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A study on Green building and Project management Assignment Sample

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A study on Green building and Project management Assignment

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Chapter 1: Introduction -A study on Green buildings and Project management

1.1 Overview

The concern about environmental sustainable construction is growing from the previous years since global concerns have arisen. The general populace is increasingly more aware of Green Construction and its implications as prominent personalities, legislators, researchers, and documentarians emphasise the influence of architectural design on poisonous carbon pollution such as carbon emissions and the dependence on fossil fuels. The total expense of construction materials increased energy prices, and legislative considerations are pushing the green building business to develop and diversify. The research will emphasise the impact of green buildings such as cost profitability, renewable energy, etc. It will also outline the severe constraints that are creating a limitation of project management and green building contraction.

1.2 Research Background

Green buildings are structures in which all of the resources and new solutions are intended to minimise the influence of the external area on the people. According to Thakur et al., (2018), Green buildings are intended to economise efforts and money, waste recycling, and reduce harmful component emissions across its product lifecycle. The “USGBC of the USA introduced the theme of Green building design for construction and its sustainable aspect in 1993. Green structures that blend well with the climatic changes, practices, economy, and ecosystem. Green buildings can preserve and enhance social existence while also preserving the capability of the ecological system on a regional and international level. As supported by Singh, (2018), these values are allocated on green building techniques for sustainability areas, recycling and reuse power of the ecosystem, informational resources, and construction of indoor ecological integrity. These estimations are constructed in the form of classifications, each with its series of parameters. Economically, the tendency of increasing environmental and electricity productivity as an outcome of green construction improvements might result in larger commodity cost savings (Usgbc.org, 2021). This is expected to assist all firms looking to generate income in order to succeed.

The industrialised and developing countries have created various well-structured and famous green building estimation infrastructure such as “Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED, USA), “Green Mark Scheme in Singapore, “BRE Environmental Assessment Method, “Green Building Council of Australia Green Star. These evaluation techniques are intended to detect and quantify various aspects of green buildings sustainability. Green infrastructure entails balancing the greener livelihood and commercial construction. In addition, Rosa et al., (2017), the missions necessitate special consideration and communication from the architects, designers, customers at various levels of a venture, and technicians. Green construction achieves specific to and extends conventional construction concepts in terms of usability, cost, safety, and longevity. Because of the worldwide demand on the ecosystem for modern actions, most sectors are now focusing on green initiatives and ecological sustainability.

1.3 Rationale

According to Pei, (2017), Green building includes a variety of characteristics such as renewable energy, power generation economy, environmentally preferred structural materials, recycling and reuse, resource efficiency, external oxygen purification, chemical reduction, and adaptive expansion. By seeing the benefits of the green building contraction, the project managers implement this approach to maintain sustainability. According to Davies and Davies, (2017), employing commodities successfully assisted domestic constructions in saving 55% of the spending in this area. As a result, going green offers a feasible answer to environmental challenges in the corporate environment. Having advantages, the green construction also has some drawbacks, such as technical error, lack of maintenance, lack of knowledge of the concept, dependability on weather conditions, etc.

Based on the record of “Green building Councils of US, Canada is leading in the concept of green building contraction and almost 4814 buildings are assigned under this project. Despite the fact that virtually all schemes include underlying concepts that include numerous areas of sustainable development (Daniel et al., 2018). There are discrepancies in comprehensive screening standards throughout places that are dependent on the regional environment and specific conditions.

1.4 Aim

The aim is to comprehend the idea of green building, impact of green contraction, as well as the project management difficulties that arise with it.

1.5 Research Objective

  • To analyse the way project managers design for Green building
  • To determine the impact of Green building Project Management
  • To discover the challenges a project face during Green Contraction
  • To evaluate the cost profitability of Green Building

1.6 Research Questions

  • How does the project managers design for Green building?
  • What is the impact of Green building Project Management?
  • What are the challenges a project faces during Green Contraction?
  • What is the cost profitability of Green Building?

1.7 Brief Literature Review

A ‘Green architecture is one that minimizes or prevents adverse effects on the atmosphere and environmental surroundings through its planning, development, and maintenance. According to Hwang et al., (2017), Green construction helps to protect environmental capital while also improving the standard of living. Green infrastructure can be defined as renovation governance practises that remove or reduce externalities, the ecosystem, and non-renewable power sources, to improve societal well?being, and to establish economic progress, according to a compilation of distinct publications. Based on the view of Hirunyawipada and Pan, (2019), the green infrastructure might be any structure, including a house, a workplace, an institution, a healthcare, or a cultural centre. It is indeed important to emphasise, though, that not every sustainable construction is evenly distributed. Various countries and regions possess numerous environmental circumstances, customs and ethnicities, and ages of buildings. The varied ecological, socioeconomic, and social concerns are all of which influence their commitment to green building.

Beside this, there are various challenges associated with the green building construction. The project coordinator executes the program strategy in terms of operation completion authorisation to generate project outcomes. Sustainable green technology necessitated complicated tools and procedures, which, if not handled correctly, can disrupt the operation. According to Pei, (2017), inadequate mechanical understanding and experience in these emerging technologies. A green infrastructure administrator was required to present the design with particular requirements defined by a user. The fact that such environmental initiatives are unique has an impact on the final results. Sustainable Construction helps businesses to reap the benefits of a green business model while also making a strong relationship with consumers, workers, business relationships, and capital.

1.8 Brief Research Methodology

The selection of appropriate techniques for the entire research will be identified in this section. It systematically identifies the issues and provides the necessary tools. Procedure and materials are essential to perform the research. The positivism philosophy will be applied in this research. As stated by Brittainet al., (2020), Positivism philosophy assists in reaching an emphasis placed on scientific investigation. The expertise and conceptions will be interpreted through reasoning inference. The entire strategy to perform the investigation with a precise, comprehensive, and efficient strategy is considered in the research design. Through distribution, observation, evaluation, and conversation, the design establishes the study topics. The exploratory research design emphasises a thorough examination of certain variables. According to Goertzen, (2017), the deductive method of inquiry can aid researchers in connecting empirical findings with conceptual principles. The research will follow the quantitative strategy for collecting primary data to reach out the targeted outcome. The secondary sources from the authorised publications will be used in discussing the literature portion. With the help of an open-ended questionnaire the data will be gathered from the survey regarding the green building contraction (Apuke, 2017). Around 100 respondents will be participating in the survey and the sampling technique will be a purposive sampling technique. The collected data will be analysed statistically through MS-Excel tools based on the response of the participants.

1.9 Research Outcome

The purpose of the research is to assess the implementation of green building construction and project management and their effectiveness to overcome the challenges during the construction. Through the research, the challenges of green building contraction, designing process will be uncovered in depth. It will help the project managers to change their perspective on how to address the obstacles in the future development of green contraction. Moreover, Su, (2020), said that the deep discussion in the literature part gives the knowledge about ecological impact and cost profitability of this project. it will help to analyse the distinct qualities between traditional and green project development. Moreover, it helps in the future implication of green project management and increases sustainability.

1.10 Ethical Consideration

The research will be carried out in compliance with ethical standards. The connection with responders from many backgrounds is a requirement of this particular endeavour, and ethical consideration is a must. The ethical principles for experimental integrity establish moral norms that must be followed (Brittainet al., 2020). Concerns of reference consistency and stability must be identified and resolved. The research must protect the confidentiality, authenticity, and data protection of survey participants. The participants must sign a consent form before their information is stored. The main thesis will be stored in a digital device safe and the content will maintain its originality.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

Green building denotes the architecture and application of energy and ecologically sustainable methods throughout a structures “life cycle through development to planning to conservation, management, and refurbishment to deconstruction. This review of the literature portion will provide a strong intellectual understanding concerning green building and project management. The discussion will cover the procurement and construction procedures, as well as the issues of “green building project management as contrasted to the standard technique.

2.2 The way project managers design for Green building

According to the article “Press Room…, a recently published IPCC assessment accomplishing worldwide carbon management objectives will need a faster and ecological transformation in territory, electricity, construction, transportation, and cities (Usgbc.org, 2021). Construction industry accounts for about 40% of worldwide resource CO2 and will be critical to a long-term transition. Green construction integration saves money on a yearly basis. Sustainable construction energy efficiency measures often reduce expenses of the company by over 10% in one year, while LEED projects have experienced nearly 20% reduced construction expenses than conventional corporate buildings.

According to Wibowoet al., (2018), green construction for project management is an art rather than just a technology. Green construction has benefited the financial section by creating huge employment opportunities and trillions of dollars. Sustainable building accounted for around $170 billion in GDP between 2011 and 2014. Throughout that time period, going green generated more than 720,000 employments in Texas. LEED-related companies generated around $2 billion in taxes revenue for governments in 2014. Green contraction provides a complete systematic approach for designing and contracting sustainable productive buildings that contribute to the betterment of the ecosystem to the corporate level (Greenspacencr.org, 2021). The existing ecosystem must be conserved by the cautious construction of the structure in order to minimise disruption to the pre-existing native surroundings. These concerns are frequently overlooked in traditional buildings.

