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This essay showcases reflection grounded on the "Gibbs Reflective Cycle" (Gibb, G. (1988)), a cyclical model with a framework that puts focus on repeated experiences. Each of the six stages of the model helps to engage and reflect on a specific learning experience. Offering a framework for examining experiences, leads to the following six stages- Description, Feelings, Evaluation, Analysis, Conclusion, and Action Plan. The Gibbs reflective cycle was inspired partly by 'Kolb's Learning cycle', enabling us to effectively reflect on incidents and occurrences, be it daily or occasionally, and learn from them(Bradford University,2010). The models are useful and a bit easy to comprehend for their application to this piece of reflection.
'With each of its members, the strength of the team is built up, and in the team, the strength of the member resides' (Chodos, 2019). As for the assigned task, we as a team had to pick a company and the respective country for the analysis. To finalize the 'company' for the analysis, I put forward "Spotify", a music streaming app in the United Kingdom for the same.
For the assessed group presentation, all the team members analyzed the definite contentions and segments of the given task and so through that process, I got to know my sphere of the work to be done for this piece as per my self-identified strengths, while also rendering the assignment, a rational one.
All through my academic and professional ambit, I have had the privilege to advance and grow my skills, specifically communication and problem-solving skills as a part of the team. Taking into purview, the current segment of the work performed, I was able to apprehend and acknowledge my learning in terms of the value of proper communication and execution of my area of the work, as stated earlier, up to my best to make a positive contribution to the collective team efforts. Having stated that, it got a lot more effortless for me to share my set of ideas with my colleagues clearly, which in turn also helped me to provide a positive contribution to this assigned task. I was delighted to initiate to execute the relevant research of the presentation and communicate the same to the team, in addition to putting forward the name of the company. I made sure to actively participate in the group meetings and share my opinions, also addressing the issues by sharing the necessary information with my colleagues. For instance, at this one stage of the work, after suggesting the topic, “Spotify”, I made a compact presentation for my group, for them to comprehend the divided and assigned task, in a better manner.
To validate that I comprehend the application of BB theories to the GAP task, I took on the step-by-step analysis of the process by going through the BB models thoroughly so that I was able to put in the same to 'Spotify'. I read the materials in depth so that I apply them more accurately with full clarity. I have also taken a great deal of support in regards to the research and details from the library database and search engines like Google scholar. The listed sources in their entirety helped me to know the relevant theories and their implementation to the task. For reference, the most helpful article is the 'Rational Integrative model of Online Consumer Decision making'. (Padmini Patwardhan & Jyotika Ramaprasad (2005), Journal of Interactive advertising, 6:1,2-13).
I apprehend the fact that a team environment is both productive and helps come up with innovation. I highly appreciate being a part of a team and developing well when I get the opportunity to collaborate with others. During my previous work experience, I developed and carried out procedures that streamlined communication among the team members. That being the case, I tried to implement and follow the same approach in executing this work to enhance efficiency and thereby boost productivity collectively. Regardless of the role that I take charge of, I strive to utilize my reliability, communication skills, and positive attitude so that I turn out to be a key contributor. Having stated that, the skills helped me to contribute to the best of my ability in terms of putting forward my ideas related to the work, and the way it could help the other members to finish their work. Specifically, the introductory portion addressed by me turned out to be helpful for my peers, as stated in the feedback by them.
To finish up the work perfectly, I ended up taking a larger workload than required which made me realize my weaknesses as a team contributor. My inability to delegate the work is what I struggled the most with. In an attempt at perfection, I was not very good at managing my time wisely in the initial stage. I felt that I could have done more in the given time. Thereby, the solution that I implemented to address the issue was to actively pause and ascertain the time each segment of the work would take me to finish. It also helped me to share my views on the assigned task during the team meetings effectively, cause of the awareness of only the necessary and relevant details to be shared in the appropriate decided time frame.
I feel it's really important to set the basics right to eventually know the path to follow based on that. Following the first team meeting, I was very much aware and comprehensible for the part of the work I had to undertake. In all that, the most challenging part was to observe the relevant BB models and connect them further with 'Spotify' (Dingsøyr, et al. 2019). Selection of the models required a process of analysis to reach a definite conclusion, as not all the team members were satisfied with one common point, which made it a quite lengthy process in itself. But, through the team meetings and discussion, I was gradually able to ascertain, the application of the models in the presentation. To address the same, the most accommodating options that I found appropriate were Google Scholar and Library database. The right research along with the pertinent resources made the task a tad bit less composite.
