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Introduction- Global strategy Assessment question and answer

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Compass Group is a food service firm, which provides food and retailing services in its customer’s locations. The company is operated in 91 countries internationally with a strong global presence in all countries. The company provides food service for consumers at schools, offices, universities, schools, healthcare institutions, and remote and offshore sites (Singh, et. al. 2019). The company has a well-known portfolio of brand and focus in offering foodstuff and a variety of services and sustain in the subsequent core industry sector which includes overseas and distant, business and industry, teaching, healthcare, athletics and recreation, and military.

The report is made to discuss the source of competitive advantages and their relevance to management. The report significantly reviews the theory of competitive advantage and evaluates their implication for management. The report will discuss how such theories inform the Compass Group management team in their mission to accomplish sustainable competitive advantage. The key feature of the report will analyze how capabilities and resources may offer sustainable competitive advantages based on their value, rarity, inimitability, and organization support through activity systems mapping, value chain analysis, and SWOT analysis. The report critically reviews the relationship between the external environment, organizational resources, and company performance (Mikalef, et. al. 2019). The report is made to discuss the role of globalization and innovation in a case company’s competitive advantage to achieve the objective of the report consideration is done on how resources and capabilities can be developed based on dynamic capabilities. 

Compass Group logo

Figure 1 Compass Group logo

Organizational resources and capabilities and their connection with organizational strategy

Organizational resources and capability play a huge part in the strategy of a company and assist in achieving strategic competitive advantage. This helps the companies to create new capabilities and increase existing ones; they are pertinent to sustain benefits over competition. These are the insubstantial, planned assets that businesses draw to get work done, carry out its company strategy, and satisfy its consumers.

Recognition of core competency and capability can be helpful to identify what contributes more to consumer worth and which market segment to aim. A company must analyze which capabilities and resources are most significant to provide a sustainable viable benefit to the company. It should also recognize its weaknesses and strengths concerning its participants (Bamel and Bamel, 2018). The business must make sure that its resources and capabilities are completely exploited and employed. It is obliged to focus on renewing important resources and structuring competencies. In a speedily varying external atmosphere, a focus on internal resources and capability is extra protected than a market focus.

The correct mix of managerial capabilities helps businesses to function efficiently and bring exceptional service and fulfillment to customers.

In advance, competitive advantage - The capacity to handle resources and information efficiently helps focus a business on meeting consumer needs with its distinctive products and services. 

Adapting to change - the firm that makes effort to bring into line with workers, consumers, and rising markets and trends can enhance anticipation and plan for the new instructions it must take. 

Driving business performance –the development of organizational capabilities sharpens a company's identity and strengths. Connecting this intangible worth promotes constancy and makes the majority of what everyone has to propose. 

These elements are associated with approach and vision and specify how well a business handles its business environment and set itself separately. 

Impact of organization capabilities

Figure 2: Impact of organization capabilities

Organizational capability plays a massive responsibility in the strategy of a business which assists the companies in achieving strategic sustainable competitive advantage. There are improved customer relationships which would in turn make sure continued development in the market. The connection among customers and the organization, as an organizational ability and resources, affects loyalty, sales, and reputation in long-term company operations (Rehman, et. al. 2019). Maintaining a brilliant place of work is an organizational capability that ensures they have the resources to improve incessantly.

Q.1. Sources of competitive benefit and its significance to management

Customers are the major source of competitive advantage for the Compass group and the key to delivering enormous food and services to its consumers jointly with immense financial results. The company's purpose in leading social purpose is to provide safe culture build around caring for groups united with food and staff safety. The company’s sustainable strategy focuses on 2 key areas i.e. health and well-being. Compass Group is the economical leader in the food service business and can make use of its range and aggregate buying authority to proffer low per-unit food and supply costs to its customers. The firm also has high changing costs due to a multi-year agreement and significant capital investment offered by the case company to construct on-site conveniences. The company also looks for investing in small to medium-sized acquisitions, with the right cultural healthy and additional strengthening of its organic growth capability. The company is committed to providing the greatest quality and value to its customers with best-in-class implementation. Food is the main focus and core capability of the Compass group. The firm takes a practical and target approach to other sustains services, rising strategies based on different areas. This upfront capital allows customers to reimburse for services above the life of the agreement and stay away from great initial expenses, which for that reason enables the firm to earn constant income on its venture. The firm main preference is to produce organic food that yields the maximum returns and leverages the major structural growth chance in the international food services market (Rusanen, 2019). The company has increased its focus on innovation in the food business to bring more range and enthusiasm to offer the best to its customers and to improve business operations.

