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Implication Of Adopting A Project Management System On Its Success In PSP Projects

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Chapter 1: Introduction:

With intense globalization, businesses have been exploiting their resources to maximize their profit by carrying out their operations and processes across boundaries. Many firms have carried out projects in countries where they were getting better margins or have high demand. Managing projects across boundaries have been prone to higher risks due to the dynamism of external factors. It is desirable and highly recommended by experts to manage projects to adopt a project management system (Copola Azenha et al, 2021). This paper will discuss the vitality and application of project management systems for projects carried out across boundaries. This paper will focus on construction projects and the aspects that help the business determine which project management to adopt for carrying out projects across borders. The paper will critically express elements such as cultural factors, economic, political, and technological factors that are significant in impacting the project management system. Each Project management system focuses on the need of the project and the objective of the business associated with such projects. In this paper, we will discuss how construction projects are affected by the choice of the Project Management System.

Construction projects in India are influenced by several external factors such as topography, supporting infrastructure, legislature governing such projects, labour laws, and like (Ahuja et al, 2020). India is a country of diversity and therefore managing projects is sensitive to the dynamism of the market as well as the society of the country. This paper will aim to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the choice of Project management system in the context of construction projects in PSP Projects and the elements that are significant to making such choices.


With the exponential rise in FDI, India has emerged as one of the most attractive nations for investment purposes. India has seen healthy growth in inflows for carrying out construction projects (Singh, 2019). With the 1991 policy of privatization and globalization, India opened routes for foreign companies and favourable policies for carrying out construction projects have been the main driver of choosing the project management system regarding the construction (Singh, Deep, and Banerjee, 2017). In the last decade, India had witnessed an enormous inflow of 25.69 billion USD as foreign investment in construction development along with 16.97 billion USD allocated directly to construction activities. Constructions in SEZ areas, industrial parks, and completed townships are subject to 100% FDI. Sharma (2018) views the project management system as a pivotal element that has paved the way for construction projects to be carried out in India. Whether it is monitoring the project using tools and techniques or laying the foundation by adopting management principles guiding the project, the Project management system has benefited construction projects to be completed timely and smoothly in India (Singh, Deep, and Banerjee, 2017).

“PSP projects” was significantly affected by political factors and economic decisions by a central authority that will be discussed in the paper. With an increase in household income, these types of projects have also seen a rise due to the rise in demand for housing projects, malls, shops, and other physical premises. Ogunde et al., (2017) highlight the role of project management systems to streamline the country’s market. Governments of different states have also stated their participation in boosting the economy of the nation by launching industrial estates for manufacturing purposes. With the exponential rise in associated industries such as IT, Steel, and Cement industries, the construction industry has attracted many foreign investors. Recently, the government declared in the union budget, 2022, that it will inject finance into the market due to which construction projects were greatly impacted. Ogunde et al., (2017) state that the project management system works as a guide for managing projects in foreign countries and the best part is that it can be modified according to the environment.

In the case of construction projects, topography, economic factors, labour laws, and political factors are major factors that decide the project management system. Sharma (2018) states that the construction projects of PSP projects have been carried out by following a definite and predetermined project management system and such projects have high success rates. Moreover, the research also focuses on determining the success of such projects that followed a definite system for project management. Singh, Deep, and Banerjee (2017) opined that for the success of construction projects, it is vital for the business to have a definite framework that governs the whole project. The system adopted provides the base for such projects and helps the business to minimize wastage to great extent. The large-scale projects are outsourced to construction companies that have their system to carry out construction activities. In India, construction activities have surged after the Covid-19 pandemic (Nevstad et al, 2021).

These constructions were mainly carried out by the government and handed over to companies like PSP projects, Ashoka Buildcon, and PNC Infratech which have a high success rate of completing construction projects. PSP projects have attracted many foreign investors with strong fundamentals and a definite system. Likewise, foreign companies have observed that construction projects in India are highly dependent on the choice of the project management system. Mavi and standing, (2018) opine that the project management system does not direct the business or the company but provides a set of rules, guidelines, tools, and techniques to make decisions that streamline with their objectives. These aspects of the Project management system regarding PSP projects will be discussed in the paper to critically review the success of executing projects following the project management system in India.

Research Aim and Objectives

Research Aim

The study is aimed at reviewing the project management system in the Indian construction company, PSP projects and determining the role of economic, political, and social factors in determining the Project Management System to recommend appropriate systems in the company

Research objectives

  • To determine the vitality of factors affecting the planning of a construction project in India by reviewing the literature.
  • To apply models and theories to determine their impact on the planning of a construction project in India.
  • To ascertain the accuracy of these models and proposed Project management system in ensuring the success of the project led by PSP projects.
  • To draw lucid conclusions and recommend research areas for further research.

Research Questions

The research questions are based on the above description of the case. The following questions will be the base of the whole research. The research will streamline these questions to maintain objectivity and reach a concrete and lucid conclusion.

  1. How do India's economic, political, and social factors affect the choice of project management system regarding construction projects in India?
  2. How do external factors affect the planning of PSP Projects?
  3. What are those factors that affect construction projects in India, mainly PSP projects?
  4. What are different types of project management systems and what factors are they dependent on to make a project successful?

Research significance

This research is based on determining the role and impact of the project management system on the success of carrying out construction projects in India which is chosen based on external factors of the country. The research is significant as it will help the reader get insight into the execution of projects in the construction industry and determine the degree of sensitivity of these projects concerning the external environment (Verma, 2017). It is inevitable for a project to meet its objective while being cost-effective. The paper will discuss how a project management system helped PSP projects to achieve their goals by remaining cost-effective. It will help the reader to gain knowledge about analytical and aid decision-making regarding the choice of project management system for different types of projects, especially in the case of the construction industry (Singh, Deep, and Banerjee, 2017).

It will also help the reader to become enlightened about the difference between executing a project in the home country and executing a project in the host country. It is vital to study the factors that affect the choice of project management systems concerning different industries (Ding et al, 2018). One system adopted for one type of project might not be effective for another project because of certain differences and the different factors that affect them. An IT project is different from a construction project and therefore the factors affecting these projects will be different (Mavi and Standing, 2018). Therefore, it is vital to know what factors affect a specific project. Working conditions in India are different from that in America and therefore one should also be well educated about such differences that might impede the working of a project management system (Sharma, 2018).