Additionally, Doan et al., (2017) says that the construction manager and the major consultant are necessary to guarantee that the development carbon emissions are kept to a low, assuring that soil degradation, aerosol dust emission, and water formation are all monitored closely. Designers should make every effort to make all resources and resource intakes and outcomes as non hazardous as conceivable. It is preferable to reduce pollution than to eliminate or start cleaning up pollution that has already been created. Extraction and filtration planning are activities to employ that same least amount of power and resources possible.

Location selecting and design

According to Shan and Hwang, (2018), when people have convenient accessibility to critical services and public transportation, inexpensive accommodation performs effectively. These and other comparative advantages can be found at expansion locations. Create a location that blends in with the community and works with natural elements to offer comfortable play areas, screen the construction, and effectively reduce wastewater overflow. As Awadh, (2017) says that, Reduce environmental consequences by condensing the technologys ecological dimension with more compact structure and parking designs, as well as tending of plants and ground conditions throughout development. The importance of location and design of the contraction are vital for sustainable or going green projects.

Community

As Sánchez et al., (2020), says that Green buildings and expansions facilitate cohesive community by providing gathering areas for neighbours, creating a powerful connection of location and protection. It also provides spots for children instead of automobiles. Residents and local families are involved in consistently productive solutions from the preliminary stages via construction and management. According to Alwisyet al., (2018), promote community design mechanisms that can assist in understanding goals while also allowing for portability. Collaborating with the local community and including in the designing phase of the construction help to reduce their worries and requirements.

Quality of Air Circulation

According to Zhang et al., (2019), air circulation has a considerable influence on resident well-being and pleasure, which are important objectives for any structure. Ensuring a good interior setting necessitates meticulous planning, development, and material properties, as well as excellent teamwork throughout the maintenance worker. Interior quality of air is centred on well ventilating and humidity management, which is linked to renewable energy and architecture sustainability. Additionally Al-Ghamdiet al., (2017), mentioned that regular management is very crucial for the contraction because it is a dedication to discovering nontoxic replacements to harmful designs and materials.

Energy

According to Illankoonet al., (2017), developing the building of a perfectly regulated, efficient, green workhorse begins with renewable energy. Pre-construction phase involves employing power simulation technology to make use of the wind and sunlight to warm, brighten, and refrigerate the building at a low cost. Simulations will demonstrate why a high construction exterior and improved insulation allow the selection of lower, more energy-efficient HVAC systems, lights, and equipment. The renewable energy guarantees to reduce the rate of expansion by considering green energy for the ongoing building from the electric provider. Wherever possible, Zhao et al., (2019) says that green energy is the best subsequent approach. The optimum use of sustainable power is inherent thermal warming and natural source of light and it is important that the construction is energy intensive and maintain the availability. Although the profit might be ten to fifteen decades away, incentives would be allocated to help defray the early costs of these innovations.

Necessary Materials

As Ding et al., (2018), mentioned that Green and elevated construction supplies that decrease or remove issues about air quality, prevent contaminants, and significantly decrease pollution have become readily accessible, typically from domestic suppliers. Easily available and recyclable material saves time and money while often beating conventional options. Examine guidelines, regulations, and approvals before establishing purchase specifications. Life cycle modelling has produced several guidelines for various subcategories of resources. As supported by Alwisyet al., (2018), the toxic or contaminated substances are strictly avoided in the green building construction. Selecting the correct material is a difficult task to undertake without addressing the ecological and economic effects of collecting, constructing, transporting and discarding each product. Unique chemical and physical product lifecycle evaluation must have resulted in multiple general guidelines for various materials.

Waste Management

According to Xueet al., (2019), the green constriction takes the initiative to decrease costs and enhance design condition, conserve, recycle, and reclaim development and waste incineration. Layout for resource efficiency and long-term sustainability are necessary to prevent unnecessary wastage. As part of a recycling program, it stated objectives and included them into tender documentation. On the green construction, one can recycle approximately 70% of certain recyclable materials, and householders can reclaim 100% of those at residence with the appropriate arrangement (Greenspacencr.org, 2021).

Water

As Wibowoet al., (2018), said to incorporate water-saving equipment and drainage systems, landscape with water shortages species and effective management, and recycle rainfall and municipal wastewater to maintain precious water supply and save money on electricity costs. Replacing concrete and green grass with road structure and plants rainwater tanks has subsequently contemplating, constructed waterways, and rooftop gardens to absorb water of the sewage overflow that damages the environment and rivers in the urban area. According to Heet al., (2018), rainwater will absorb water through the surface rather than stream immediately to a drainage based on superior landscaping practises, concrete changes, retention and purification systems. Reduce the amount of water entering the integrated discharge drainage system by 10% to 20% and the expense of clearing the river will be substantially reduced.

Marketability

Green buildings not only cut living expenses and maintain people's health, but they also encourage people to live a healthy lifestyle. According to Doan et al., (2017), the effective architecture, proper application of abundant lighting, extensive concept layout with sunlight, adequate air quality, water supply, impress the people and increase the attention toward green contraction. Owners, architects, and neighbours all have a positive effect on the construction of a green development and to maintain for respective residences, communities, and the ecosystem because of the remarkable and appealing architecture. Sustainability is built on these characteristics. Moreover, Shan and Hwang, (2018), mentioned that It may improve overall artistic, ethical, and ecological integrity for a better future by considering sustainable infrastructure.

LEED accredited constructions, for example, are a global answer for governments, counties, and regions. Around 80 million tonnes of solid waste have been sustainably sourced as a result of the LEED project. The number is predicted to raise the reduced sources to 540 million tonnes by 2030 (Usgbc.org, 2021). The visible advantages might not even be immediately apparent to inhabitants or users, but green buildings improve the environment, consumption and pollution, conserve groundwater, prioritise greener products, and reduce human contamination by green development, implementation, and management. Every year, conventional construction procedures utilise and discard millions of tonnes of supplies; sustainable construction projects use lower energy and reduce pollution. Based on the Environmental Protection Agency, warming and refrigeration accounts for around 43% of all electricity consumption in the state, contributing to environmental pollution and producing the most carbon output (Awadh, 2017). Green architecture may lower airborne contaminants associated with chronic medical conditions by boosting resource conservation.

2.3 Green Building

According to the study by Singh, (2018), the ideaof“green buildingis not justtheoretical anymore, but rather embedded in the core of modern construction techniques. Industry and evengeneralacceptance along with theacquaintance with eco - friendly materials and processes continue pushing down theconstruction costs. According to the research, building “green today offers a chance to more effectively utilize resources while also resulting in better buildings as well as a healthier environment, as well as huge cost savings. However, Ebhota and Jen,(2020) shows thatsustainable or greendesign is especially important in today's environment of fast depleting fossil fuels and growing climate effect from greenhouse gases. A compelling need to identify appropriate strategies to minimize building power requirements, boost quality of the building, as well as utilize renewable sources of energy in installations can be feltfor reducing environmental impact, points out study by Atanda and Olukoya, (2019). Green construction is beneficial to the environment since it incorporates energy-saving construction methods and incorporatessustainable, site-appropriate building materials that lower consumption of energy significantly, as observed in another study by Shurrab, Hussain and Khan, (2019). As per Ling-Chin et al., (2019), the main goals of sustainable design as well asconstruction are to minimize deterioration of critical resources like water,energy, and raw materials, as well as to avoid environmental deterioration on the whole. Since wellbeing is a high concern for sustainability, green buildings are evencomfortable and safe environments to reside and operate. Devlin, (2018) points out that green buildings are intended to be located, built, designed, and governed in such a way that they improve the well-being of its inhabitants while also supporting a strong community as well as natural environment with very little negative influence on the environment.

Green Building Design

Since the creative team is frequently required to evaluate alternate components and technologies, green building design might be more intricate in comparison to the designs ofconventional buildings. Schematic designs, which comprise of a basic and broad notion of how constructions would look, are utilized at the inception of the project cycle in traditional building projects, according to the study conducted by Sacks et al., (2018). Yet, because green buildings contain many distinctive design aspects that arenot typically present in conventional buildings andthus necessitate seamless integration, a comprehensive and inclusive design process is applied right from the outset of the initiative in green building projects. The three main categories of designing ofgreen buildingcharacteristics are indoor illumination, construction materials, and plan, as per Alwisy, BuHamdan and Gül,(2018). The lighting system in a green building blends low-energy lighting components with natural lighting process with the help of strategic window placement and the use of energy-efficient and smart fluorescent lamps. In order to assure that green buildings are sustainable, environmentally friendly building supplies, like recycled bamboo flooring, and also toxic-free materials, like non-toxic paint and evenformaldehyde-free cabinets, are employed, points out (Omer and Noguchi, 2020). The structure of the building has a considerable impact on the building's efficiency of energy. Through the layout of the buildings, green buildings additionally make the mostofnatural ventilation.