Critically appraisal of the theories of competitive advantage and appraise their relevance to organization

Resource-based view

RBV model helps all organizations and companies to have admittance, and acquire and control possessions which allow them to construct a sustainable comparative advantage. 

Tangible resources: these possessions comprise resources that are corporeal and can simply identify by the business and competitor. These includes:

The land is a physical resource for Compass Group which comprises all property owned and borrowed by the corporation for purpose of host manufacturing units and also for warehousing purpose. The company’s tools are a resource that comprises all the equipment owned by the firm for purpose of packaging and manufacturing and other operational purposes. Materials comprise all the raw resources and additional covering materials that the company uses for the booming manufacturing and covering of its goods. The firm’s supplies are also a physical resource and contain all products and materials that are in use and required for sustaining the production and packaging functions (Barney, 2018). Amenities are the resources that are visibly identifiable by rival players with reverence to the case company. 

Intangible resources: these resources refer to a physical value that is static own and possessed by the Compass Group. This includes:

The brand image for Compass Group is build over chronological individuality where the trademark has work rigid to provide high-class goods and earn customer faith over decades. The company’s manufacturing process and its product distinctiveness are protected by intellectual possessions rights which avert other rival company from repetition or having admittance to its unique product unify, and product ingredient and input. The goodwill for the company is again developing through its individuality where the company’s status and consumer knowledge have allowable for the growth of venerable support for the business. The trade name is also an intangible resource for the firm as other companies cannot approve or replicate this name. The company provides distinctive consumer knowledge to its customers throughout its brand activities, contributions, and marketing activities. The company has a variety of diverse product lines and product contributions for the diverse target group and target customer markets. Furthermore, the firm operates worldwide and has customer market in more than 99 countries. 

The firm’s mission is to distribute enormous service and consequences throughout its people to accomplish leadership in the selected foodservice market through the continuous pursuit, of an advanced level of efficiency, service, and superiority (Hamadamin and Atan, 2019). The firm’s purpose is to be the uppermost superior and most advantageous owner and operative of the globe's top food service and hospitality business.

Resources and capabilities offer sustainable competitive advantages based on their rarity, value, individuality, and organization support (VRIO) 

To gain sustainable competitive benefit, a capability and resource should be rare, valuable, incomparable, and overcome by the business despite it being exclusive to replicate in terms of money and time. VRIO analysis is an internal analysis tool, used by the company to classify its resources based on to hold certain traits outlined in the structure. 

Valuable: valuable resources provide the company with some type of advantage. Though, a resource that is precious and does not robust into any of the further scope of the structure is not a competitive benefit (Chatzoglou, et. al. 2018). A company can only accomplish a competitive advantage with valuable resources and is neither uncommon nor tough to imitate. 

Rare: resources that are uncommon and not overcome by the most organization are rare. When a resource is mutually rare and valuable it helps the company to gain a competitive advantage. This can be achieve from a resource that is both precious and rare and is generally short-lived although. Rivals will rapidly understand and can replicate the resource with not too much difficulty. 

Imitate: resource are tough to imitate if they are tremendously exclusive for an added association to acquire them. A supply may also be tough for a business to imitate if it is confined by legal ways including patent and trademarks. 

Capture value: resources themselves do not present several benefit for a corporation if it is not planned to confine the worth from them. A company must put order its processes, organization policies, systems, organizational structure, and traditions to be capable of completely understanding the perspective of its rare, costly and valuable to emulate resources and capability. 

VRIO analysis

Figure 3: VRIO analysis

Q.2: what are the company’s strategy and strategic position

The company’s strategy is to focus on targeted support services and food services, mainly from extraordinary outsourcing.  The company’s business model to create value remains unaffected based on its 3 key strategic pillars of performance, people, and purpose. The regulation the company brings is to ensure running the business professionally while ongoing to enchant its customers and consumers with healthy, innovative, and stimulating food services. Compass Group exclusively positioned itself to create lifetime opportunities and to impact and correspond to the society in which its businesses function. The firm incessantly seeks a way to be more collectively and environmentally accountable. The company’s business model starts with organic development, which they drive through sectors and sub-sectors (Fumasoli, et. al. 2020). The company creates its growth scale and focuses on efficiencies and costs, all along with its robust financial statements which give them a real sustainable competitive advantage. The company focuses on outfitted implementation and generates efficiencies by optimizing its supply chain and industriously managing its food and labor costs. 

