed for the bridge design that is considered as the essential part of the bridge as it will be providing the necessary stability to the whole bridge structure. 

5.0 IRR and another decision-making process for the tender submission

"Internal rate of return"(IRR) Is a unit or metric that is used to estimate the rate of profitability of a business after investing capital into it. "Internal rate of return" is also counted as a discount rate that turns the " net present value"(NPV) of total cash flows into zero (Lee et al., 2018). The use of this operation is appropriate in discounted cash flow analysis. The calculation of IRR depends upon the same equation of NPV. " internal rate of return" does not give the result accurately in the form of pounds. The total annual return turns the present value to zero. According to the rule of " internal rate of return," the higher value of it means a number of profitability may occur against the given amount of investment.IRR can be implemented in capital analysis to manage the investment according to their profitability return (Wang et al., 2021). “Internal rate of return” also provides a General overview regarding each investment proposal to the business. The equation that can be used for the calculation of IRR is mentioned below.

 In this report, the total amount of primary investment is considered as £10M. The bank interest is taken as 5%.  The series of cash flow and the corresponding dates can be calculated using IRR. In this Railway project, IRR calculation is required to estimate the returned capital after investment. It also helps the management to measure the project's practicality.

6.0 Completion of time (Grant chart)

The overall construction project programme is developed as a part of the overall estimation time for the whole project. The numerous activities that entailed in the completion of this overall large construction project of twin railway tracks, pair of access roads on either side of a constructed truss type bridge over an undocked basin supported by abutments and piers beneath the bridge structure were duly considered for the program design.

The outline diagram for the bridge design considering the development of the bridge as well as the different activity details which were provided for the construction of the whole project was referenced for developing the whole project program planning in the form of Gantt chart (Lin et al., 2019). The Gantt chart was developed covering the overall project construction process considering each and every activity such as sleeper design, prestress segments, abutment construction, pier construction and others for the overall project realization. As per the project requirements and overall project completion time of 3 years were considered for which each of the activity tasks were divided accordingly for each of the projects. A suitable time estimation time was considered for each of the activities by referring to a similar type of bridge construction project. 

The project costing for this project will also be somewhere around $ 1500000 as it is quite complex, involving bridge truss design and consisting of additional access roads as well provided for the welfare offices and facilities to be considered for the railway development as well.

7.0 Value engineering and Quality management of the project

Value engineering is the most important factor for every construction project. In this project, the main functional steps like planning, budgeting, bringing raw materials, engaging skilful workers, etc., have been focused in a significant way. This project has not engaged in any unnecessary function. In the current days, the cost of raw materials are rising, and due to this matter, secondary options have to be chosen. In this project, for the slab and foundations, instead of cement concrete, the slabs made of flying ash can be used as they can reduce the cost in a significant way, and its stability is also good for this kind of rail bridge construction. For this project, the unskilful workers cannot be engaged as 8t can be very risky for those workers and the project of construction also. The quality of the works in the project has to be checked on a 15 days interval basis. The focus will only be on the several materials and components to maintain the value of the bridge construction project.

Tasks will be observed for maintaining the quality of the project. The portion of the project where improvement is needed has to be identified and improved in an immediate manner. The workers have to be concerned, and there will be proper leadership to the workers for maintaining the workflow while maintaining the quality (Fenget al., 2021). There will be proper decision making before the project and at the time of processing of the project. The relationship among the workers has to be good for better work.

8.0 Sustainable technology for the project

There are different technologies engaged with sustainability that can be used in the railway bridge project. It may include the sustainability of energy. The site of the light railway bridge in the urban areas can be lighted with solar energy. It is a great system of the project to maintain sustainability.

Green insulation can be another sustainable factor for this project as it can be needed for the project development. For enhancing sustainability, the deck slab of the bridge has to be designed on the arching action (Li et al., 2020). It can help the environmental effect in a significant way. In this project, waste of water can be at a very minimum level for the conservation of the water. The reusing technology will be there for the sustainability in the conservation of the water (CalderónGarcía, P.A., 2017). For the use of gas, this project will use biogas instead of non-renewable gas. This is a great factor for the utilization of sustainable technology for this project.

Green or sustainable technology can be there with the use of sustainability in the economy. It can result the less expense for making the railway bridge. The technology for the construction can be there with the least affecting biodiversity. It will not cut any tree for the construction of the bridge, and this can be a very impactful sustainable aspect for the project. The needless expense will not be there for maintaining the cash flow and budgeting for the project, and economic sustainability can be maintained with that.

9.0 Procurement strategy for the project

A procurement strategy is defined as the plan and process of acquiring all of the necessary resources from efficient vendors among others who can supply Prime quality of goods within the schedule. An efficient procurement process depends upon various factors like available budget, " total cost of ownership"(TCO), probable risks, resource purchasing timeline and more.Procurement strategy primary focus is on lowering the operation of the project. Mitigating and natural expansion of the business are also two significant factors of procurement strategy (Middleton, et al., 2019). There are different types of documents that are available which can be used across different types of organizations, and those strategies are mentioned below.