For instance, labour laws in America are more rigid and articulated than those in India. Because of loopholes in the legislature that governs labour laws and practices, PSP projects had to adopt a different project management system. For these reasons, the practitioner and project associates should know about the factors of the external market of the host country before choosing a project management system (Verma, 2017). This paper is focused on construction projects executed by PSP projects and how they are affected by the choice of Project management system based on factors that will affect the project during its implementation therefore it will be a lucid research paper aiming to fulfil the research objectives and giving concrete answers after a thorough study of empirical data used in this research (Singh, 2019).

Chapter 2: Literature Review

All the factors have been thoroughly discussed in this report: how much of a social shortfall is there for the workers and what kind of problems are faced in their security in the construction. How the economic factor affects the construction industry has also been informed about it and how the political problem has to be faced. Some such factors have also been discussed in the report which gives information about the external variables of the UK and India and how they differ from each other. How do the two countries work differently in creativity, management systems and in a final way? This report also discusses which project management system is suitable for building projects in any country. In it, 5 types of processes have been discussed, which are the scope of recognition of the project, planning, execution, monitoring and closing of the project. And lastly, it has been told how the political, economic and social sectors impact planning the construction project.

Factors Affecting the Construction Industry Socially

The shortfall of workers: During the crisis, the construction sector lost approximately 2 million positions, although it has been difficult to get output back to the previous levels. In the research conducted by Guo et al. (2016) many individuals left the industry, even though they retired or were fired off, and got a job in plenty of other fields. As the crisis progressed, it became evident that even these people, who had moved on to new jobs were still not returning. The basic conclusion is that the construction sector is struggling to find sufficiently qualified workers to accommodate increasing demands. According to a recent study by both the AGC, 75% of businesses anticipate increasing staff in 2018, while 78% of businesses are experiencing difficulty hiring suitable personnel. In the words of Bilal et al. (2016) furthermore, 82 per cent of businesses anticipate that finding and hiring skilled personnel will be challenging, if not impossible, in 2018.

Additionally, Silva et al (2018), also defined that skill shortage is one of the significant challenges for the construction industry as it results in reduced production and efficiency leading to increasing cost and improper alignment of duty to accomplish the goals timely. The shortcoming of workers within the construction industry impacts the overall work progress in the industry as it is associated with other social issues such as skilled inefficiency and mismatch of required skills. As the industry requires a wide variety of skills and efficient workers to perform specialised tasks as it is a sensitive process of constructing large buildings and projects and making them safe for the public. The lack of required employees for plumbing and operating construction machines resulted in reduced efficiency and major delay in the activities within India's infrastructure and construction development plans informed by the government of India. It is also informed that the shortfall of employees in the industry within India also result in inefficient vocational training and development system for workers.

Godini? and Obrenovic (2020), also agree that the shortfall of employees within the industry is also associated with social practices such as job uncertainty and disturbance in social identity negatively impacting the skill development among construction workers as a whole. The lack of inappropriate psychological models for employee well-being in the construction industry also becomes inefficient due to economic uncertainty developed by the covid-19 pandemic on the mental and physical health of individuals.

Security: The construction sector remains to have a problem with safety procedures. For decades, construction has ranked first among all professions in terms of absolute occupational accidents. The study by researcher Al-ahdal state et al. (2020) for years, the number of operating medical problems has remained relatively stable. All big businesses should prioritise maintaining employees satisfied and safeguarding them from injuries and deaths. When vulnerabilities are reduced and risk control measures are properly and diligently implemented, tragedies are readily avoided. In the research conducted by Lin et al. (2017) protection starts with leadership, and research has already shown that firms with excellent safety systems seem to be more effective. The study of Smol et al. (2015) demonstrates a concern in the very well of its personnel, a development name and reputation can indeed be enhanced and quality players can be attracted.

Factors Affecting the Construction Industry Economically

Development And higher-quality That Haven't Changed: Building, unlike some the other businesses, has had little to no increased productivity throughout the last eight decades. As shown in the latest studies by McKinsey & Co., "although several India industries, such as mining and agriculture, have boosted production ten to fifteen per cent ever since the 1950s, economic growth has remained at almost the same levels as it was 80 years ago." According to existing data, the industry in terms of performance has been declining steadily since the late 1960s. These observations seem concerning, specifically considering the growing complexity of construction works. Low performance on building projects is caused by a variety of variables. These could become a problem in construction and budgeting, a shortage of interaction and collaboration among project team members, or unproductive time spent waiting for essential commodities to arrive or for earlier research to be finished.

Financial shortcomings: Joblessness evaluation of the effectiveness of reduced purchasing rate for development supplies and resources will have an impact on the economic rate. Due to the obvious instability, it is difficult for the customer, banking institutions, property owners, and many other small enterprises to succeed. According to Elavarasan et al (2020), The covid-19 has significantly impacted the construction industry economically causing significant decreases in required resources and leading to the financial shortcoming. The financial shortcoming is one of the important and challenging factors of the construction industry in terms of the economy because it reduces the efficiency of the project and devastated the situation to invest and develop high-quality products effectively. The study associated the impact to offer financial shortcomings with the economic challenges in project management, the electricity or energy. Electricity is an important resource for project management in the construction industry and the financial instability or insufficiency of capital results in reduced capacity and affordability that leads to poor development and growth of projects resulting in negative impacts on public demand.

Factors Affecting the Construction Industry Politically

Developing, organising, and developing a venture: The number of large developments requires support in and out of the municipal authorities. If the local authority wishes to change zoning restrictions for a specific bit of land, the enterprise will be affected by the closure of production. Furthermore, if the executive branch refuses to allow or authorise changes to the health and safety laws that would assist a building company in obtaining recurring high-pressure situations at work, the construction will be cancelled. According to the study by Zidane and Andersen (2018), In recent years the construction industry is facing more challenges that are negatively impacting the overall production and growth of the industry in large areas. The combination of challenges faced by the construction industry comprises low productivity, an inappropriate skill of adequate collaboration, improper management of Information, and poor Regulation and compliance with political norms (Bond-Barnard et al, 2019). The study suggested that the utilisation of blockchain technology can lead to effective digital transformation in the industry and will support better compliance with political rules and regulations while operating in National and international markets leading the disruption in the global construction sector. The political environment however required battery summarisation and management of multiple dimensions to set desired databases for managing the application and criteria to conduct better competence in the Political environment.