Critical evaluation of the relations between the external environment, organizational resources, and the company's performance 

As the Compass Group is looking to leverage and develop its competencies and major capability, performing the PESTEL analysis is vital for rising efficient strategies and accomplishing long-term growth objectives for the company.

Political: Higher political constancy provides a constant and responsive business environment with unsurprising market growth trends. It is significant for the case company to examine the present trends in the different areas and political scenarios, as the change in government policies may change the government's priority toward the progress of different industries.

Economic: The economic expansion of a state directly influences the company’s performance. Rising economies recommend extensive development opportunities to the case company. Likewise, it is significant to appreciate the business lifecycle stage. Ingoing into grown-up industries can be extra challenging due to marketplace diffusion than the industry at the expansion stage. 

Social: Changes in a demographic pattern such as migration trends, aging population,  and socio-economic changeable have dominant significance for a global business organization like Compass Group. Examining the demographic distinctiveness can help the company choose the correct market segments with high growth prospects.

Technological: The expansion of knowledge, information and communication technology has led to the implementation of pioneering marketing techniques to improve the relationship with consumers. The use of social media platforms by organizations has become widespread in the contemporary business environment (Christodoulou and Cullinane, 2019). The case company can influence the opportunity obtainable by social media promotion to progress business performance. 

Environmental: The rising environmental contamination joined with technological advancement has obliged company organizations to implement pioneering recycling and waste management practices.

Legal: the case company must pursue the employee’s safety and health laws as several countries have a strict policies to make sure labor safety. On condition that a protected work environment for the personnel is the moral and ethical obligation of the company. Likewise, anti-discrimination laws also require being cautiously intentional when increasing human resource practices as prejudiced suits against managers harm the managerial image and influence organizations’ capacity to magnetize and maintain talent.

Identifying resources and capabilities by way of benchmarking, VRIO analysis, activity systems mapping, value chain analysis, and SWOT analysis 

The VRIO structure is a strategic planning device intended to assist companies to expose and defend the resources and capabilities that give them a long-term competitive advantage. This framework helps the company to leverage and identify them as part of its strategic plan. 

Value chain analysis is a competitive tool used by companies to examine internal company business activities. Its purpose is to identify, which activities are the most valuable to the company and which could be enhanced to provide a sustainable competitive advantage. It is a procedure where a company identifies its essential and minor activities that put value to its ultimate product and then examine this behavior to diminish costs and boost discrimination (Ariyani, et. al. 2018). 

Primary activity includes: Inbound logistics: accessibility of warehousing, raw materials, and distribution.

Operations: producing products from raw materials

Outbound logistics: delivery of goods to consumers, including transportation, warehouse, and distribution

Sales and marketing: all marketing and sales connections and actions which are also used for sales forecasting data.

Services: all types of consumer support communication and brand trustworthiness.

Secondary activities include: Infrastructure: any finance, managerial, management, development, and legal operations required to sustain primary activities

Technology development: any technical improvement made to hardware, obtainable machinery, and software in supporting primary activities

Human resource management: employing and then placing personnel in accurate and the majority competent positions

Procurement: all purchases linked to buying raw materials and any fixed assets.

The activity system map is used to demonstrate how a small position of core competencies of a business, all along with detailed organization and policy that are in support of those competencies, approach mutually to generate a constructive strategic position.

SWOT analysis is a structure use to appraise a firm’s competitive situation and to build up strategic development. 

Strengths portray what the company excels at and what disconnects it from the rivalry. This includes a loyal consumer base, strong balance sheet, strong brand, distinctive technology, and so on which helps the companies to gain a competitive advantage.

Weaknesses stop the company from performing at its most favorable level. They are the area where the company requires improving to stay competitive (Muflikh, et. al. 2021). This includes average turnover, weak brand, and high level of debt, insufficient supply chain, and lack of capital.