  • Management of potential risks
  • quality management of resources
  • eco friendly purchasing
  • operation cost reduction
  • Optimization and management of resource suppliers.
  • acquiring resources on a global scale.

Before obtaining a new procurement strategy, analyzing the existing spending structure of an organization is required for estimating the practicality of the new system (Wu et al., 2020). detailed data and Facts has to be obtained from the stakeholders, resource suppliers and other related parties of the organization. "Total cost of ownership" can be used to identify and evaluate hidden costs of various operations within the organization.

Analysis of market conditions also gives the idea regarding effective procurement strategy. Estimating the economic condition of the supply market as well as the demand market of a product and services is critical for obtaining an efficient procurement strategy (Yuan, et al., 2021). It is done to analyze the relevance of the products or services within the demand market. In this report The demand of Railway Bridge is needed to be estimated as the passage in urban areas.

10 Cost-benefit analysis of the project

"Cost-benefit analysis" (CBA) is used to estimate the cost of a project against its returned benefits. CBA is important for any type of project to evaluate its practicality and feasibility from the user's perspective (Kaewunruen, and Lian, 2019). A typical " cost-benefit analysis" includes tangible benefits and the total amount of project expenses. It calculates " return on investment" (ROI), " non present value"( NPV), " internal rate of return" (IRR), " return on investment"(ROI) and period time. After capturing those values, the difference among the project cost and return benefits is calculated. The general rule of cost-benefit analysis is that the project cost has to be less than 50% of the returned benefits (Mirzaet al., 2017).CBA can be used to evaluate the need for hiring human resources for the effective operation of an organization.It can also be used to evaluate the required changes.In this project, the need of the Railway Bridge can be estimated from different perspective using " cost-benefit analysis".

Reference list


Tiwari, G. and Latha, G.M., 2020. Stability analysis and design of stabilization measures for Chenab railway bridge rock slopes. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment79(2), pp.603-627.

Lv, F., Ren, F. and Zhang, L., 2018, November. Study on deformation influence of shield tunnel passing through existing railway bridge piles. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 189, No. 2, p. 022088). IOP Publishing.

Sui, H.Q. and Bait, C.Y., 2018. Study on the technology of grouting and reinforcing the foundation of a railway bridge above shallow old mine goaf. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 169, p. 01041).EDP Sciences.

Lu, C., Liu, J., Liu, Y. and Liu, Y., 2019. Intelligent construction technology of railway engineering in China. Frontiers of Engineering Management6(4), pp.503-516.

Zhu, Y., Zhang, J. and Gao, X., 2018. Construction management and technical innovation of the main project of Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macao Bridge. Frontiers of Engineering Management5(1), pp.128-132.

He, X., Wu, T., Zou, Y., Chen, Y.F., Guo, H. and Yu, Z., 2017.Recent developments of high-speed railway bridges in China. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering13(12), pp.1584-1595.

Zhou, M., Lu, W., Song, J. and Lee, G.C., 2018.Application of ultra-high performance concrete in bridge engineering. Construction and Building Materials186, pp.1256-1267.

Torres Górriz, B., Rinaudo, P. and CalderónGarcía, P.A., 2017. Comparison between point and long?gage FBG?based strain sensors during a railway bridge load test. Strain53(4), p.e12230.

Cheng, S., Lin, J., Yang, D., Liu, J. and Li, H., 2020.Carbon, water, land and material footprints of China’s high-speed railway construction. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment82, p.102314.

Hu, H., Tang, J., Wang, Y., Zhang, H., Lin, Y., Su, L., Liu, Y., Zhang, W., Wang, C., Wu, D. and Wu, X., 2020. Evaluating bird collision risk of a high-speed railway for the crested ibis. Transportation research part D: transport and environment87, p.102533.

Lin, W., Butler, L.J., Elshafie, M.Z. and Middleton, C.R., 2019. Performance assessment of a newly constructed skewed half-through railway bridge using integrated sensing. Journal of Bridge Engineering24(1), p.04018107.

Wang, L., Wang, R. and Yuan, Z., 2021, April. Refined cost control and management methods for high-speed railway signal projects. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1885, No. 4, p. 042073). IOP Publishing.

Kaewunruen, S. and Lian, Q., 2019. Digital twin aided sustainability-based lifecycle management for railway turnout systems. Journal of Cleaner Production228, pp.1537-1551.

Kaewunruen, S. and Mirza, O., 2017, October.Hybrid discrete element-finite element simulation for railway bridge-track interaction. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 251, No. 1, p. 012016). IOP Publishing.

Li, J., Du, G., Liang, Y., He, Z., Yan, X. and Feng, Y., 2021. Construction analysis and monitoring of the vertical rotation of steel tube arch ribs. Structural Engineering International31(1), pp.45-50.

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