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Economic Regulation and Low Carbon Transition Assignment

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Introduction - Economic Regulation and Low Carbon Transition

  • Production of Low carbon
  • Effectiveness of Low Carbon
  • deterioration of anthropogenic climate change
  • mechanics of hazard and unpredictability

Speaker Note: The industrialization age has seen the development of modern human society, which really is highly dependent on fossil fuels as power. Furthermore, the increasing amount of Co2 emitted during the process of industrialization has indeed been recognized as the major driver of greenhouse gases, leading to a deterioration of anthropogenic climate change. Tiredness produced by water, wind, and sunshine, on either hand, emits far less Carbon dioxide into the air than fossil fuels and also has the potential to feed humanity forever. Changing climate economic study must be worldwide, engage with long timeframes, put the mechanics of hazard and unpredictability front and centre, and look at the possibility of major, non-marginal change

Background of the Study

  • Less carbon effects
  • Risk in the economic downstream
  • Proper energy scarcity
  • improve the fuel efficiency

Speaker Note: The extra energy of low carbon is less effective and expensive than good intensity. A shift to a reduced society will increase the risk of economic downturn, though not an open economic crisis, due to the energy scarcity. Moreover, in a human civilization afflicted by periodic downturns, it's worthwhile studying if the power system may return to a high-carbon state throughout a recession. The common goal of all power systems is to improve the fuel efficiency (Chilvers et al.2017). There is indeed a movement happening in discovering new ways to cut off energy required for devices to function, but this is spreading to all fields, such as housing and refrigeration. These are some of the key hopes for the present is indeed the rising share of renewable power and, as just a result, the utilization of energy supplies.

Electricity (gas) Industry Organization

  • Electricity sector
  • Proper power of the fossil fuels
  • Great empires technology and respective energy items
  • Several surroundings related cases

Speaker Note: The development of the Great Empire's energy market and also its regional development inside the northern European energy market is indeed a big success in gas economic interdependence. It is characterized by major increase in energy policies and changing market trends in Europe as inside single countries. The Grid Operator of Great Britain covers almost all of continental United Kingdom and several surrounding islands, and even some international connectivity. Customer receives 240 watts from the electrical industry that works on 50/60 Hz AC. By 2020, the electricity grid will provide 54 percent lower power consumption.

Renewable are rapidly growing, while fossil fuel producers, in overall, and coal power stations, particularly the powers are shrinking Historically and dominating coal power stations now are primarily used in the wintertime caused by pollution and costs, and contributed just 1 percent of the supplies in 2020. Electricity usage dropped approximately 9% from 2010 to 2017, due to a decrease in industrial production and a move to even more efficient energy lighting and appliances.

Regulation of Electricity (gas) industry

  • OFGEM(The office of Gas and electricity markets)
  • Government Policy Objectives
  • Main interest of the customers
  • Achievable environmental benefits

Speaker Note: The monopoly companies which run the electricity and gas systems are controlled by the Office of Electricity and Gas Market (OFGEM). It adopts costs of new and implements these, acting in the interests of customers and helping companies to achieve environmental benefits.

The Ministry for Commerce, Electricity and Industry Strategies is the government body in charge of setting energy strategy. BEIS offers three key policy aims:

  • Trying to assure the safety and stability of the UK's energy system.
  • Supplying households and businesses with affordable power.
  • Supporting sustainable development and international efforts to combat global warming.


  • Target changes in climate
  • White paper Energy
  • Capacity Market in UK
  • imminent closure of a handful of nuclear

Speaker Note: On June 27, 2019, Great Britain announced a legal binding aim of attaining gross emissions (as needed by the Paris Agreement On climate change 2008, even though amended by Paris Agreement).

BEIS's far UK Electricity Paper that seeks to address the restructuring of the UK electricity sector in keeping with UK government's environmental goals for 2060, would be published in autumn 2020, rather than June 2019. There are presently no details as to when the eBook would be published. Given projected increases in costs, the imminent closure of a handful of nuclear and coal energy plants, as well as the increased penetration of renewable generation energy, the UK Infrastructure Exchange is established to ensure reliable supply.

The regulatory framework of Electricity (gas) industry

  • Gas and Electricity Sector
  • systemic detachment
  • Restructuring culminated in the govt monopoly
  • advantages of improving efficiency

Speaker Note: Great Britain has been and keeps going to become an innovator in the restructuring of the electric and gas industries, having started previously than most nations, disappeared farther into implementing and testing, systemic detachment, and rolling back price controls, as well as its regulation and sector specific regulator are among the best . In the 1998 OECD Guidelines on Industry Regulation, the UK essentially meets the benchmarks established for electricity government and industrial. As a consequence, the suggestions in this paragraph should be voiced in a less particular fashion than customary. Restructuring culminated in a shift away from govt monopoly toward a competitive structure. It involves a high amount of private providing these services in importing competing parts of the industry, autonomous supervision of monopolies where rivalry is prohibited, and the government creating the legal framework. The advantages of improving efficiency have indeed been substantial and have been divided between consumers (in the shape of lower prices and improved, more innovative solutions), investors, and the state. This achievement had taken a very long time to accomplish.