Opportunities refer to constructive outside factors that can give the company gain sustainable competitive benefit. 

Threats refer to factors that have the prospective to destroy the company.  Common threats include such as increasing competition, increasing costs for materials, tight labor supply, and many other factors.

The significance of innovation and globalization in scheming and implement Compass Group's competitive position 

Innovation and globalization are 2 key actions that appear to be powerfully related. Digitalization is a form of innovation that requires firms to have superior knowledge of market and customer needs. Businesses raise and make revenue through advertising their products or services to overseas markets, creating new products and services, and incorporate each of this strategic issue into a mixed technique. As a result, company settles on to go into the global market and be a large extent more inventive in the development of their operations, technologies, and goods. Enlarging out nowadays to rising business from end to end digitalization provides them with the chance to boost their resources (Radovi?-Markovi?, et. al. 2019). While using leveraging, business money and resources are liberated. When exporting products and services, one can access wireless systems of possible investor that are extra enthusiastic to assist modernism initiative. Convenience to significant information requires both existing and potential consumers are assisted by nearness. Customers are frequently viewed as the major motivator of product development.

Q.3. Role of globalization and innovation in a company’s competitive advantage 

Understanding consumer insight and important needs: to innovate new concepts as per market studies. Exploration: the company explores ideas and thoughts by creating new programs as per the customer’s needs and demands. Development:  menu bank of new recipe is urbanized. Validation: at multiple levels such as financial, operational, supply chain, consumer, and so on. Go to market: new concepts are after that implement with a soft launch. The company measures by diverse ways of internal and clients feedback. Stimulated by the consumer imminent, the company has developed workplace food concepts with caution health as an essential element to provide to exclusive workplace needs. The company is persisting to innovate and propose applicable concepts to nurture the place of work and assist the evolution to an improved place of work food habits and choices (Zeibote, et. al.  2019).

Tools associated with strategic foresight

The tools enthusiastic to its forethought activities also require to be incorporated with the company social network and with external and internal forecast markets for consideration of the  competitions. The investigation tool is the scalable front-end of the forethought tool, that permit to put together insights from a great number of source. These tools include CIPHER, story from the edge, causal layered analysis; ASCEND model, evolutionary pattern analysis, wardley mapping, scenario planning and back casting, and inverted thinking and checking biases

CIPHER tool is used for effective strategic plan whereas; Contradiction tool refers to a modification in the natural order of consequence and connections. 

Inflection tool: This tool is used to catalyze an important stepping up in a research area or competitive countryside.

Reflection on how resources and capabilities can be developed based on dynamic capabilities 

Dynamic capabilities are the company’s ability to put together, construct, and reconfigure external and internal competencies to deal with quickly changing environments. The types of dynamic capability incorporate the company's resources which include processes connecting with product development and strategic decision-making. It also involves the reconfiguration of capital within the company (Ferreira, et. al.  2020). Such routines and processes are measured as dynamic capabilities for the reason that they facilitate companies to produce and renovate their resources in a means that create new value and permits them to challenge and develop. Dynamic capabilities are the company’s ability to combine internal as well as external competencies to concentrate on and outline fast-changing business surroundings (Baloch, et. al. 2021). Companies' resources have been defined as all organizational processes, capabilities, assets, company attributes, information, and information restricted by a venture that allows the company to envisage and put into practice strategies to get better its effectiveness and efficiency.


The above report is prepared to discuss the source of competitive advantages and their significance to management. The report reviewed the theory of competitive advantage and evaluated their implication for organization. The report also discussed how such theory informs Compass Group Company's leadership team in their mission to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. A key feature of the report has analyzed how resources and capabilities offer sustainable competitive advantages base on their value, rarity, inimitability, and organization support and by way through activity systems mapping, value chain analysis, and SWOT analysis. The report will discuss about the sources of competitive benefit and its significance to management. To achieve the objective of the report company’s strategy and strategic position has been discussed which will help the company to gain competitive advantage in the food industry. The report has also highlighted on the role of innovation and globalization in a case company’s competitive advantage. The report critically reviewed the relationship between the external environment, organizational resources, and company performance. It also discussed the role of internationalization and innovation in a case company's competitive advantage. Reflection is done on how resources and capabilities can be developed based on dynamic capabilities. 


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