The basic principles of Green building include livable community, energy efficiency,resource conservation, indoor air quality, as well as water conservation (Yang and Qian, 2018).Green building, in practice, is a holistic approach to construction that contains, creating habitable communities via design, taking advantage of the sun as well as the site for natural heating, day lighting andcooling, creating long-lasting structures, reducing construction and demolition waste and recycling them, providing adequate insulation and ventilation using resources that are long-lasting, reclaimed, recycled, and obtained responsibly, utilizing healthy building materials and techniques, and utilizing water- and energy-efficient devices, fittings, and systems, according to the research done by Gültekin, Y?ld?r?m and Tanr?vermi?, (2018).

By conserving biodiversity and maintaining air and water quality, these methods help to conserve our environment for the future generation when adopted holistically. They assist us presently by improving our comfort including well-beingwhile also assisting in the maintenance of healthy pollution levels. Lastly, green building solutions benefit everyone's wallet by decreasing replacement and maintenancecosts, slashing utility bills as well as houseownership costs, and enhancing asset and resale prices (Brown, 2020).

Green Project Management Construction

Green building projects must include sustainable construction principles in addition to traditional construction methods, which are frequently listed within the rating systems of green buildinglike LEED. A waste management strategy to cut generation of waste on the construction project is one instance of such methods. Sustainable methods like usingconcrete that is recycledfor building structures and utilizing wood from renewable sources are often necessary in the construction ofgreen building. Furthermore, the headproject manager andcontractormust regulate soil erosion, river sedimentation, and generation ofairborne dustto makesure that degradation from the buildingconstruction is maintained to a minimal. Moreover, the natural environment must be preserved through carefully sited buildings that cause minimal disruption to the underlying natural ecosystem. In traditional building, these factors are frequently overlooked.

2.4 Impact of Green Buildings

The data that sustainable buildings have various benefits is developing across the world. They are considered as the most efficient tools for achieving various global objectives thatincludefighting climate change, vibrant communities, along with fostering sustainable and boosting economic growth.

Green construction benefits could be categorized into three parts: environmental, economic, as well as social. Somefacts and figures from a variety of secondarysources demonstrate these advantages.

On a building level, the climate as well as the natural environment is two of the highlyessential kinds of benefits that green buildings provide. Green buildings could have a significantlypositive effecton our environment,at the variousbuildings or thecity sectors,by creating their individualenergy or promoting biodiversity, along with reducing or completely eliminating adverse effect on our environment through the use oflessenergy,wateror natural resources. When compared to other major polluting industries, the building industry possesses the highest possible potential for considerably decreasing greenhouse emissions - as perUNEP, 2009. By 2050, deliberate actions in buildings like fuel switching,energy efficiency, and alsothe deploymentof renewable energy are estimated to save around84 giga-tonnes of CO2 (GtCO2) - UNEP, 2016 (Nono and Verouska, 2020). In 2050, the building industry has the capacityto save half or even more energy, aiding in maintaining global temperature increases to 2°C (beyond pre-industrial levels), according to theUNEP, 2016 ( Frank-Stocker et al., 2020).Green buildings based in Australia,that have received the ‘Green Star Certification have been demonstrated to create 62 percent lower emissions of greenhouse gasas well as 51 percent less drinkable water when compared tobuildings that have been designed to fulfill minimal industry requirements (Illankoon, Tam and Le,2020). When compared to regular structures in India, green buildings accredited by the ‘Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) save from 40 up to 50 percent on energy as well as from 20 to 30 percent on the water.

Green buildings across South Africa which have been accredited by the Green Star certification have been demonstrated to saveapproximately 30-40% carbon and energy emissions every year,on an averagealong with 20-30% water facilities per year, in comparison tothe industry standard. The green buildings that are LEED-certified and are situated in the United States and other nations have been found to utilize 25% less energy as well as 11% less water ascompared non-certified structures.

On an economic level, green buildings offer a set of financial or economicadvantages that aid a number of different individuals or groups. Potential savings on variousutility bills for thetenants or homeowners (due to efficiency ofwater and energy); reduced building costs and evenhigher real estate values for building constructors; improved occupancy rates or operation costs for theproperty managers; and employment creation cover a few instances.

On a global scale, according to the European Commission, measures for practicing global energy efficiencymay save from€280 to €410 billion in terms ofenergy coststhat isalmost twice the yearly electricity usage of the United States) (Rissman et al., 2020).Canada's green construction industry contributed $23.45 billion in GDP and approximately 300,000 full-time jobs in the year 2014, according to the ‘Canada Green Building Council as well as the Delphi Group(Gagliano-Veiga,2020). According to the ‘US Green Building Council and Booz Allen Hamilton, green building is expected to generate over 3.3 million employments in the United States by 2018, according to Goubran, Masson and Caycedo, (2019).

On a social scale,Green buildings, be itnew or renovated, offer a 7% boost in asset value over typical buildings, as regards building owners, according toDodge Data & Analytics, 2016, as per Schäfer, (2020). Green construction advantages have been shown to have advantageous social implications in addition to environmental and economic benefits. Most of these advantages pertain to the health as well as happiness of people who operate in green offices or reside in green houses.

Harvardresearch shows employeesin green and well-ventilated workspaces have a 101 percent rise in theircognitive scores, which is brain function. According to ‘the American Academy of Sleep Medicine , staff in workplaces with windows rested 46 minutes longer per night on average. Greater indoor air quality with low CO2 as well as pollutant levels, as well as high ventilation frequenciescan result in performance increases of approximately 8% (Kelly and Fussell, 2019).

Throughout abuilding's life cycle, eco-friendly development comprises the use of efficient resources and ecologically acceptable materials and procedures. Green walls have experienced a significant growth in popularity because of the several benefits they have over non-green architectures, which range from ecological to social and economic development. Impact of green building construction projects are mentioned below:

Low Setup and maintenance costs:

According to Semenyuk et al.,(2018), "green buildings include particular characteristics to ensure that resources like electricity and water are utilised efficiently". By utilising task lighting schemes and permitting plenty of natural daylight, green buildings, for instance, dramatically decreasethe amount of energy utilized in light sources. People can save close to a quarter of their water and energy costs this way. Given that service and maintenance costs can make up a significant portion to 80% of a building's lifecycle costs, minimising these costs can assist building owners increase their revenues from their assets (Bergström, 2021). In this regard, it's worth noting that green buildings are slightly more expensive to set up than their non-green counterparts. As a result, the lower operating and maintenance costs help to make them highly cost-effective in future.

Efficient power:

According to a study by Attia et al., green building'sdesign professionals try to reduce reliance on non-renewable energy resources such as coal to the maximum extent(2018). To do this, they use solar cells to capture solar energy and thenbuild windows in a manner that they allow plenty of natural light inside while lowering the use of artificial lights. These, together with a slew of additional safeguards, ensure that the constructionproject uses energy effectively. Non - renewable sources are expensive and harmful to the environment, thus energy efficiency is vital for the consumer as well asthe entire world.

Increases the indoor environment quality:

The surrounds inside a building along withhow they affect the building's tenants assess the quality of itsindoor environment. Lighting, ergonomics, climatic conditions,and air quality formall theaspects that are to beconsideredin this regard, according to Trofimova et al (2021). Once the indoor environment would be of excellent quality, the inhabitants' wellbeing is preserved, stress is decreased, and their living quality is increased. Green buildings achieve this by incorporating movable windows which let in enough natural light, as well as limiting the usage of compounds that could release toxic substances.

Efficiency of water:

According to Faye and Gomis, (2021), water efficiencyis the utilization of water resources in a careful way that saves water and guarantees a sustainable freshwater supply for present and future generations. Green construction helps by providing the usage of other water sources as rainwater, the lowering of water waste mostly through the deployment of modern plumbing systems, and the cut down of the pressure on common water resources through the implementation of purification as well as recycling systems.

Efficiency of materials:

Material efficiency can be regarded as the use of physical materials and processes in a manner that uses the least amount of material while still maintaining the quality and durability of the final product. Procedures should try to generate little amount of waste materials. Green construction companies utilise long-lasting materials (Nasier, 2021). They alsoreuse and recycle some products, construct buildings in a way that allows the use of less material, and imply procedures that make use of less water, raw materials as well as energy for achieving material efficiency. All of these factors contribute to material efficiency.

Comparatively a better environment:

Green buildings aid in the preservation of ourenvironment by reducing the usage of polluting energy sources like coal (Amaral et al., 2020). In this sense, anenvironment that is pollutedcould have a wide range of effects on public health. They also help to slow the rate and intensityof climate change by reducing the quantity of carbon dioxide released inthe atmosphere.