Concerning Security Requirements: Safety laws and policies at the government, regional, and municipal levels could act as ideological instruments affecting the production profession. This encompasses any safety concerns for the location in which the development will be built, and even the facility or superstructure itself, even during the development process. In addition, the correct supplies and materials must be used as well. If the administration rejects and therefore does not authorise the project, no construction will begin again until privacy and protection standards, procedures, and guidelines are approved. Furthermore, Asante et al (2018), Illustrated that security requirements are an important concern for project management operating in challenging situations as the security assurance demonstrates fulfilment of organisational goals and leads to better quality with effective administration and proprietorship of the project. During project management, the political regulations guide the project management system to understand the security assurance keenly and deliver the project effectively. The security requirements are essential to understand and implement within the project management as if there is a significant Association between project success and Planning based on the safety and security of aspects in the project.

Differences between UK and Indian external variables in the context of the construction industry

Creativity: Industries in the UK can organize seminars to enhance the skills of their workers in which their skills are further enhanced. Efforts are made to increase their level of creativity and innovation further. In the words of Aggarwal et al. (2017) due to seminars, workers get an opportunity to enhance their skills, but their chances of employment also increase further. More progress and creativeness and innovation have come in their work. But on the other hand, in India, all these things are not so focused. Workers do not get proper guidance nor are such seminars organized for them, in which they get an opportunity to enhance their skills further. Due to not getting the right guidance and due to non-conduct of seminars, there are problems in the work of the workers and there is also a lack in their safety because how they should work in their work keeping their safety in mind. They do not understand that thing properly.

In the views of Varkkey et al (2018), Creativity is an essential aspect of successful construction projects as it is considered necessary for improving the effectiveness of outcomes and leading to sustainability in the long term. The study illustrated that the majority of contractors in India is a with and ineffective to reach quality record systems that negatively impact their creativity and further development. It is also demonstrated that critical factors in Indian construction projects comprise competencies of construction workers, effective administrative support, and quality management. Whereas, the UK construction industry is considered more creative and durable because there is better availability of quality management systems comprising effective quality standards that can improve the sustainability and overall development of projects. However, there is still dissatisfaction among UK based clients of the construction sector Due to certain quality defects as the result of appropriate management of creativity and innovation in the projects. The creativity and innovative initiatives also decrease in the Indian construction industry due to conflict among associated participants in construction projects and hostile environment of socio-economic aspects along with harsh climate situations.

Financial: In the UK, the right funds are produced by the company for the work, which includes the materials of their construction and also the safety equipment of the worker. Workers do not face much problem in working because the funds are made in the prescribed amount, due to which there is no interruption in their work and no shortage is found. But in India, the company does not produce as many funds as in the UK. In the research conducted by Patil et al. (2020) workers have to complete their work in some amount and their safety equipment is also not given so much attention due to which many engineers and death rates are found. Due to the non-availability of material in the set amount with the workers, there is a problem in the construction. This problem also leads to major accidents in the future.

Financial stability is another important aspect that affects the quality and productivity of construction projects this is based on the reasons they are established (Li et al, 2019). The financial stability is stronger in the UK than in India because the UK has a better collaboration and appealing expertise to manage the required financial attributes in the construction projects and the per capita income and national economy of the UK are far better than in India that positively impact the construction industry and vice versa for the Indian construction sector.

Management System: In the UK, the right management system is hired in the construction work itself, in which the management can get the work done only on the skills of each worker. The right leadership qualities also come in the right management system, in which the leadership gives equal respect to its employees and listens to their ideas. The research conducted by McLeod et al. (2017) all these things in the UK management system. But in India, not much focus is on the management system in which the management thinks which team of workers will be right for which project and in what work. The construction industry in India should prepare a management system in which they should provide things keeping in mind the safety of their work and which person will be right in what kind of work so that their company will also get profit and the employee will also get their performance in the right way (Hussain et al, 2018) and PM will be able to finish his work in the right way.

The combination of management systems in the project management approach is important to accomplish the different goals in different stages of the project and develop a belief of customers or the public in the quality and consistent growth of the sector (Somarakis et al, 2019). The UK construction industry is highly efficient in using the different types of management systems in construction projects such as a quality assurance system, equality record system, improvement systems, subsidiary systems, human resource management system, Assurance and control system, and inspection system (Urba?ski et al, 2019).

A project Management system that works well for PSP Projects in the country

Seven project management system models can improve the project management system in the country.

Agile: Agile was among the most well-known models and frameworks, and it is particularly suited for iterative development assignments in construction systems. It's a form of approach in which identity and cross-functional organizations and potential consumers work together to develop requests and responses to construction tasks and applications (Albuquerque et al, 2020). It was devised as a reply to the shortcomings of the Waterfall technique (more on that later), whose operations failed to satisfy the needs of the technology industry in terms of intense competition and continual mobility in the construction projects system. The agile system allows project managers to understand and process the improved performance by using better discipline and software to track actual development in the project from time to time (Diamantopoulos et al, 2021).

Scrum: In the research conducted by Golini et al. (2015) responsibility, tenacity, concentration, accessibility, and compassion are the five attributes that make up Scrum. Its purpose is to use participation, transparency, and constant improvement to design, launch, and manage diverse products in construction systems. Scrum differs from many other Agile project management techniques in that it uses distinct responsibilities, engagements, and artefacts to execute the construction task.

Kanban: Kanban seems to be another well-known Agile software development methodology that, like Scrum, emphasises new copies and participatory, personality individuals in construction systems. That would be a very graphical strategy that attempts to offer excellent products by sketching a representation of the production process so that impediments may be discovered early in the development cycle (Stanitsas et al, 2021). It is based on six fundamental principles: Visual representation, minimizing the quantity of effort in preparation, managing the transmission of a communication, clearly stating guidelines, and making use of feedback effects.