Working in a team during my academics and early years of my professional career has allowed making me to learn the importance of taking the lead but more clearly, also of knowing when I needed to follow. Those skills have served me well to execute this piece of work with my peers, where I initiated to take the lead to set up the structure for the division of the work amongst them and also to give the initial part of the basic introduction of the topic.
I apprehend the fact that a team can work well through good communication. I made sure to set forth my opinions and views in the context of the work through the pre-scheduled team meetings and be approachable whenever needed. And so, any communication gap was quickly addressed and so were any undifferentiated issues. For the same, it was decided that the team meetings would take place at a scheduled time virtually as per the convenience of all the members, for everyone to be updated and clear the issues whatsoever with time. I tried to make every possible effort to understand the point of view of my teammates and relate to it, to ensure effective completion of the work, which I was able to do by communicating with them directly.
Ensuring my active participation in the group, the first and foremost thing I tried to work upon was organizing the relevant details, specifically related to the consumer journey and BB models, which was my part of the work to be done, as mentioned earlier. Being stated that, it helped me to corroborate all the necessary data in one place so that all the vital details were included without any omission, which could have been essential otherwise. The compiled data was then put up in the WhatsApp group, which was created to keep track of the progress and updates of all the members as per the assigned task to each of the individual members.
To finish off the presentation while also choosing the right BB models, thereby minimizing the complexity of the process, I decided to follow a problem-solving system, “Standard Agenda”.
Following the aforementioned approach assisted to filter out the essential details by applying the step-by-step process and putting out my ideas in a distinguished manner with my colleagues, hence resulting in effective communication.
Turning to the efficiency of the group, I attempted to acknowledge the efforts and contribution of my peers that they put into their work, by appreciating the same during the team meetings and addressing it to the particular member. I made sure that I encourage my group members to interact during the team meetings by putting forth their ideas that would make achieve the group goal effectively while making this piece of work a commendable one. The particular members of the group knew as per the discussion in the previous meetings for their turn to share the ideas in the upcoming meeting. Having stated that, each of the group members had their relevant part to add to the work and make this project, a success. Working with the team was easygoing, as all the members were cooperative throughout. During the initial stage of the assignment, I struggled with time management, but then I estimated the time each segment of the work should take and then implemented it accordingly. It was also resolved due to the collective effort of the team on time.
Through this piece of work, I was able to learn the importance of the 'Buying Behaviour' theory, specifically, the Technology Acceptance Model and Revised path model of rational decision making for online purchase, and consumer profile in executing and designing the company's campaign. It was interesting to discover the value of these models in terms of meeting and retaining the right kind of audience by a company. Gathering the correct and relevant research and information required a lot more time than I was expecting. And therefore, to ease up the process a bit, I resorted to navigating the details I assembled through my research and then further applying the same in the work. The most creditable thing I could learn from this work was the significance of working with a team. It made me realize the way teamwork enhances and gives room for creativity, while also fostering a sense of ownership. Throughout the process of the execution of this work, I could recognize my strengths and weakness. For eg., through this work, I could realize the way my overall productivity enhances when I work with a team, and also my weakness in reluctance to delegate.
Taking into consideration the application of one of the two BB models, i.e., the Technology acceptance model (TAM) with the selected music streaming app i.e., ‘Spotify, I was not only able to learn the prospects and statistics of the company in terms of subscribers and other relevant details but also know about it in differentiating it with its potential competitors such as Apple Music, Amazon Prime Music, Google Play, etc. For the other BB model, i.e., the Revised Path model of Rational Decision Making for online purchase, the information was useful in further examining the consumers’ choice in terms of their preference and likes for the usage of the device to avail the music services (Dhaenens and Burgess 2019). Analyzing, more particularly, paying attention to details, researching, and assembling all the aforementioned parameters made it easy for me to achieve the expected and desired outcome (Werner, 2020).