Helps in reducing pressure on local resources:

With the growth in population, locally shared resources as energy and water become increasingly limited. Green buildings could help in relieving this stress by utilising technology and procedures that improve energy and water efficiency.

2.5 Challenges a project face during Green Constriction

Green Building concept

According to Zhang et al., (2019), the idea of "Energy-Saving and Land-Saving Residential Building" created the notion of green building (GB). “Energy-saving, “land-saving, and “material-saving projects are the three types of GB projects.

Challenges in Green Building Design

According to Tran, (2020), designing green constructions is more complex than designing traditional buildings since the design team must often consider alternate materials and technologies such as using photovoltaic panels, smart windows, carbon monoxide alarms, energy star appliances, central vacuum system and others as shown in the figure above. In traditional construction projects, the project process is based on fundamental and broad planned designs for how the building should appear in general. It's essential to utilize a more modern approach while working on green projects since these structures have numerous unique design elements, integrations, and other characteristics. Improved construction sector business efficiency may have a noteworthy impact on future growth and development sustainability. The article has mentioned that project deliverables for green building projects are unpredictable; therefore, they need budgeting for contingencies. A wide range of issues and needs confront the building sector. Many nations are increasingly concentrating their efforts on enhancing the construction sector's performance as a means of advancing their socioeconomic standards. Zhang et al., (2019), have also mentioned that because of its complexity and difficulty, the construction sector encounters issues and problems all over the globe. In developing nations, these problems predominate because of a lack of resources, socioeconomic challenges, capacity to handle emergency circumstances, and structural flaws. Developing countries such as China, for example, are confronted with green building problems as the country's population grows along with its economy, driving people into the cities and driving up urbanisation and growth.

According to Ong et al., (2021), project management in the construction sector is critical because of the business's nature, and identifying successful methods may contribute to project success. It's important to remember that the success of construction projects relies mainly on project management approaches. In addition, one of the most critical factors in the success of construction projects is the competence of project management (PM). A construction project manager (PM) has to think about everything to make sure the project doesn't fail at any point. However, throughout project execution, unfavourable obstacles will almost always emerge. Project management is also becoming more diverse as construction, technology, and information technology is changing. Additionally, project managers must deal with global warming, environmental regulations, and long-term viability. To deal with these problems and difficulties, the managers need knowledge and abilities.

Challenges in Green Construction Projects

According to Iliopoulos et al., (2018), Green Building projects require more prices than traditional building projects because of green construction techniques and materials. Green projects are said to be 2% to 25% more expensive than standard construction projects. The complexity of building design and the modelling required to incorporate green practices into buildings makes them expensive. The cost of these projects has risen primarily due to the usage of green technology and materials. Ibrahim, (2017), also agrees with the cost issue and has revealed that there is a 4% increase in the price of materials for green projects compared to conventional schemes. The cost of a green board accounts for most of the rise since it is 10 times more expensive than the regular board used in traditional projects. Managing and delivering green projects within budgetary constraints directly impacts the performance of project managers due to the higher costs

Project managers working on green initiatives confront many obstacles; leaders among them need to focus on technical issues and complexity. According to Lekan et al., (2019), if there is a technical problem during construction, the project manager is in charge of putting the plan into action by allocating tasks and authority to produce project results. The project manager's performance may suffer if these difficulties are not addressed. Environmentally friendly buildings need the use of specialised methods and architectural layouts. Like traditional structures, these designs are more challenging to execute because of more sophisticated materials and systems as shown in the figure below.

Goh, (2021), claims that effectiveness of rising and implementing green building design is highly dependent on the contract type chosen for the project's deliverables because of the risk associated with various project delivery contract forms. An integrated green design must be part of the contract used in green projects—the contract type. If the plan is locked before the green design has been entirely developed, significant difficulties will be implemented. Many modifications are needed in green projects at various phases, resulting in higher costs.

According to Johnson, (2021), the approval procedure for innovative green technology and recycled materials is lengthy. Based on the market situation, the planning process for green projects may be extended if new green technology and materials need to be approved. Environmentally friendly design initiatives are anticipated to take longer to be approved. Paolini, (2020), has also agreed with this fact and revealed that project managers face a delay in establishing the project plan and making payments to dealers and suppliers due to this extra time.

According to Rigby and Ryan, (2018), design developer, contractors, and customers face specific difficulties and problems since they are unfamiliar with green technology such as implementing smart glass and others. Two significant barriers have been found, including a lack of expertise and familiarity with the design material and systems. Green technologies, according to Hwang et al., (2017), GB are more complicated and distinct than traditional ones. The article has revealed that GB has high implementation cost too. Project managers are tasked with completing the project within the specified timeframe and budget and it has been witnessed that project managers often shows less interest among project managers. The article has also revealed that although more than 40% of the global citizens are environmental friendly but high cost of implementation and lack of in-depth research and promotion regarding the advantages of green building, clients also show less interest in implementing GB and factors challenges in green construction projects.

2.6 Evaluating the cost and profitability of Green Building

Sustainable Construction

According to Ugur and Leblebici, (2018), building sustainably is often referred to as modernising building practices or improving conventional construction practices. On the other hand, Sun et al., (2019) have revealed that sustainable building adheres to a new norm that focuses on reducing resource depletion, reducing harmful emissions, and protecting the environment while also protecting biodiversity. Sustainable building and sustainable construction are words that are often used interchangeably in the “construction industry. The article has mentioned that the benefits of sustainable buildings is that they consume less energy and water in the short term, they also provide long-term economic advantages and are better for society's well-being as a whole. In order to achieve sustainable development, the process used during construction must integrate three principles: “economic sustainability that refers to increasing in profitability; (ii) “environmental sustainability, that includes commitment to utilize natural resources efficiently; and (iii) “social sustainability, that refers to the commitment to people's requirement (Sun et al., 2019).

According to Hsien et al., (2020), many advanced and evolving countries have acquaint with sustainable construction assessment tools to appraise green buildings due to their benefits such as UK based BREEAM, US based LEED, Green Star Australia, CASBEE Japan, GBI and MyCREST in Malaysia. According to Dwaikat and Ali, (2018), sustainable construction continues to be researched continuously, and numerous models have been established to grip the practice of sustainable construction, such as the “Green Construction Assessment. There is limited research on sustainable building economics, even though the high cost of sustainable construction is a significant deterrent to its widespread adoption. However, Sharma, (2018) has given a different view and revealed that GB save cost after implementation such as is requires less maintenance cost, requires less energy consumption (as GB uses solar panels, and others) and others as shown in the figure below.

Building Construction Cost

According to Zhang et al., (2019), the costs of building construction may be divided into three categories: (i) the original price; (ii) “operation,“maintenance and repair, and “replacement costs and (iii) “disposal costs, “residual value, and “finance charges". The same article has revealed that building expenses are divided into four categories: (i) original cost; (ii) resources cost; (iii) replacement cost; (iv) operational and maintenance cost. Silver and Shaw, (2018), gave a different view and building construction costs were also broken down into four other categories: “preliminary cost, “capital cost, “facility management cost, and “final disposal cost. However, because of the more significant initial costs associated with sustainable building construction, researchers primarily looks at the short term costs.

According to Blanchard et al., (2017), the costs spent throughout the planning, design and construction phases of building construction shall be considered initial cost, the first cost is a one-time payment for the land, construction, refurbishment, and equipment required to run the facility, whereas, according to Rigby and Ryan, (2018), the original cost comprises all expenses connected with procurement, supply, and installation of goods or products. It is possible to classify the initial capital cost as follows: (i) the tendering cost; (ii) the commissioning and handover cost; and the costs of capital management and capital overhead. Due to more extraordinary starting expenses, builders may also be forced to make savings elsewhere to meet the green standard. Since the initial project cost must be minimized, identifying the premium green costs components is essential. The article has given cost required for 2 GB as shown in the figure below (Rigby and Ryan, 2018).

Sustainable Building Construction Cost

According to Johnson, (2021), because the green building has premium, sustainable building construction is often more costly than conventional building construction. Green cost premium has yet to be defined precisely, and there is no established technique for describing the many elements that make up the green cost premium. The difference in price between green and conventional versions of the same building type is the green cost premium. The article has defined that a green cost premium was defined as the additional capital price of green structure features due to the extra design as well as construction expenses related with green constituents.

According to Tran, (2020), one of the causes for project postponements as well as poor implementation of sustainable building is the scarcity of sustainable materials. This, in turn, leads to higher starting costs. Sustainable building materials are more expensive than conventional ones, up to 3% and 4%. Because sustainable materials require more testing and code clearance, they are more costly to produce. Ong et al., (2021), has revealed that water and energy-saving technology, as well as highly efficient insulating protection, may raise expenses. Installation of sustainable equipment is challenging because of the difficulty in matching the sustainable equipment's design criteria. This may also contribute to higher project costs. Additional expenses and effort are needed to install environmentally-friendly equipment such as heat pumps. Both Tran, (2020), and Ong et al.,(2021), has agreed that radiant floors also take more time and money to build than conventional radiant heating systems.