Lean: Lean concept encourages construction companies to maximise customer satisfaction while reducing waste. Its goal is to provide more value to its customers as well as use available materials. It is standards, which are derived from either the construction or industrial sector (Kozlovska et al, 2021). The lean system also reduces waiting time for accessing the project materials, required equipment and tools, and information that emphasises for prefabrication to prevent wastage and better optimization of resources.

 Waterfall: Waterfall is a function of time, an iterative development framework in which measure typically slightly downward throughout one direction — like something of a waterfall— and also one of the more customary development methodologies in construction sites or projects (Jethva and Skibniewski, 2022). Its lack of stability in design decisions in the early stages of the project is due to it becoming exorbitantly more expensive relative to its formalised environmental features, which originated in the capital goods industry for the construction system. In the words of Fewings, et al. (2019) the Waterfall technique of managing projects emphasises the necessity of documents. The concept is that once a person leaves even during the planning process, their substitute may pick up where they left off by familiarising themselves only with paper material. Before Agile, application implementation was done using the Project management methodology, which had several drawbacks, including non-adaptive inherent limitations, a lack of user engagement even during project development, and then a lengthy acceptance testing.

6 Sigma: In the research of Radujkovi? et al. (2017) it seeks to increase quality by lowering the number of problems in something like a production by eliminating unnecessary what isn't operating in construction systems. It employs a variety of project methodologies, the majority of which are observational and mathematical, and even the competence of people who have experience in these techniques in the project of the construction system.

PMBOK and PMI: The Project Management Institute (PMI) is a non-profit professional association that also offers certificates of completion and requirements in project construction. The PMBOK, which is also not technically a paradigm but a reference defining the standards and guidelines that describe the management process, is produced by the PMI (Alwaly and Alawi, 2020). This model states 5 processes for the construction system which are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring, and closing.

Impact of Political, economic, and social factors on the planning of the construction project

Economic factors which impact the planning of the construction project: The construction sector is influenced by a variety of market issues, including increasing population, business development, unemployment, mortgage rates, customer preferences, and equipment. The requirement for construction repair and servicing would also expand. With time there has also been a change in the things related to the project, in which the requirement of more technical things is made in the things related to the project. The skills of the employees working on the project are also up to date, the company has to pay expenses to enhance their skills to produce their seminars. The research conducted by Oesterreich et al. (2016) employees also now work at higher rates, due to which there is a slight decrease in the company's score profits. Due to taking care of the safety of the employees, it is necessary to provide them with equipment, which also costs more. Many such factors affect the economic way of planning any construction project. In which the company has to complete the construction work after facing some financial difficulties. Considering the requirements of your business and also keeping in mind the requirements of the construction project.

Social factors which impact the planning of the construction project: There is a lot of problem with the shortage of staff in construction projects. Somewhere problems arise due to the behaviour of the employees in the work outside. Due to a lack of proper relations among themselves, the employees do not do their work properly. And more and more employees are not so up to date as of now regarding their skills and performance, due to which he needs to conduct many seminars to the company. In the words of Preuss et al. (2015) due to the low skills and performance activity of the employees, the project has to face many problems. There is a lack of innovation and development associated with the project when employees do not have the right skills and performance activities. In this way, the social factor also influences planning for the construction project.

Political factors which impact the planning of the construction project: Many times, it happens that the company does not get much support from the government and municipal authorities. Due to their restrictions, changes have to be made in the plan, due to which there is a lack of performance and innovation. There are many difficulties in the project work considering the government rules and regulations. The study by researcher loses more states et al. (2016) that organizations have to keep every little thing in mind. If a construction industry makes a mistake in any small thing, then that work is stopped by the government. And somewhere, due to the late permit by the government, there is a delay in the construction project, due to which the company has to bear heavy losses. There is a lack of time in preparing the same things, but they also get a reduction in profit. That's why such political factors affect the planning of any construction project (Kakar and Khan, 2021).

Chapter 3: Research Methodology


Research methodology refers to the specific techniques or procedures that can be adopted by the researchers for identifying, selecting, processing and critically analyzing the collected information or data concerning the research topic. By making use of the suitable research methodologies, the readers can evaluate the reliability as well as the validity of the entire research report. It is important to choose the best and the most appropriate research methodologies for clarifying the research inquiry and carrying out the whole research in a systematic manner. For this purpose, the Saunders Onion research model has been applied which involved a detailed explanation for each stage of the research process. This model has greatly helped in designing the research methodology process and in ensuring its adaptability. Saunders had adopted the research onion framework to go from the outer layer of the research onion to the inner layer of the research onion. All the stages of the research methodology have been discussed below concerning the chosen onion research model and the research topic.

Figure: Saunders onion research model

Source: Saunders et al., 2007

Research philosophy

Research philosophy helps in dealing with the scope, nature and development of the research knowledge or it is the belief that helps in collecting, using and analyzing data about a particular phenomenon. In addition to this, research philosophy further helps in making the researchers aware of the beliefs and assumptions that have been made for the research project. The basic assumptions being made by the researchers are reflected by the research philosophy based on which the research strategies are being formulated (Melnikovas, 2018). The research philosophy also allows a better understanding of original reasons and concepts along with associated motivations and improves the quality of research insights and processes. Philosophy also leads to greater insights to analyse the research problem properly and develop the related conclusions relevantly (Kanyamuna and Zulu, 2022). 

For this research project, the pragmatism research philosophy has been adopted which believes that the research project can be evaluated, interpreted and undertaken in different ways as there are multiple realities through which the project can be made understood (Cattivelli et al, 2021). According to this philosophy, the implications of the project management system can be ascertained for the success of the PSP project from the perspectives of different researchers. The research questions have been considered the important determinants during the application of pragmatism philosophy (Al-Ababneh, 2020). The chosen philosophy has further helped in the integration of multiple research methods and approaches for understanding the research project in a detailed manner.

Research approach

The second layer of the research onion is the research approach and for carrying out this research project, the induction research approach has been followed which is also known as inductive reasoning. This approach involves the critical observations and relevant theories that have been proposed for evaluating the final results of the research project. This approach did not require the researchers to formulate theories or generate research hypotheses and the data has been collected regarding the factors that affect the planning and application of project management systems within the construction companies of India, especially within the context of PSP projects (Melnikovas, 2018). The research approach is important in research projects as it provides related research legitimacy that leads to scientifically proven findings and conclusions. It helps in understanding the different concepts of the construction industry and the factors that positively or negatively impact the process of projects while operating in different countries such as the UK and India (Conn and Ritala, 2018).