Throughout the process of the work, I made efforts to be very sincere in the peer feedback in terms of addressing the positive points that I found and got to learn from my peers and also the points I couldn't fully resonate with. I hold on to the point that my contribution to my group was to the best of my abilities. As stated earlier, my peers clearly stated and made me aware of how my inability to delegate the work is affecting the overall performance and which I need to work upon. My peers also made me discern how my efforts in the initial stages of segregating the task and giving a brief introduction of the topic helped them. I made sure to acknowledge the feedback I received and improvise further when it was required at any stage. The most challenging thing for me was managing time specifically in the initial stage. If the time management would have been optimum throughout, there could be more sources of information to rely upon. Therefore, henceforward, I will aim to develop my assertive skills for effective time management of whatever work I undertake to finish.
The other key takeaway would be the thorough learning of the relevant BB theories in a more practical way instead of a theoretical one, to be more clear about the application of the stated theories (Werner, 2020). Regarding working with teams in the future, I would like to follow a bit of the same approach I relied upon during the execution of this work, while also improving on the weaknesses I could reflect upon through this piece. Therefore, I would make sure to take into account the perspective of my peers while also assisting them in rendering my honest opinion.
The marketing strategy of Spotify is always evolving and not static seemingly such as the organization embracing the market fluidity to ensure the attention of social media. As per Chodos, (2019), Spotify globally focuses on different attractive trends on different marketing platforms including user-based content as well as personalized advertising. With a paid advertisement in the social media realm alongside POP (Point of Purchase) Marketing. They not only followed the current and advanced trends such as social media marketing, personalized advertising, user-based content, and several others, but they created some new trends to promote the organization. The secret of the success of Spotify at a global level is that they give opportunities to their customer's personalized experiences, when the customer installed the app and they use it for the first time then they can get the option for performances of what artist and what kind of music they like (Hamdani and Permana 2021). The organization in uniqueness offers user-based content in both music taste and the variation in advertisements in comparison to its competitors. The business model of Spotify is a type of premium model where free services are provided and they also use advertisements and subscriptions for their revenue collection. However, Spotify offers a model of paid subscription through which the company has earned 7.1 billion which is the huge success of the premium subscription (Dingsøyr,et al. 2019). There are many benefits of paid subscription such as through downloading the music can able to listen anywhere, also it gives listening to the music without any advertisement interruption. Also with the facilities to play music anytime and anywhere.
Many business partners work together with Spotify, such partners are Salesforce, Wufoo, Slack, Zapir, and so forth (South, 2018). With the help of all partners this strategy always benefits all the partners like Spotify as well, helping them to work adeptly;
These all are the partners of Spotify, and they maintain their platform by channels, analyzing the performances of consumer music, content acquisition, management of music library. After careful consideration, it can be concluded that the partners play a critical role in expanding Spotify's company and demonstrating many of the points raised above (Dhaenens and Burgess 2019). After studying the data, it is also possible to conclude that Spotify's fame is due to the contributions of its partners.
The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), is a system of the theory that enables the user to accept as well as use the technology. This terminal is simply the software that is used wherever people are making process-related decisions (Werner, 2020). The model gives suggestions when users use some new technology, and many factors influence them to make their decisions on how and where they can use this new technology.
This is defined as that someone perceiving the new technology that would be useful for them or what they want to do with this technology.
If the technology is useful and people can use this technology easily then the barriers of this technology will be conquered. When the interference of the technology is complex and not to be used easily and system structure is complicated then people do not show a positive attitude to that technology. So, the technology must be user-friendly and can be used easily then this technology will be preferable to the users. Spotify provides various elements to give the user of user-friendly experiences such as style, colour, location, and orientation of different pieces can all be used to create a cohesive look (Nickerson, 2019).
The extended model is used for voluntary and mandatory settings and this is referred to as the TEM2 model (Ochi, et al. 2021). The reason behind squad models is that they focus on a few features, such as cross-functional as well as autonomous teams. The benefit of these features is that they give guidance to the users. “This model is postulated based on the use of an information system and behavioural intention is also determined by the attitude of a person that they use the technology and which perception they use the system”. So, for any person who does not use the technology of the information system, then there is a high probability of using this technology is high and if that person perceives that the system helps to improve the performance at work.