According to Paolini, (2020), modern technologies like BIM or Building Information Modeling and the IBS or Industrialized Building System may significantly enhance building methods (IBS). On the other hand, Eisenberg and Witten, (2017), discovered that almost all stakeholders are worried about the expense of implementing new technologies. Sustainable building construction is mainly hindered by the use of sustainable technologies, which may raise project costs by 2 to 7 per cent. In order to move the construction sector toward long-term affordability, quality, and efficiency, BIM must be used. As a result of the increased implementation costs for BIM, sustainable building construction projects have seen a rise in their overall capital costs.

Lekan et al., (2019), suggested that ROI recovery in GB is unlikely due to the significant initial capital costs associated with BIM installation and its impact on the project's cash flow. However, the article revealed that Integrated Building System (IBS) can be used to make GB projects profitable wherein, IBS is a building technique where components are produced in a precise environment, either “on- or off-site, then transported, positioned, as well as integrated with minimum extra labour into a structure. On the other hand, Lin et al., (2020), discovered that construction professionals were less interested in IBS technology because of the high cost and low labour cost at the time. In addition, the increased costs of IBS technology are driven by the cost of precast components, which increases prices by 31%- 81% owing to model costs, equipment costs, assembly cost, management costs, model, and shipping costs (Lin et la., 2020). Assembling sustainable structures is more expensive because of the added complexity. PC installation costs, jointing costs, and equipment costs account for the majority of assembly-line costs. Thus, effective systems shall be implemented in order to enjoy the benefits and profitability of sustainable building and to implement them in cost-effective way such as IBS can be used.

According to Mendy, (2018), the construction of sustainable buildings requires different comprehensive designs for the green components, increasing the kinds and quantities of drawings and, eventually, the overall project cost. When comparing sustainable and conventional construction, Mendy, (2019), discovered a 9.91 per cent cost difference in the management of design. This covers sustainable design, A&E, design time, and modelling costs. Cullen, (2019), also has similar views and revealed that changes in composition during construction are significant problems common in green building projects. This is because of the inconsistency with which architects provide sustainable drawings. Imperfect specifications may lead to wide variances, which may increase costs. In addition, the final project cost will be raised by various variables, such as the inclusion of sustainability elements at a later stage. Thus, it shall be revealed that GB has high implementation cost but they become profitable in the post-implementation period as they save energy and has low implementation cost.

2.7 Literature Gap

Limited number of research has taken place regarding the importance and implementation procedure of green buildings thus, the chapter has collected limited amount of knowledge. Most studies have shown a theoretical analysis about the green building there are very few studies that are based on practical data. This has created a huge gap among the results of the studies. Additionally most studies have highlighted the positive effects of green building and overlooked the negative effects which can lead to misinformation.

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.1 Overview

This chapter provides in-depth details about the approaches, philosophies, designs, methods and tools that will be used in order to collect the data for the study. The methodology is considered as a type of philosophical framework within which the research study is conducted or upon which the entire foundation of the research is based. An appropriate research methodology is needed to achieve the research objectives.

Research onion framework was implemented in order to conduct the research methodology. Research onion provides a systematic way through which research study is processed. The different layers of the framework outline the different stages such as philosophy, approach, strategy, choices of methods, time horizon and data collection and analysis in order to collect data (Melnikovas, 2018).

Research philosophy helps in providing in-depth information about the nature, source and development of knowledge. Research philosophy is considered as a belief about the different ways in which data about some specific phenomenon can be generated, used and interpreted. The research philosophy reflects the significant assumptions of the author and these assumptions formulate the base for the research strategy. There are three different research philosophies namely realism, positivism and interpretivism (Ryan, 2018.). The selection of the philosophy depends on the research type and the situation.

Interpretivism philosophy: In this philosophy researcher is required to interpret the elements of the research, thus it helps in integrating a type of human interest in the study. Interpretivism is generally associated with philosophical positions of idealism and is used in order to group together different types of approaches such as phenomenology, social constructivism and more.

Realism: Realism philosophy focuses on the idea of independence of the current reality from the human mind. This philosophy assumes that scientific approaches must be used to develop knowledge.

Positivism: For this research, positivism philosophy was implemented because this approach focuses on factual knowledge, which is gained through observation (Taylor, 2018). Since the concept of green building is, involved observation helps in understanding the significance and changes that the green methods are bringing. Positivism philosophy is dependent on the quantifiable observation that helps in statistical analyses.

3.3 Research Approach

There are three main types of research approaches used namely abductive, deductive and inductive approaches. The relevance of the hypothesis is considered as the primary distinctive point between the inductive and deductive approaches. It is noted that inductive research involves the search for specific patterns from observations made and the development of theories for providing explanations for those patterns through a series of hypotheses. On the other hand, the abductive approach initiates with “puzzles or “surprising facts and the research process is focused on their explanations (Awuzie and McDermott, 2017). Abductive approaches are usually used in order to address the weaknesses, which are associated with deductive approaches as well as inductive approaches. Therefore, it can be noted that deductive is the most suitable approach for developing the conclusion of a study.

For this study, the deductive approach was used to collect the data because this approach is primarily concerned with developing a hypothesis from some existing theories. After the formulation of the hypothesis, a research strategy is designed with the aim of testing the hypothesis. This approach has been used to explain the relationship between variables and concepts. The research findings can also be generalized to a certain extent if needed with the help of a deductive approach. The hypothesis formulated prove beneficial in assisting the researcher to meet the objectives of the study and evaluate the concept of the research topic in a broad manner.

3.4 Research Design

Research design is considered as a plan regarding the way or process that the researcher will utilize in order to address the research questions (Schoonenboom and Johnson, 2017.). Addressing the research question will help in improving the quality of the study and build a focus of the study. Research design is further divided into two-type namely conclusive and exploratory research design.

Conclusive Research: Conclusive research design is usually adopted in order to develop the findings that help in reaching to the conclusion of the study. In this type of research study, the objectives and the requirements of the data needs to be defined in a clear way. The findings of the conclusive study are considered to have some specific uses.

Exploratory research: For this study, the exploratory research design was used, as it assists in exploring the research questions. Exploratory research helps in providing a better and detailed understanding of the problems. While making use of this design the researcher has the flexibility of changing the direction of the study due to the revelation of a new insight and new data. Therefore, this method was implemented to explore the research topic of green building and issues of increased ecological crisis in a detailed way. The way quality can be improved or the strategies that can be used for the green buildings can be explored with the help of exploratory design, therefore; implementing his design is beneficial for the present study.

3.5 Method of Research

The research method is defined as the process, technique or strategy that is used in order to collect that data or the study. The way data is analyzed will be highlighted in so that the research topic of green building can be understood in a better manner. There are many different types of research methods that a user in order to conduct the research. Some researchers make use of surveys, observations, interviews, experiments, documentation and secondary analysis. In order to collect data for this study the researcher selected to use the survey method in which some open-ended questions are asked to the respondents regarding the green building. It is analyzed that this method is cost-effective and provides the researcher with an opportunity of interacting with the respondents and understanding about the green buildings from different perspectives, which will help in improving the quality of the study.

3.6 Data Collection Method

Data collection is considered as the process of gathering information from all the genuine and relevant sources to find answers to the research question and problems, test the developed hypothesis and evaluate the outcome of the study. The data collection method is broadly divided into two categories:

Primary data collection method: Primary data collection method is also referred to as first-hand data because it is the fresh data that the researcher gathers from some primary sources. The benefit of implementing primary research is that researcher has the opportunity of interacting with the respondent and understanding their viewpoint, which helps in developing the solutions and conclusion of the study (SYLVIA, 2018). For this study, primary data was gathered by conducting a survey with the project management team regarding the constructions of green buildings, their benefits, challenges and more open-ended questions relevant to the research topic will be formulated and distributed among the respondents with the help of email so that they can answer at their convenient time.

Secondary data collection method: Secondary data is considered as the type of data that has already been published in newspapers, magazines, books, journals, online portals or any other secondary sources (Johnston, 2017). This method is used primarily because abundance of data is available in these sources about the research topic. Secondary data helps in increasing the research validity and reliability. Secondary data helps the researcher in considering and understanding the viewpoint of other scholars and researchers to enhance the quality of the study and provide a suitable discussion. For this study, the secondary data was gathered through journals, articles and some public records. All the data gathered were from genuine and creditable sources.

3.7 Sampling Technique

The sampling technique is used in order to highlight the way the sample population of a research was selected. Due to the large target population, researchers are required to reduce the size based on some principles and conduct the study on some specific population.

Sampling is divided in two categories:

Probability sampling: in his sampling technique every member of the population have a known chance of participating in the research. The probability sampling technique is further divided into subcategories namely stratified systematic, simple, and multistage and cluster sampling methods. As the chances of the majority of people, being selected is high in the method this method was not selected for the present study.