Low Carbon

  • low-carbon economic or subgroup economy
  • Greenhouse emission
  • low emissions power
  • chemical and pollution sensitivity

Speaker Note: A low-carbon economic or subgroup economy is one that is based on sources of energy that produce few greenhouse gas emissions. Ever since the semi century, Emissions of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities have been the dominant cause of climatic variation. Several countries had proposed and highlighted the reduced transformation as a global hot topic. It's a term used to describe how well a nation moves from using both lower and higher emission power to using only low emissions power.

Continuing greenhouse gas emissions could lead to long changes around the planet, putting other people and habitats at risk of serious, widespread, and irreversible effects. As a consequence, low-carbon industries which are developing internationally are proposed as a precursor towards a more developed, zero-carbon society. The GeGaLo score of political losses and gains analyzes geopolitical position might change if indeed the world fully transitions to green energy resources. Former fossil fuel exports are expected to lose influence, whereas former fossil energy imports and countries with rich renewable resources are expected to strengthen their positions (Bakker, et al. 2017). Low-carbon lifestyles reduce greenhouse emissions even while conserving resources. It lowers our chemical and pollution sensitivity. Embrace this sustainable life and think very carefully while purchasing for a clean earth and a happy life. Only grab whatever one needs an informed decision.

Market share of Low carbon in UK

  • Market share
  • Market Economy
  • summertime power outages, atomic production plummeted
  • transition down nuclear energy

Speaker Note: As per the BEIS's Dec 2019 energy statistics, low-carbon production now provides for 56.6 percent of the Country's total electricity generation mixture, up over 49.6 percent in 2017. Additional infrastructure in windy, solar, hydropower, and bioenergy accounted for the 2% rise. According to recent government statistics, renewable accounted for 32% of generation capacity in 2018, up 4 percent over 2017.Renewable generation increased by 4.4 percent in 2018, with several output rising by 1.4 per cent and solar and wind capacity rising by 8 per cent to a "record high rate." Owing to the summertime power outages, atomic production plummeted by 13%, hitting its lowest point. Main energy production fell for the very first time since 2014, dropping 1.7 per cent to loads million tons of oil equivalent in 2019, compared to 2018. Energy production for 2019 is 43 percent of the peak levels recorded in 1998 in Great Britain. Similar to previous year, energy consumption decreased by 2%.In September, it must have been revealed that the amount of energy produced in the Kingdom via coal resources had decreased to 1.6 per cent, in basis points it decreased from the preceding year's same period. In reality, the electricity grid generated 600 hours of petroleum energy during first 3 months of 2019, that's more than it did in the previous year of 2017.Despite the progress, it is estimated that the Kingdom will need to facilitate a four-fold growth in low activity particularly up to 75GW of offshore wind capacity to achieve its gross emission commitment by 2050. According to a study, the 155 Terawatt hours of clean electricity generated in 2018 will have to be boosted to 645 TWh in 2060. Whereas an extra 75GW of wind energy power could assist, the reports caution current government intentions to transition down nuclear energy even by the mid-2030s will impede the gross objective.

Market share of Low carbon in UK

  • Low carbon’s energy in UK
  • The renewable energy and low carbon economy
  • The Research of low carbon and some innovative policies
  • Strong technological and sound strategy

Speaker Note: However, in February, Grid Operator commended reduced sources of energy about the use of coal and oil inside Great Britain. It was found that in the first 12 month, 48.5 percent of the nation's power came from fuel sources including wind turbines, photovoltaic, and nuclear energy, and also energy supplied via subsea transmission lines. Low carbon businesses are those which contributing to a nation ’s GDP and generate substantially fewer carbon per unit of output than some other businesses, including such wind energy, wind energy, photovoltaic solar, hydroelectric, other renewable, befouls, and energy efficient lighting and vehicles.

Renewable sources produced a record-breaking 36.9percent of total of a UK's power in 2020, the ministry announced today. Wind energy contributed 20% of this, which would be a record high, with 9.9percent of the total originating from wind generation and 9.9% via wind energy. The amount of energy caused by wind in 2019 was indeed the greatest yet reported, at 32 TWh. By the end of the year, renewable electricity capacity had grown to 47.4GW, up 6.9% (3.0GW) from previous period. Low-carbon generation increased across the field in 2019, without renewable and nuclear energy contributing for a collective 54.2 percent of the overall generation. Atomic accounting for 16 per cent, fossil fuel for 30.9 basis points, and charcoal only for 1.4 per cent.

In 2020, businesses active inside the UK are projected likely export £nearly 10 billion dollars annually, with the majority of this originating first from exporting of goods and services in the low - emissions vehicle industry (£3.2 million).In 2019, businesses working inside the UK LCREE are projected to export £6.0 billion worth of goods. The reduced cars sector that represented for very little over one of all exports had the largest proportion of expenditure on goods and services.