The meanings have been generated by determining patterns and developing relationships between significant theories associated with the project management system being followed by the PSP project. For exploring the developed research questions, the existing theories related to the project management systems have been taken into consideration for a better and in-depth understanding (Mardiana, 2020). The detailed observations have been reviewed and abstract generalizations and ideas were reviewed for identifying crucial relationships between the economic, social and other factors that might influence the decision the choice of project management system by the construction companies of India (Al-Ababneh, 2020). Inductive reasoning is also termed the bottom-up approach as the researcher initiates the studying of the research project from observations and then moves upwards towards developing the patterns and applying the existing theories.

Research strategies

This is the third layer of the research onion that has greatly helped the researchers in carrying out the research work. The research strategy involves multiple approaches and the researchers choose among them depending on the scope and nature of the research project. For this research project, mainly two research strategies were used including a case study and a systematic literature review (Sahay, 2016). The strategy of the case study has enabled the researchers to particularly focus on one or single area i.e. the PSP project and offer insights about the implications of the project management system by giving significant examples about the PSP project. The case study research strategy has been considered as the single unit for establishing the key features of the particular system of project management and drawing key generalizations. This strategy also leads to a better connection with the audiences and transfers the knowledge and information among the target segment more efficiently and effectively. There are also better possibilities for grasping opportunities to conduct research and identify the findings most relevant to the research issue or problem (Moon et al, 2019).

Another adopted research strategy of critical literature review has helped in carrying out the critical and in-depth investigation of the research questions by reviewing and evaluating different perspectives of different researchers (Mahmood et al, 2021). The systematic literature review has been undertaken by reviewing the peer-reviewed journal articles and investigating the latest sources that published information and knowledge about the trending factors that have been affecting or greatly influencing the project management system. This particular research strategy has been proven to be the best strategy as it has worked as the greatest evidence about the research topic (Snyder, 2019). The systematic literature review has enabled the researchers to determine the research gaps concerning the recent understanding of the chosen field of the research project. This strategy also allows researchers to gain better familiarity with the research subject and balance the previous and current knowledge properly to explore the boundaries and address the limitations in the research field. This strategy provides analysis and evaluation of different relevant theories to the research subject and allows the research questions to be appropriately placed in the required context.

Research choice

It is the fourth layer of the research onion which reflects three choices of research including the mono, mixed and multi-methods of research (Curtis-Ham et al, 2021). The mixed research choice has been reflected throughout this research project as the investigation of both the qualitative and quantitative has been combined for developing a precise set of data. Depending on this research choice, the qualitative and quantitative forms of methodology were applied for analysing and evaluating the collected data concerning the developed research questions (Sahay, 2016).

Research time horizon

This layer of the research onion describes the total time being taken for completing the entire research project. As this research project has got completed within a specific period i.e., before the final submission of the research project; therefore, this project is said to be within the cross-sectional time horizon. Although the risk of improper analysis of behaviour and determination of cause & effect relationships is addressed by working on a specific task in a specific time frame. 

Research methods

Data collection

Data collection is considered the most important stage or layer of the research onion as the researchers must collect reliable data that is being further investigated and analysed during the process of data analysis (Stotz et al, 2022). For this research project, secondary data has been collected which was derived from identifying various opinions and perspectives of different researchers. To collect the secondary data, the recently published peer-reviewed journal articles have been searched and critically reviewed and many e-books about the factors affecting the success of project management systems have been studied in-depth (Sahay, 2016). Other than this, the online websites of the PSP project were also evaluated and studied for ensuring the success of the particular project management system adopted and applied by it.

It has been further made sure that no data before the year 2015 must have been considered as the focus has been made on collecting data and information about the latest factors and trends in association with the advanced or updated project management systems. While choosing the journal articles and other sources for collecting the secondary data, some factors have been taken into account such as the date of publication, reliability and validity of the source, depth of analysis made in the source, credentials or background of the author and quality of discussions made within the source (Snyder, 2019). It is important to select quality and valid articles and resources for conducting the literature review and making the data collection reliable for better outcomes and resolution to the research problem.

Data analysis

For analysing the collected secondary form of data, the qualitative data analysis method was adopted which refers to the non-numeric information such as analysing the text and information from multiple documents. The particular category of narrative analysis has been focused on reflecting the data by taking into account the context of the chosen case of the PSP project and evaluating different experiences of the researchers through reviewing the journal articles, e-books and other online sources (Mohajan, 2018). The collected data has been analysed by using graphical representations and tabular presentations for demonstrating the proper understanding of the factors that might affect the success of the PSP project concerning the particular system of project management being used by the Company. During the analysis, the research questions have been explored and answered by linking the findings with the literature review discussion to reflect and support the generated findings with the proper evidence as given in the section of the literature review (Mohajan, 2018). However, this method of data analysis of associated with the risk of subjectivity based on impacts and likelihood of concepts. Still, it generalises and focuses the process on relevant categories to work on.


In this chapter, the Saunders model of research onion has been applied for choosing the applying the right methodologies systematically. The suitable and effective research methods were adopted for answering the developed research questions and meeting the research objectives of the research project. The secondary form of data has been collected and the narrative analysis method was used for carrying out the research analysis process. In this chapter, some relevant research strategies have also been discussed along with the appropriate ways in which the data has been collected, gathered, and analysed and an in-depth discussion was made.

Chapter 4: Findings, Discussion and Analysis


In this chapter, the crucial findings and in-depth analysis will be presented of the research project. For demonstrating the findings and discussions, all the research questions will be critically reviewed and graphical representations will be used for discussing the answers. Further, all the findings will be supported by the evidence and will be linked with the discussions made in the section of the literature review. The findings will be elaborated concerning the generated arguments made by different authors and researchers. The studies and theories will be used or applied as discussed in various journal articles. In addition to this, some online sources and documents of the PSP project will be taken into consideration for the final review and evaluation of the findings. This chapter is structured systematically for answering and reflecting the findings of each research question separately. Multiple sources and secondary documents/ information will be analysed and critiqued with supporting shreds of evidence and in association with the chosen case of the PSP project.