The company Spotify, uses this type of model technology which is easy to use and satisfies the needs of the customers. The reason for using this model is that it assists the consumer in a variety of ways, such as by giving external variables that aid in the development of ideas about the systems utility as well as its actual usefulness (Al-Beitawi et al. 2020). This company provides premium subscriptions for digital music services that give access to millions of people most importantly they are not distracted by different advertisements. In December 2013, they launched a new website ' Spotify for Artists, and this site explains their different business models and their data of revenue. In the next year 2014, they introduced their customers a premium subscription plan and within April 2017, their business extended over more than 33 countries. So, after conducting all of the research, it is possible to conclude that the premium attracts a large number of customers due to its numerous benefits, such as the ability to download music and listen to it anywhere. The concept and outcomes are the results of the adoption of business models that benefit the user and allow them to use them (Smite, et al. 2019).
In November 2018, they again announced a new offer to their users that is Spotify Connect and it offers the users for free services. In February 2021, Spotify announced their new and advanced subscription plan that is a HIFI subscription; this allows experiencing a high-fidelity listening of music. The rollout has not been announced for this HIFI tire. In August 2021, they again launched a subscription tier named Spotify Plus and the cost of the subscription was only $0.99. This subscription pack is not added free but the people can listen to songs without shuffle mode and they also get the option of skipping any number. Spotify in 2018, launched an App for its Australian users, it gives them 62 channels and each channel offers music for a particular generation (Smite, et al. 2019). They have two personalized channels, the name of these channels are 'Release Radar', ' Discover Weekly'. Their main plus point of services is that they provide 62 languages songs that satisfy the demand of people from different countries.
The best thing about Spotify is that it gives the user entertainment digitally through music, podcasts, and various video services through which they can enable the user to gain access to various content around the globe. The most appealing aspect of Spotify is that music is available for free to all users. However, a premium subscription offers a plethora of additional benefits with various musical elements. Spotify also received PCMag's editors' choice award for its excellent music service. It features a lot of fantastic songs, original melodies, and audiobooks, which together tend to make it one of the best places to go for music players and other youth culture entertainment (Ochi et al. 2021). The users of Spotify never get bored and their changing strategy is the key component of their success story. The company believes that the customers are the main assets and when they give new offers to them then they are never disappointed with the services of the company. They have client software like Android, Windows, iOS, iPad, PlayStation, etc. The users of this software also get the benefits of Spotify.
Al-Beitawi, Z., Salehan, M. and Zhang, S., 2020. What Makes a Song Trend? Cluster Analysis of Musical Attributes for Spotify Top Trending Songs. Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, 14(3), pp.79-91.
Chodos, A.T., 2019. What does music mean to Spotify? An essay on musical significance in the era of digital curation. INSEAM Journal of Contemporary Music, Art, and Technology, 1(2), pp.36-64.
Dhaenens, F. and Burgess, J., 2019. ‘Press play for pride’: The cultural logics of LGBTQ-themed playlists on Spotify. New Media & Society, 21(6), pp.1192-1211.
Dingsøyr, T., Falessi, D. and Power, K., 2019. Agile development at scale: the next frontier. IEEE Software, 36(2), pp.30-38.
Hamdani, N.A. and Permana, I., 2021. Customer Loyalty: A Case Study of Spotify. Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, pp.4591-4598.
Nickerson, B.J., 2019. The underlying underwriter: An analysis of the Spotify direct listing. U. Chi. L. Rev., 86, p.985.
Ochi, V., Estrada, R., Gaji, T., Gadea, W. and Duong, E., 2021. Spotify Danceability and Popularity Analysis using SAP. arXiv preprint arXiv:2108.02370.
Smite, D., Moe, N.B., Levinta, G. and Floryan, M., 2019. Spotify guilds: how to succeed with knowledge sharing in large-scale agile organizations. IEEE Software, 36(2), pp.51-57.
South, T., 2018. Network analysis of the Spotify artist collaboration graph. Australian Mathematical Sciences Institute, pp.1-12.
Werner, A., 2020. Organizing music, organizing gender: algorithmic culture and Spotify recommendations. Popular Communication, 18(1), pp.78-90.
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