Strong technological and sound strategy is required. And there's a price. Lengthy financing and a limited sum of funds Materials are in short in supply. Administration that really is dedicated seven sector interventions seven economic models 'great technology, which also include low-carbon technologies, for example as well as wind farms mechanical. There really is no clear plan to handle this situation. Poor commercialization inside the U.k.in establishing a track history economic promise

Supportive Policies for low carbon Technology

  • Low carbon Technology
  • Policies For low carbon technology
  • Renewable energy and low carbon in economy sectors
  • Climate change presents a fundamental threat

Speaker Note: Since self-isolation in COVID-19, American greenhouse gas emissions decreased 9.4 percent in 2019. It is the most substantial gas decrease since the War II period. Emissions may rise as companies expect a large portion of the population to come back to work even by the end of 2020.Emissions of greenhouse gases will continue to be a threat, irrespective of the vehicles driven, the gasoline people use, how we manufacture products, and how humans raise our meals. These are all just a few of the trying to cut technology that are working to reduce impact on the environment.

It should not lose track of many other challenges, including such global warming, because of the magnitude and urgency of the crisis. Climate change presents a fundamental threat to people, civilization, and business, as demonstrated by the increasing frequency and severity of extreme meteorological events. Rain and wind catastrophes cost taxpayers an estimated in 2017 and all these numbers are expected to increase significantly in the future. Many scientists favor a carbon tax as a means of reducing greenhouse emissions. These business approaches work by encouraging businesses and households to conserve power, improve energy efficiency, and adopt clean-energy technologies but keeping the concrete steps down to individuals. The conventional control approach of state regulation is likely to be more expensive than a business strategy that wants to put a carbon price. The government could offer carbon permits to the winning price or hand them free of charge, to either businesses that want them or, like in the 2009 House plan, to entities that'd sell those to businesses which need them and to use the proceeds to fund various social purposes. Companies that really can reduce their emission expense after the initial allocation can sell excess allowances to other companies that found it especially costly to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.

In 2019, Britain's lower emissions and sustainable energy economy is led by the efficient energy products sector . It accounted for around 31% of British LCREE revenue (£million in 1995 million) and 40percent of LCREE employees (85,300 comprehensive equivalents. Since the poll started in 2014, the efficient energy goods sector is the most popular. Development, manufacture, and implementation of efficient energy doors, windows, and insulators are activities in this industry. For just a full list of what is covered for each LCREE sector, go to this. Low - emissions cars, which include the design and manufacture of automobiles with specific technology to significantly reduce or remove pollutants, were always the third sector in terms of LCREE sales in 2019. LCREE's sales in this sector were 14% (£6.0 billion). In employment terms, it was the 4th industry in 2019, contributing for over 8percentage points of overall LCREE full time work (around 15,900 FTE).All the top five sectors adding to unemployment in the LCREE in 2019 are not exclusive to ones leading to the most mobility. The efficient energy products, lighting, and intelligent energy management industries employ 70 percent of all LCREE employees.


  • The process of Industrialization
  • The Economic Study
  • industrialization process
  • interact with lengthy timeframes

Speaker Note: The entire report mainly covers the Low carbon permission. The industrialization era saw the rise of contemporary human civilization, which is heavily reliant on fossil fuels for energy. The increasing amount of Co2 emitted during the process of industrialization has indeed been recognized as the major driver of greenhouse gases, leading to a deterioration of anthropogenic climate change. Furthermore, the rising amount of CO2 released throughout the industrialization process has been identified as a primary source of greenhouse gases, resulting in anthropogenic climate change worsening. Water, wind, and sunlight-induced fatigue, on the other hand, discharges significantly less CO2 into the atmosphere than fossil fuels and has the potential to feed mankind indefinitely. The economic study of changing climates must be global, interact with lengthy timeframes, bring the mechanics of danger and unpredictability front and centre, and consider the possibilities.


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Chilvers, J., Foxon, T.J., Galloway, S., Hammond, G.P., Infield, D., Leach, M., Pearson, P.J., Strachan, N., Strbac, G. and Thomson, M., 2017. Realising transition pathways for a more electric, low-carbon energy system in the United Kingdom: Challenges, insights and opportunities. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy231(6), pp.440-477.
Geels, F.W., 2018. Disruption and low-carbon system transformation: Progress and new challenges in socio-technical transitions research and the Multi-Level Perspective. Energy Research & Social Science37, pp.224-231.
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Keramidas, K., Diaz Vazquez, A., Weitzel, M., Vandyck, T., Tamba, M., Tchung-Ming, S., Soria-Ramirez, A., Krause, J., Van Dingenen, R., Chai, Q. and Fu, S., 2020. Global Energy and Climate Outlook 2019: Electrification for the low-carbon transition. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. doi10, p.58255.
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