Analysis, Findings and discussion:


<table ">

Knowledge of PSP projects






May be



As per the analysis, it has been identified that 84% of the respondents know the PSP projects which are used mainly in the construction industry. The remaining participants do not know about the same. So, the organization has to train them to increase their knowledge and monitor their activities while managing the project with the project management system.


Role of project management in the construction projects


Effective planning


Executing and monitoring the tasks


Maintaining the project cost with its limited resources


 Helping increase the organizational prosperity


 All of the above



The above figure shows that the project management system plays a vital role in the construction project as it helps the project manager effectively manage the project and complete the activities before the deadlines. It has been identified that 76% of the respondents think that effective planning, executing & monitoring, maintaining the project cost, and helping increase the organizational prosperity is an important part of the project management system with which the organization gains success within the business.

Factors that affect the planning of a construction project


Improper planning and designing


Climatic condition


Shortage of labor & technical personnel


Quality & shortage of materials


Can’t say



As per the analysis, in the construction, several factors are associated with the PSP projects. It includes climatic conditions, shortage of labor, quality, shortage of materials, and so on. The above image shows that 76% of the respondents think that improper planning and designing are the major factors that have been affecting the planning of the construction industry. Due to this factor, the organization may lack the budgets and resources to achieve the targets.


Challenges faced by the construction industry


Skill Shortage


Shortcoming of workers


Inefficient vocational training and development


Reduced efficiency & major delays in activities


All of the above



While seeing the above image, it can be understood that several challenges have been faced by the construction industry to complete the project on time, mainly the PSP projects. 76% of the respondents think that skill shortage, the shortcoming of employees, inefficient training & development, reduced efficiency & major delays in activities are the challenges that have been faced by the industry.


Factors that influence PMS


Low performance on building projects


Growing complexity


Financial shortcomings


Shortage of labor


Can’t say



The project management system is very essential for large projects to manage effectively. As per the analysis, some factors impact the PMS such as financial shortcomings, growing complexities, low performance, and so on. Out of these factors, the financial shortcoming is the major one experienced by 56% of the respondents. 16% of the respondents think that shortage of labor is the major factor while the remaining participants voted for the growing complexity and lower performance on building projects.


Most important project management System


Agile & Scrum


Kanban & Lean


6 Sigma & waterfall




Can’t say



There are several types of project management systems such as Agile, Scrum, 6 Sigma, PMBOK, PMI, and so on which have been used by the project manager to manage the projects effectively. According to the analysis, it has been identified that 54% of the respondents think that Agile and Scrum are the best project management system to manage the construction project.


Economic factors that impact PSP projects






Can’t say



As per the reviews of 82% of the people, the economic factors have a major impact on construction projects due to the market condition. It has been identified that the market condition of a country is uncertain so there is no fixed impact on the project. It happens according to the current situation.


Economic Factors


Business development


Customer preferences


Mortgage rates


Increasing population


All of the above



The above figure shows that 88% of the participants voted that all the economic factors like increasing population, business development, mortgage rates, and customer preferences affect the PSP projects. It has been identified that the above factors impact the performance of the construction project. So, the organization needs effective planning for the success of a project.


Social Factors


Lack of strong relations


Shortage of staff


Lack of innovation & development


Behavior of employees


All of the above



With the economic factors, social factors are also influencing the performance of the project management system to meet the deadlines of construction projects. According to the analysis, 56% of the respondents think that the behavior of employees, lack of innovation, shortage of staff, and lack of strong relations are the social factors that impact the performance of the project management system.


Impacts of adopting a project management system in PSP projects


Improves productivity


Motivate employees


Increase efficiency & organizational prosperity


Meet the deadlines on time


All of the above



With the above graph, it can be seen that various factors impact the project management system in the PSP projects such as improving productivity, motivating employees, increasing efficiency, and meeting the deadline on time. 72% of the respondents think that all these factors have a positive impact on the PSP projects.

Economic, political, and social factors of India on the choice of the project management system

Guo et al. (2016) discovered that many people left the sector, even whether they quit or were fired, and found work in a variety of other industries. As the crisis continued, it became clear that even those who had relocated to new occupations were not returning. The primary conclusion would be that the construction industry is failing to locate enough competent personnel to meet rising demand. In addition, 82% of organisations believe that recruiting and employing experienced workers would be difficult, if not unattainable, in 2018 (Bilal et al.,2016). Worker shortages in the construction sector influence overall industry advancement since they are related to other societal concerns such as skilled inefficiency and mismatch of essential skills. As it is a critical process of creating major structures and projects and keeping them safe for the public, the business requires a wide range of abilities and efficient personnel to conduct specialised duties (Silva et al, 2018). The shortage of essential staff for plumbing and running construction machinery led to decreased efficiency and significant delays in operations within India's building and construction development goals, as told by the government of India.

Employee shortages in the business are also related to social practices such as employment instability and disruption in social identity, which have a detrimental influence on developing skills among construction personnel as a whole (Godini and Obrenovic, 2020). The lack of adequate theories for employees and fellow humans in the construction business also becomes inefficient as a result of the economic uncertainties created by the covid-19 epidemic on individuals' mental and physical health. According to the study by investigator Al-ahdal state et al. (2020), the number of functioning medical issues has been largely consistent for years. All large corporations should prioritise keeping their staff happy and protecting them from accidents and fatalities. Tragedies are easily averted when vulnerabilities are addressed and risk control procedures are appropriately and rigorously executed (Al-ahdal state et al, 2020).

According to the most recent McKinsey & Co. study, "even though some India businesses, such as agriculture and mining, have increased production by ten to fifteen per cent since the 1950s, income growth has stayed at the same proportions as it was 80 years back." According to available statistics, the industry's performance has been continuously falling since the late 1960s. These data appear to be troubling, especially given the increasing complexity of building projects. A range of factors contributes to poor performance in construction projects. The covid-19 has had a huge economic impact on the building sector, generating large reductions in necessary resources and resulting in a cash shortfall. The financial shortfall is one of the most essential and difficult economic elements in the construction business since it decreases project efficiency and makes it difficult to invest in and produce high-quality goods (Elavarasan et al, 2020). The study linked the influence of financial deficiencies in project management, power, or energy to economic issues.