Non-probability sampling technique: In the non-probability sampling the population group members are selected in a non-random manner so, not each of the population members has the chance to take part in the research. Some of the most common non–probability sampling methods are quota, purposive, convenience and snowball sampling methods (Etikan and Bala, 2017.). For this study, a non-probability sampling technique was selected and purposive sampling was used by which the researcher was responsible for choosing the sample population for the survey. Around 100 participants were selected based on their understanding and interest in green building construction. The researcher ensured that the participants had adequate information about green construction and were suitable to provide accurate and non-biased information about the process and the challenges associated with the methods of green construction. For secondary data collection, a sample size of around five journals will be considered and those journals will be relevant to the research topic and help in evaluating about green building.

3.8 Data Analysis

Data analysis is an important aspect of research as it helps in interpreting and analyzing the data in a systematic manner. There is a difference between quantitative data analysis and qualitative data analysis. In the qualitative research interview, surveys and other experiments are conducted therefore, data analysis involved the identification of some common pattern within the responses and critically the data is analyzed so that the research aims and objectives can be achieved (Ruggiano and Perry, 2019). On the other hand, quantitative data analysis is conducted by critically analyzing and interpreting the figures and the numbers in an attempt to find a rationale behind the emergence of the main finding.

As in, the study both primary as well as secondary data collection methods were implemented both qualitative as well as quantitative data analysis methods were carried out in order to evaluate and interpret the collected data in a detailed manner. The primary data gathered through the survey was analyzed with the help of quantitative analysis methods. The statistics and responses of the participants were represented with the help of graphs and tables and evaluated in a detailed manner providing meaningful explanation and assisting in the development of the conclusion. Furthermore, the secondary data were analyzed by making use of thematic analysis. Thematic analysis is the process in which researchers are required to formulate themes based on some reoccurring patterns, which help in achieving the objectives of the study. Based on the review of literature certain common themes were selected for the secondary data analysis.

3.9 Ethical Consideration

Ethical consideration is considered an important aspect of research. Maintaining transparency, honesty is essential so that the research is conducted in compliance with the regulations and is not subjected to any malpractice or misconduct. In order to maintain ethical considerations in the research the following principle was followed by the researcher:

  • The researcher ensured that the privacy of the participants are well maintained and they are not subjected to any harm
  • The researcher ensured that participants are not forced to answer any question; they have the freedom to skip any question or quit the survey whenever they want.
  • The researcher ensured that respect and dignity of the participants are well maintained
  • Full consent was taken from the participants and they were informed about the study in a detailed manner
  • None of the information collected will be used for any commercial purpose. The collected information will be used for the study and will not be shared will any third party.
  • The secondary data that was gathered was well credited and reliable. All the data collected were referenced properly to given credit to the scholars and authors.
  • All the secondary data was gathered from reliable and genuine sources in order to maintain the authenticity of the data
  • The anonymity of the organization and the participants was maintained
  • All the communication done with the participants are in association with the research were transparent and honest.

3.10 Summary

From the above discussion, it is clear that the research onion was used in order to outline the structure of the research. For philosophy positivism, philosophy was implemented as it helps in focusing on the factual knowledge, which helps in improving the quality of the research. In addition, the deductive approach was used as it assists in formulating a hypothesis, which can be tested with the help of theories and help in addressing the research questions. An exploratory research design was adopted to evaluate the findings and discuss the research topic in a detailed manner. Furthermore, data were collected by using a mixed-method. Primary data was gathered by conducting a survey while secondary data was collected with the help of analyzing the review of the literature and other journals ad articles. For analyzing, the data thematic analysis was adopted so that patterns can be recognized and meaningful explanations can be developed to enhance the outcome of the study and develop a suitable conclusion for the study.

Chapter 4- Findings and Analysis

4.1 Process of Green Building Design

It was found that the impact of community influences the design of green buildings. The project managers prioritise the needs of the community while planning for the construction. On the other hand, some articles showed that location selection is most important for construction. The layout, surroundings and elements of the building designs are depending on the suitable location (Awadh, 2017). It has been analysed that, if a person location was found for the green construction, the community of the location was also be influenced by the green building construction. Proper collaboration with the community while constructing the building helped to mitigates their worries and fear. It was been found that green buildings have become progressively trendy especially in the United States. Based on green building statistics, nearly three of reconfigurations and constructors in the United States will be working on sustainable construction (Ding et al., 2018). About 57% of individuals in the United States who are shifting to green design recognise a strong community spirit as a primary motivator. Reduced energy demand, reduced running expenses, and high moisture consumption are some of the other green design statistics that are driving green renovation requirements. It has been found that the architecture sector is rapidly embracing green materials for budding construction. Based on the US Environment Protection Agency, Green construction accounts for around 40-48% of all non-residential buildings in the United States (He et al., 2018). Based on the last five years record of the green project design, the incense of green concentration is 45% from only 1.4% and it is a big shift for the green design. Based on the USGBC report, Green construction is far from a passing trend for construction. During the last nearly 65 % of building projects engaged in green initiatives. The income generated by green educational building construction in the United States was $759.06 million. The corporate buildings segment dominated the US green construction market position with 21.2% of sustainable buildings and $1.14 billion in net earnings. However, while the demand for green constructions is increasing significantly at the moment, the effective design for green budding design is significant. Hence, it has been analysed that the rapid growth of green construction influenced the project managers for improving the designing process of green buildings.

Figure 22: Growth of Green Buildings

(Source: Statista.com, 2021)

Based on some articles regarding green construction, the core of green building contraction is environment friendly and energy-efficient. On the other hand, it was found that not all green constructions are the same; they might vary and provide different advantages (Huo and Yu, 2017). For example, some green contractions are made for reducing environmental pollution, some are constructed for saving energy. It was analysed that a building can be ecologically beneficial in a variety of approaches and it is the reason for the rapid growth of the green construction industry. It also has so many opportunities to assist the ecosystem. Based on the information from the construction field, it was found that the worldwide green building products marketplace is set to exceed $1 trillion in 2020 (Comfyliving.net, 2021). The eco-friendly construction economy in the United States is estimated to be worth $99.8 billion in the upcoming years. Based on worldwide statistics of green construction, the Renewable Energy Initiative for California focuses on creating all future housing construction in the US territory with minimal energy consumption by 2020. The education system accounts for 17.2% of ecological developments in the United States. It was analysed that, the project managers can design the green contractions for any sector to maintain sustainability and reduce the pollution rate.

It has been found that for project managers to construct a new green infrastructure that fulfils the organisations performance objectives is a difficult task (Janani et al., 2018). There are some sustainable structures for green building design to help the project managers such as LEED-certified, Phipps Centre for Ecological Environments, Sustainable Construction, etc. Based on LEED reports, the use of renewable energies for green construction reduces nearly 25% energy. In contrast, the cost of production of renewable energy is expensive and it also has quality and adequate resources issues. Additionally, it was found that the green building producers around 60% lower emissions of greenhouse gas (Shan and Hwang, 2018). There are some objectives for the shift to green construction in the USA is to reduce the energy expenditure for budding construction. The WGBC report mentioned that the green contractions consumers 11% lower groundwater than the conventional building. As a result, the energy needed to extract and purify the groundwater is deceased and the emission of greenhouse gas is also decreased. Based on US GBC, the California green construction is a remarkable fact which influences the design of green design project management (Wen et al., 2020). It has the highest percentage of sustainable constructions of the total area in the United States. It has around 46,252,746 square feet of ecological residences of 39,296 in August 2019. Texas came in second with 24,598 approved housing properties; New York got the third position with 10,876 authorized green apartments (Comfyliving.net, 2021). It has been analysed that, the needs of natural resources and renewable energy are important elements for green building project design. The worldwide green building construction trade has a significant opportunity to reduce power use by 50% or over in the upcoming years. Green buildings have a 7% rise in capital worth as compared to conventional constructions. Constructions that are LEED Riches have repair costs that are 19% lower in price (Zhao et al., 2019). It has been observed that 19% growth in Green mark buildings in the United States Since 2017. Hence, it has been analysed that efficient energy, resources, waste management, etc are necessary elements project managers considers while designing green construction.

4.2 Impact of Green Building Project Management

From the literature, it has been found that the green building design frequently necessitates the use of sustainable solutions such as the use of renewable energy, recycled waste products. The impact of green budding project management is categorised into social, economic and environmental. Buildings that are environmentally friendly have a good impact on communities. The World Green Building Council mentioned that brain activities enhance by 101% in a well-ventilated environment (Comfyliving.net, 2021). Modifications in interior air purity can decrease absenteeism and working time due to allergies, pulmonary allergy, anxiety and distress. Based on the report of USGBC, professionals in LEED green buildings are happy, wealthier and more efficient. On the other hand, it has been found that NBIS $1 invested in mitigation strategies like constructing reinforcement and improved sewerage systems saves $6 in recovery and rehabilitation operations in 2018. Hence it has been analysed that the Green building has impacted the environment positively, reduced the pollution level and increased sustainability (Zuoet al., 2017). It has been found that green construction enhanced the quality of life. It promoted the well-being and security of the people who live inside it. As a result, low CO2 and contaminant levels and high ventilation rates have been found. The improved indoor air quality result of 8% boosted its effectiveness. Green infrastructure emphasises architectural effectiveness in terms of moisture, power, and commodities consumption. It has also reduced the impacts of urbanisation on peoples surroundings and the ecosystem, via proper design, development, administration, management, and modification.