The development will be cancelled if the executive branch declines to approve or authorise adjustments to health and safety rules that would aid a building business in getting repeated high-pressure circumstances at work. According to Zidane and Andersen (2018), the construction sector has faced greater obstacles in recent years, negatively hurting total output and growth in major areas. According to the report, the use of blockchain technology may lead to successful digital transformation in the business, as well as greater compliance with political norms and regulations while competing in global markets, disrupting the international construction sector. Furthermore, the proper supplies and equipment must be used. If the admin rejects the project and hence does not authorise it, no new development will commence until the security and confidentiality standards, methods, and guidelines are authorised. Security rules are a major matter for project managers working in difficult situations because security assurance demonstrates the achievement of objectives and means better quality with effective project administration and ownership (Asante et al (2018) demonstrated that). During project management, political rules direct the scrum methodology to thoroughly comprehend security assurance and efficiently deliver the project.

Creativity is an important feature of successful infrastructure projects since it is seen to be crucial for boosting the efficacy of outputs and contributing to long-term sustainability (Varkkey et al, 2018). The study revealed that the majority of subcontractors in India had inadequate and poor-quality record systems, which have a detrimental influence on innovation and future development. It has also been proven that essential aspects of Indian building projects include construction worker abilities, adequate administrative assistance, and quality management. However, the firm does not produce as much money in India as it does in the UK The workers must accomplish their task in a certain period, and their safety equipment is not given as much attention, resulting in a high number of engineers and deaths. The construction is difficult due to the workers' inability to supply the required amount of material. This issue will also result in severe accidents in the future (Patil et al, 2020).

The construction industry should prepare a management system in which they should offer things while keeping in mind the protection of their employment and which individual will be right in what kind of job role so that their company can profit and the employee can get their performance in the correct way (Hussain et al, 2018) and the PM can finish his work in the right way. The UK construction industry employs various types of management structures in construction projects, such as a quality management system, improvement systems, separate company systems, human resource information system, assurance and motion control, an inspection system, and an equality record system (Urbaski et al, 2019).

In the construction job itself, the correct management system is recruited, in which the supervision can only get the task done based on the talents of each worker. The proper leadership skills are also present in the right management program, in which the administration treats all employees with equal respect and listens to their views. Economic sustainability is stronger in the UK than in India since this UK has effective coordination and an appealing team to handle the required financial attributes in construction projects, and the UK's per capita income and national economy are far better than in India, which benefits the construction sector and vice versa for the Indian construction industry (Li et al, 2019).

The UK construction sector is seen as more innovative and durable due to the greater availability of quality management systems that include effective quality standards that can boost project sustainability and overall development. However, there is still discontent among building consumers in the United Kingdom. Because of some quality flaws as a consequence of proper management of creativity and innovation in projects (Varkkey et al, 2018). Creativity and new ideas are also declining in the Indian construction business as a result of friction among construction project participants, a hostile socio-economic environment, and harsh weather conditions.

Industries in the United Kingdom might hold seminars to improve the abilities of their employees. Efforts are being made to improve their level of originality and innovation. Safety regulations and policies at the federal, state and local levels may serve as ideological tools influencing the manufacturing industry. This includes any safety considerations for the development's site as well as the facility or edifice itself, even throughout the development phase. The construction business has several issues, including low productivity, insufficient collaborative skills, inadequate information management, and weak regulation and conformity with political standards. Bond-Barnard and colleagues (2019).

The efficacy of lowered purchase rates for construction supplies will influence the economic rate. Customers, banking institutions, landowners, and many other local firms are finding it difficult to prosper due to the evident insecurity. Cultural, economic, political, and technological issues that influence the project management system were critically expressed in the article.

Factors affecting the planning of PSP project and other construction projects in India

This study sought to provide a complete knowledge of the selection of a project management system in the context of construction projects in PSP Projects, as well as the factors that influence such decisions. In India, everything runs smoothly and on schedule (Singh, Deep, and Banerjee, 2017). Political and economic decisions made by a central authority had a considerable impact on "PSP initiatives," which will be examined in the article. With an increase in family income, the need for housing projects, malls, stores, and other physical premises has increased, as has the demand for these sorts of projects. The project management systems play an important part in streamlining the country's market.

Governments from several states have also announced their intention to help the nation's economy by establishing industrial parks for manufacturing reasons. With the exponential growth of linked industries such as IT, steel, and cement, the construction industry has drawn a large number of international investors. The government has proclaimed in the union budget for 2022 that it will infuse funding into the market, which has had a significant influence on building projects (Ogunde et al. (2017). The project management system serves as a reference for managing projects in foreign nations, and the greatest aspect is that it can be tailored to the context. PSP project construction has been carried out by a certain and planned project management system, and such projects have a high success rate (Sharma, 2018).

 Furthermore, the research focuses on determining the success of such initiatives that followed a certain project management method. These works were mostly carried out by the government and given over to businesses like PSP projects, Ashoka Buildcon, and PNC Infratech who have a high success percentage in completing construction projects. With solid fundamentals and a clear structure, PSP projects have attracted a large number of international investors. Similarly, multinational corporations have discovered that construction projects in India are heavily dependent on the project management system used. The project management system does not lead the business or the firm, but rather provides a collection of rules, standards, tools, and procedures for making decisions that are consistent with their goals (Mavi and Standing, 2018).

These characteristics of the project management system for PSP projects will be covered in the article to critically analyse the success of project execution in India using the project management system. It is unavoidable for a project to achieve its goal while being cost-effective. The analysis aided in the acquisition of analytical information and decision-making about the selection of project management systems for various types of projects, particularly in the construction sector. For example, labour regulations in the United States are more stringent and defined than those in India. Due to gaps in the legislation that oversees labour rules and practises, PSP projects were forced to employ a separate project management system. For these reasons, before selecting a project management system, practitioners and project associates should be familiar with the external market aspects of the host nation (Verma, 2017).

A range of market concerns impacts the construction sector, including rising population, company development, unemployment, mortgage rates, client preferences, and equipment. The need for construction repair and service would also increase. With time, there has also been a change in the items linked to the project, with the addition of new technical requirements. The skills of the project's staff are also up to date; the corporation must pay charges to improve their abilities to provide their seminars. The project will confront several challenges as a result of the employees' lack of skills and performance activities. When employees lack the necessary abilities and performance activities, there is a lack of creativity and development linked with the project. In this approach, the social aspect impacts building project planning. Also, owing to political constraints, modifications in project plans must be made, resulting in a lack of performance and creativity. Given the government's norms and regulations, the project work presents several challenges. Due to the government's late permit, the building project has been delayed, causing the corporation to incur significant losses (Kakar and Khan, 2021). There is a shortage of time in developing the same stuff, but they also lose money as a result of such political issues influencing the design of any building project.

Factors that make the right choice of the project management system

Seven project management system models can help the country's project management system; One of the most well-known models and frameworks, Agile is well-suited for iterative development tasks in building systems. It is a method of approaching building challenges and applications in which identities and cross-functional organisations, as well as future users, collaborate to produce demands and solutions (Albuquerque et al, 2020). It was created in response to the flaws of the Waterfall approach (more on that later), whose operations failed to meet the demands of the technology industry in terms of fierce rivalry and constant mobility in the building project system.

Scrum is also an effective method as its goal is to create, launch, and manage various products in construction systems through involvement, transparency, and continuous improvement. Scrum varies from many other Agile project management systems in that it executes the construction work using different responsibilities, engagements, and artefacts.

Kanban appeared as a well-known Agile software development process that, like Scrum, emphasises fresh copies and interactive, personable persons in building systems. That is a very graphical method that seeks to provide exceptional goods by sketching a depiction of the manufacturing process so that barriers may be identified early in the development cycle (Stanitsas et al, 2021). It is founded on six key principles: visual representation, limiting preparatory work, regulating communication transmission, clearly defining directions, and using feedback effects. The lean construction approach promotes construction organisations to maximise client satisfaction while minimising waste. Its purpose is to deliver more value to its consumers while also utilising readily available resources. It is standards generated from the building or industrial sectors (Kozlovska et al, 2021).

The lean system also decreases wait times for project supplies, essential equipment and tools, and information that emphasises prefabrication to prevent waste and improve resource efficiency. The waterfall is a time function, an iterative development framework in which measurements are often somewhat downward in one direction — like a waterfall — and one of the most common development approaches in building sites or projects (Jethva and Skibniewski, 2022). Its lack of stability in early design decisions is owing to it being exorbitantly more expensive relative to its established environmental aspects, which emerged in the capital goods sector for the building system. The Waterfall project management method emphasises the importance of papers. The idea is that if someone departs during the planning process, their replacement may take up where they left off by familiarising themselves with simply written information (Fewings, et al, 2019).

Before Agile, application implementation was done using the Project management technique, which had various disadvantages, such as non-adaptive inherent restrictions, a lack of user participation even during project creation, and subsequently a long acceptance testing. 6 Sigma tries to improve quality by reducing the number of faults in a process such as production by removing what isn't working in building systems. It uses several project approaches, the majority of which are observational and quantitative, as well as the expertise of individuals with experience in these techniques in the building system project. The Project Management Institute (PMI) provides completion certifications and project construction standards. The PMI creates the PMBOK, which is not strictly a paradigm but a reference describing the norms and rules that characterise the management process (Alwaly and Alawi, 2020). This model specifies five construction system processes: initiating, planning, executing, monitoring, and closing.

The Saunders model of the research onion was used to choose and apply the appropriate approaches methodically. For addressing the developed research questions and satisfying the study project's research objectives, appropriate and effective research methodologies were used. Secondary data was obtained, and the narrative analysis approach was employed to conduct the study analysis process. The various types of important research strategies were also reviewed, as well as the proper methods for data collection, gathering, and analysis, and an in-depth discussion was provided.


The work within the UK has seen more growth, creativity, and innovation. However, in India, all of these things are not as emphasised. Workers do not receive sufficient coaching, nor are seminars provided for them in which they can further develop their abilities. Each project management system emphasizes the project's demand and the business goal connected with such initiatives. This study has explored how the selection of the Project Management System affects building projects.

Chapter 5: Conclusion

Businesses have been using their resources to maximise profit as a result of intense globalisation by carrying out their activities and procedures across borders. Many companies have completed projects in nations with higher margins or more demand. Due to the flexibility of external forces, managing projects across borders has been prone to increased risks. Adopting a planning process is advantageous and highly suggested by specialists who handle projects. By evaluating the literature, the study identified the importance of elements influencing the planning of a building project in India. The study also looked at how models and theories may be used in the design of a building project in India. The correctness of selected models and the planned project management system is assessed to ensure the success of the project led by PSP projects. It is critical to understand how different elements influence a certain project in different places. Working circumstances in India differ from those in the United Kingdom, and it is critical to be aware of any variances that may inhibit the operation of a project management system.

This paper extensively discusses all of the variables, including the social shortage of employees and the many types of challenges encountered in their security in construction. The economic aspect that influences the building business has also been informed, and the political issue must be addressed. Some of these aspects are also explored in the study, which provides input from the external determinants of the UK and India and their variations. To ensure the employees' safety, it is important to supply them with equipment, which is also more expensive. Many such elements influence the cost-effectiveness of any building project. When employees lack the necessary abilities and performance activities, there is a lack of creativity and development linked with the project. In this approach, the social aspect impacts building project planning. Given the government's norms and regulations, the project work presents several challenges. It is critical to select the finest and most relevant research methodology for defining the research question and conducting the entire investigation methodically.

The suitable and effective research methods were adopted for answering the developed research questions and meeting the research objectives of the research project. The secondary form of data has been collected and the narrative analysis method was used for carrying out the research analysis process. In this chapter, some relevant research strategies have also been discussed along with the appropriate ways in which the data has been collected, gathered, and analysed and an in-depth discussion was made. With an intensification in family revenue, the need for covering stores, projects, malls, and other physical locations has increased, as has the request for these categories of projects. The project management systems perform an important role in the reorganisation of the country's market. Every project management system emphasizes the project's demand and the business goal connected with such initiatives.



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