From the articles regarding the impact of green construction, it has been found that the financial benefits are the key motivation for the transformation of green construction. These constructions not only save money by reducing energy use, but they also increase occupant positive experience and satisfaction by 27%. It might be renting in green construction is increasingly reasonable (Awadh, 2017). Green building construction trends are expected to expand in 2021 and onward. Additionally, it was found that the US economy has been improving over the last few years. The nations economic earnings have climbed as the rate of unemployment has decreased. Based on the World Bank Data, GDP increased nearly 3.7 % quarter of 2015, while the budget debt shrank by $10.8 billion. Green construction would stand to profit the economy by boosting GDP by billions of dollars. As the number of green projects increased, LEED would have contributed approximately around $30 billion to the economy and over $26 billion in compensation to employees in 2018 (Atalian.us, 2021). Green architecture is one of the most important answers to environmental and climatic changes. Sustainable construction design may help the community conserve resources and electricity while also increasing earnings for corporations through conserving natural resources. As a result, going green can help to ensure ecological responsibility. From an economic viewpoint, the tendency toward freshwater and electricity efficiency of the green construction phase will save more resources. It is beneficial to all corporations who are looking to generate income (Ding et al., 2018). The green contractions were able to save 55% on this region by utilising available resources properly. As a result, green buildings offer a viable financial solution to sustainability threats. Hence, it has been analysed that the impact of green building construction significantly impacted worldwide economic growth.

Based on the literature, Green Star-certified constructions in the United States not only cut greenhouse gas output but also squander 51% less groundwater. On the other hand, the Green design footprint is recognised on about 12 thousand square feet in Queensland (Shan and Hwang, 2018). Based on MRFR, the worldwide green design market is anticipated to expand at a CAGR of 11% in the period of 2018-2023. The green construction expansion resulted in the creation of 3.3 million new employments by 2018 in the USA. Green building materials are in higher demand than the previous scenario which indicates opportunities for expansion. It has been found that approximately 500 facilities have received sustainable building design, and the quantity continues to rise in South Africa. Green constructions in Africa minimise energy consumption while simultaneously conserving 20–30% of the water supply (Ding et al., 2018). The South African government intends to make significant investments in environmentally friendly construction. The MOHURD of China published a list of targets for eco-friendly construction in 2017. It established more than 100 sustainable architectural regulations apply to the development, layout, administration, and renovation phases of the design process. Hence, It has been analysed that green building product management considerably impacted the social, economic and environment of a country.

4.3 Challenges a project face during Green Construction

It has been found that Green Building is the practice of utilizing environmentally responsible and energy-efficient technology and procedures to develop the buildings. Design, installation, adequacy of the site, operation, and restoration are some of the more common elements included in green construction (Pan et al., 2021). Some authors have revealed that Green buildings have the advantages of healthier air, more natural/daylight, optimal water, energy usage, better occupant health, and well-being (Mecham and McNamee, 2019). Thus, it has been analyzed that green constructions preserves the environment and results in sustainability.

Interpreting the views of the researcher it has been found that the construction industry has increasingly accepted green building techniques as a viable option to satisfy the rising demand for environmentally friendly or healthy structures, however, the Green Building Council (GBC) data provided by the United States as of September 2017 shows that more than 4,300 green building projects using green technology have been registered, totaling about 4.7 billion sq. Ft. of built-up area. While these figures only account for 5% of all structures, the Green Building industry is projected to grow to a total of 20 billion square feet, by 2022 (Khairi et al., 2017). However, certain interpreting the views of certain other authors it has been found that the adoption of Green Building technology has lagged below expectations. Green buildings are unknown to a portion of the population. Furthermore, consumers with limited knowledge about green buildings believe it is an unaffordable choice (Raouf and Al-Ghamdi, 2019).

Moreover, it has been found that even though the globe has set itself high goals for the green construction agenda, most nations, particularly emerging and impoverished countries, still lack government laws and regulations that would help drive economic development. The lack of adequate government laws and regulations makes it challenging to enforce green construction standards on a broad scale (Khalil et al., 2018). Observing the views of some other researchers it has been found that the approvals procedure for green building compliance adds another layer of complexity for builders and developers, which may serve as a deterrent to widespread adoption of green buildings. As authorizing new green technology and recycled materials may be lengthy, the market environment indicates that the planning process can be prolonged (Hwang et al., 2017). Thus, it has been analyzed that approval related complexities makes green building construction challenging.

Certain article has helped to find that environmentally sustainable buildings are more costly to create because of the high cost of the materials and equipment utilized. Many developers and builders are reluctant to invest in green features because they believe they would be too expensive to include in their projects. Green initiatives are more costly to build than traditional ones (Zhang et al., 2018). Interpreting the perception of some other authors have helped to find that complexity in design and modeling expenses associated with incorporating green practices into projects is the reason for the increased prices. The use of green construction methods and green building materials such as smart glasses and others comes at a premium cost. Using green building materials is estimated to cost 3 to 4 percent more than using conventional building materials. Compressed wheat board, for example, costs approximately ten times as much as regular plywood but is considerably more environmentally friendly (Yusof et al., 2020). Thus, it has been analyzed that due to the responsibility for managing and executing their projects within a budget, project managers are directly impacted and encounters challenges by the increased costs of green building.

Moreover, it has been found from the gathered literature that lack of qualified and trained specialists and personnel is a significant hindrance for Green Building Adoption. The gathered literature have helped to find that more than 60% politicians, architects, engineers, contractors, and laborers across the world and specially in the developing and under developed countries, have the limited knowledge and skills regarding green construction (Levy, 2018). Thus, it has been analyzed that due to lack of awareness and skills and lack of knowledge among the stakeholders regarding the benefits of green building, adaptation of green constructions gets restricted.

It has been found that the project managers required long time to get approvals from the authorities for green construction. Eco-friendly technologies need the use labor-intensive building methods and that needs prolonged times. The problems encountered during construction provide a significant barrier in green architecture. It has also been analyzed that there are certain other challenges such as lack of promotion of sustainable project barrier the adaptations of green buildings (Vyas and Jhal, 2018).

The gathered literature has helped to find that green technologies provide specific difficulties to developers, customers, and contractors. Insufficient technical competence and unfamiliarity with the goods, materials, system, or design are cited as two possible causes. It's challenging to implement green technologies since they are inherently more complex and distinct than traditional ones. Thus, it has been analyzed that having no prior experience with green technology may impact a project manager's ability to deliver on the client's performance expectations (Chang and Lin, 2018).

It has been found that the Project team members need to communicate more and show more enthusiasm. A project manager's success depends on their ability to supervise a broad group of suppliers, subcontractors, and colleagues. Communication is essential in a green project since it must communicate to the team members the sustainable actions required from them. The team members must have a common interest (Zhang et al., 2018). Interpreting some authors view, it has been found that however, as projects proceeded, subcontractors' excitement for sorting waste items and recycling process decreases. It also takes longer to put in place green building techniques on-site (Balaban and Oliveiva, 2017). Thus, it has been analyzed that project managers must do random inspections and on-site visits to verify that sustainable practices are being followed.

4.4 Cost profitability of Green Building

The literature has helped to find that thedesign and construction costs for green buildings have decreased as building regulations across the globe have grown tighter, green materials and technology supply chains have matured, and the construction sector has become more competent at providing green structures however, the cost of certain green materials such as smart glass, UV glass and others cost more than traditional building materials (Khairi et al., 2017). However, some other article have revealed that buildings with higher sustainability credentials will be more marketable as investors and occupiers are becoming more aware of and concerned about the environmental and social effects of constructions (Chang and Lin, 2018). Thus, it has been analyzed that constructions with green features have been linked to higher costs and sales prices in specific markets but are more valuable as it protects the environment.

Interpreting the literature, it has been found that buildings that Green building costs 10% to 29% more than conventional structures, but after their implementation they save energy, saves water, and has less maintenance cost and thus is financially beneficial over time. While a green building may first seem costly, the word is relative and loses its significance when considering life-cycle expenses (Hwang et al., 2017). Cost is both a motivator and a hindrance in the transition to a greener economy. Interpreting another article it has been traced that many investors believe that becoming green will lower their capital expenditures while increasing their profits in the long run. Many people however, see the expense of constructing a green building as the most significant barrier since it would need more money upfront. Green building construction companies such as LOTUS in Vietnam, Leed in the U.S, Green Mark in Singapore, or BREEAM in UK have higher design and construction costs than conventional buildings. Research shows that the cost required by these above mentioned organizations needs 0.4% to 7.0% more cost as compared to conventional structures (Koke and Moehler, 2019). Thus, it has been analyzed that green construction initially required more cost as compared to traditional constructions; however, in the long run the construction required less maintenance cost and thus are beneficial for the users.

It has been found that evidence from the last ten years also indicates that up-front additional expenses vary from 0% to 4% for most certified green buildings. The cost of constructing green may be higher in nations that place less emphasis on integrating a green agenda into their building rules and regulations or in areas where green goods and solutions are not yet readily accessible. Vietnam is a good example (Raouf and Al-Ghamdi, 2019). However, it has been analyzed that only by considering the building's life-cycle costs rather than its original implementation cost; the initial cost issue may be resolved. As a result, the initial costs of green buildings shall not seem to be as high compared to the post-implementation savings in energy, productivity, indoor air quality, building lifespan, and reduced environmental impact. However, it has also been found that with today's rapid advances in science and technology, as well as the increasing availability of green products and solutions, green buildings can have the same or even lower construction costs than conventional code-compliant buildings when using an Integrated Design Process (IDP) in conjunction with best-practice construction methods. In other words, green buildings are entirely within reach of the average person's budget (Levy, 2018). Thus, it has been analyzed that prior expenses should be outweighed by the long-term economic rewards and many other advantages derived from the structures.

Based on the literature review it is clear that the upfront investment in the green building helps in making properties more valuable and the majority of the building owners reported that there was approximately 10% increase in the asset value. According to the study of Hwang et al. (2017), it is noted that most of the individuals are hesitant in investing in the green building due to the high cost of material and labour however, awareness must be created regarding the benefits and the long term affect of these buildings so that more individuals can invest heavily in these methods. As per the information collected from a review of the literature and the findings of the scholar it can be stated that green building is a beneficial investment as it is ecologically important and helps in maintaining sustainability, consumes less energy and overall is cost-efficient. However, due to the lack of appropriate knowledge investment in these buildings is low and therefore, it is essential to create awareness regarding the profitability of these buildings so that the interest of potential investors can be drawn towards the green building in a global manner.

Chapter 5- Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

In order to conclude, it shall be revealed that an environmentally friendly structure minimizes or eliminates harmful effects on our climate and natural surroundings during construction, design, or operation proceed. Green buildings help the environment and enhance the quality of lives at the same time. A design of green building include efficient use of energy resources, such as solar energy, pollution, and waste reduction measures, as well as the facilitation of reusing and recycling, good indoor environmental air quality, use of non-toxic, ethical, and environmentally sustainable products. Green building emphases on a strategy that focuses on improving the well-being of occupants (Mecham and McNamee, 2019). A house; an office; an institution, a hospital, a community center, or any other kind of construction can be a green construction as long as they protect the environment and saves energy. However, it is essential to highlight that not all green buildings are created equally. Countries and areas vary widely in terms of climatic conditions, cultures, traditions, building kinds, environmental, economic, and social objectives, all of which influence how they approach to green construction. World GBC assists there members of Green Building Councils and associated businesses in different nations and regions to seek the most appropriate green structures for their markets (Raouf& Al-Ghamdi, 2019).

Builders concerns on the energy, water and waste as parts of a single interconnected system while planning for green building. For modeling and validating the performance of any combination of energy, water, and waste system technologies, green builders use cutting-edge system simulation software that offers almost limitless flexibility. The advantages of using green construction materials are undeniable, but there are also some challenges. For instance, certification under the LEED Green Building Rating System counts as accreditation for green construction. Alternative grading systems (like CalGreen), significant backlogs, and financial constraints on the building sector and government budgets also can be used as approving green buildings (Zhang et al., 2018). However, getting approvals is a prolonged process and project managers faces challenges to get the authorizations of green constructions.

Moreover, it has been found that many constructors do not respect all aspects of green construction, including temperature regulation, ventilation management, light regulation, and plenty of natural light. This is in addition to energy-saving techniques and thus, occurrence of defects is noticed in green buildings and that further makes the approvals of other green constructions complex (Levy, 2018).

There are significant economic obstacles to fully implementing green construction on a large scale since business and residential buildings account for 40% of the country's total energy usage. Constructing green structures may be a challenge, but it can be solved by considering environmental, economic, and social issues and consulting with reputable specialists who place a high value on green building. More upfront expenditures will result in a greater property worth. Most of the time, investing in green buildings is an intelligent decision when done correctly as it requires less maintenance cost and uses less energy in the post-construction period (Balaban&Oliveiva, 2017). Moreover, creating a green building inherently costs more than traditional options a due to their premium cost for materials, high-efficiency equipment, and extra workflow layers. However, more comprehensive designs and a lifetime perspective of costs and benefits are starting to replace the belief that becoming green means spending more money upfront.

According to academics, designers, and building owners today, sustainable practices shall be included early in the design process. If a building's orientation is optimized to maximize the use of windows and passive solar heat, developers and architects may design for lower energy consumption and increased sustainability while still providing ample daylight for the users resulting in high energy saving and that makes green construction cost-effective in the long run. Green building design may reduce cooling requirements by using efficient lighting and an energy-efficient building envelope to reduce waste heat. An example of this is choosing cooling equipment. As a consequence, the cost of living in green buildings may be drastically lowered without the installation of a chiller. Despite being new to the construction industry, an integrated design approach is gaining ground. Recent studies indicate that using an integrated strategy for eco-friendly construction may result in little or no extra costs (Pan et al., 2021). While the additional cost of a green building may be minor or non-existent, it does not happen by itself. It takes work and must be seen as adding enough value before a change in process is widely adopted to design and construct a building in an integrated manner.

However, there is more to investing in a green building than just altruism or social duty. Using green construction practices may help owners meet legal and fiduciary obligations. Investors also expect businesses to properly manage their environmental and carbon footprints and deal with the dangers of climate change for which they are personally responsible. Governments across the world are passing legislation requiring emissions reductions in response to public concern about climate change (Levy, 2018). The owner may be able to comply with these regulations if they build green.

A financial return on investment is still crucial for green construction, even though these visible and intangible advantages add to the perceived worth of the green structure. On the other hand, green construction often means conserving energy, and the prospect of significant savings may help owners over the long run. A green building's utility expenses will be reduced if correctly built to optimize efficiency while using as few resources as possible. For instance, the facility is built to minimum code standards, in that case, energy costs may be as much as 50% cheaper, and they can be considerably lower if the project includes on-site renewable energy production. However, the savings in energy go to the building's inhabitants, not to the architect or construction company that designed it. Recent studies have tried to measure the value of constructing green in criteria familiar to the real estate sector to address this apparent mismatch between cost and benefit.

5.2 Recommendation

It is analysed that green building is one of the most important concepts as it helps in improving sustainability and is much more efficient as compared to normal construction methods. However, there are significant challenges associated with green building, therefore, some recommendations have been provided below in order to overcome the identified challenges and enhance the construction of green buildings on a global level.

  • It is analysed that the awareness regarding the significance and benefits of green construction and building is low among consumers (Nguyen et al., 2017). The majority of the consumers think that the cost of green building is high however, they must be educated regarding the long-term befits of the buildings. As green buildings consume less energy and their overall maintenance cost is low in the long term, they will prove to be more cost-effective as compared to normal construction. Therefore, it is suggested that an awareness campaign should be raised in order to increase the knowledge about green buildings. Social media platforms can be used in order to communicate and create awareness. It is suggested that the difference between green building and normal construction should be highlighted in an attractive manner and posted on the social platform so that consumers can learn about the concept.
  • Another significant issue is a shortage of workers with the skill and knowledge to work in green construction. Therefore, it is recommended that training programs and courses should be developed in order to educate and train the employees regarding the green building concept and equip them with the skills that are required for the green constructions. Specialised courses can be introduced so that interested individuals can prepare themselves at an early stage and sortie of workers can be minimized.
  • It is vital that government should take the initiative of introducing new policies that promote green construction. The ecological issue and problems of sustainability are increasing rapidly therefore, government support and encouragement are important so that the concept of green building is accepted and promoted heavily among the population. This initiative will help n global popularity and acceptance of green construction, which will help in reducing the stress from the environment.

5.3 Limitations

There were certain limitations encountered during the completion of the research. It is acknowledged that reaching out to the sample population for conducting the survey was quite challenging. Deciding the sample population and communicating with them regarding the survey was a time consuming process. In addition, lack of funding was another problem due to which research could not be carried out in the desired manner. Furthermore, it is noted that there was a lack of data and information regarding green construction due to which in-depth information and appropriate examples could not be used which would have helped in enhancing the overall, quality of the study. Lack of research in this area was an issue.

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