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BIM which is popularly known as "Building Information Modelling'' could be defined as the foundation and technological development in the field of architecture, construction and engineering industries digitally. It could be said at the process helps in the creation and also the management of information that is based on a project of construction in the life cycle of the construction and engineering project. The major output there the technological development of BIM produces is describing every aspect related to the project of construction digitally which serves as the best asset of BIM. This research will be based on a case study of "Newcastle City Campus" and will identify three major challenges that are faced by the construction project in the phase of development and will also provide solutions for the problems based on the help idf implementation of BIM. This research paper will also focus on producing a strategy of management for the project case study based on the "Newcastle City Campus” and will help in deriving a responsibility matrix that is seen during the phase of development of the project.
The major role that is served by the implementation of BIM in a construction project is in overcoming the problems that are related to the delay in time for completion of the overall project, overrun from the estimated cost of the project, poor development, and poor quality of the project (Zima et al. 200). Further the implementation BIM helps in enhancing the performance of the construction project, making the activities related to the project relative and deficient which is involved in the overall development of the model for the particular project 3-dimensionally. BIM is also required to change the ongoing practices that are seen among the players of construction in terms of processing with the technology which is involved in the management of the projects. Further, the correct section of BIM processes helps in finding effective processes for the management of stakeholders for the project with the help of realistic and also with the involvement of smart data that helps in making better decisions for mitigation project risks (Ahmed, 2018). The continuous development and improvement in the process of BIM is helping the project of construction for mitigation of the risks that are involved in the development phase of the project
The “Newcastle City Campus” is situated at the heart or the center of Newcastle. The campus consists of many innovative "contemporary buildings” with the involvement of many historical sites that have been registered because of the history and heritage of the "Newcastle City Campus". The "Newcastle City Campus" consists of a city campus at the east, a student center, a sports center, a historical building of Sutherland, and a recently developed building for computer, science, and information technology that comprises a lot of hi-tech laboratories for engineering and sciences.
Figure 1: Newcastle City Campus
This section of the study will discuss the major three challenges that are associated with the design and management of the project during the development phase of the “Newcastle City Campus” and also will discuss the solutions for the problems with the implementation of BIM on the construction project.
The overall project for Newcastle City Campus was built upon the use of traditional drawing on paper-based methods. It made the development of the project more difficult and more complex and further involved a lot of time in completing the project for "Newcastle City Campus" (Khudhair, 2021). Although the technique of paper-based sketching for project development helps in the engagement of the designer in the process of the overall design for the "Newcastle City Campus" and helps in the understanding of the process efficiently, the major problem related to this construction project was the consumption of time for the overall project of "Newcastle City Campus". Another problem that is related to the designing drawing with paper-based drawing for "Newcastle City Campus" is the design does not reflect the most recent and the most appropriate structure for the "Newcastle City Campus”. This has involved a lot of errors which are expensive for the team involved in the project like the delays that are caused by the alternates that have been done for making the design perfect and according to the requirements of the campus, this involves redoing the entire project planning and design (Abed et al. 2019). The control of the version is also one of the major problems that were faced during the development of "Newcastle City Campus" with paper-based drawings. Further, in addition to requiring storage space, predatory lending, reprinting, and distribution of paper-based designs are expensive and often difficult to handle in a timely way, frequently resulting in obsolete information where updates have slipped past.
Designers and manufacturers are empowered by the use of the digital fabrication process for the construction of "Newcastle City Campus". Finally, it helps in the understanding of the requirements in a better manner and makes the process of procurement more efficient and simplified (Milyutina, 2018). The digital-based BIM technologies enhance the quality of work and also the collaboration and overall production for the fabrication process of the construction project. It helps improve an understanding of the optimal use of resources that is present and the overall talent that is present among the members of the construction project for "Newcastle City Campus" and boosts the efficiency of work and production of a better process of fabrication and designing with digital processes of BIM
Figure 2: BIM implementation
The involvement of BIM technology for the production of digitally based drawings helped the designers of the project in the production of models for the construction which is 3-dimensional and provides a better understanding of the different sections of the project combining to make the construction plan of “Newcastle City Campus' ' successful (Li et al. 2020). Further the involvement of BIM digital technology in the design and planning for the construction of "Newcastle City Campus" helps in the representation of the functional characteristic and the physical characteristic of the overall structure for the “Newcastle City Campus” project. The implementation of BIM digital technology further helps in improving the process of fabrication in the overall project. It helps in providing an inclusive integration that helps in providing greater transparency for the project and also improves the opportunities that are involved in the collaboration and also in interoperability of the different stakeholders involved in the project and in the fabrication process that is carried out digitally by the BIM technologies. Further, it helps in simplification the process of procurement involved in the construction project by reducing of overall workload that is involved in the procurement trees that are involved in the contributions of “Newcastle City Campus" and at the same time helps in increasing productivity. Designers and manufacturers are empowered by the use of the digital fabrication process for the construction of "Newcastle City Campus". Finally, it helps in the understanding of the requirements in a better manner and makes the process of procurement more efficient and simplified. The digital-based BIM technologies enhance the quality of work and also the collaboration and overall production for the fabrication process of the construction project (Ayinla and Adamu, 2018). It helps improve an understanding of the optimal use of resources that is present and the overall talent that is present among the members of the construction project for "Newcastle City Campus" and boosts the efficiency of work and production of a better process of fabrication and designing with digital processes of BIM.
Further, the digital designing processes that are done with the help of BIM software used in construction projects and the construction may also be more staggeringly pleasing since the BIM process uses several visualization tools. The ultimate appearance of the building and the behavior of artificial lighting in the structure are both visible to architects. Architects may observe and alter five different kinds of visualizations, known as dimensions, using BIM. The digital techniques of BIM include visualization with a 3D, 4D, 5D, 6D, and 7D views
This was one of the major problems that were observed during the construction of "The Newcastle City Campus". According to the PMI ("Project management Institute"), the lack of communication among the members who are involved in the construction project is the major cause of the failure of different projects (Hasan and Rasheed, 2019). For the "Newcastle City Campus," it was a great challenge to overcome the problems with communication. The major problem that was faced during the development phase of the "Newcastle City Campus" is the creation of confusion among the project members. The "Newcastle City Campus" was a massive and very big project that involved a lot of members like architects, designers, engineers, workers, and many more. The confusion that was created negatively impacted the project by creating confusion between the stakeholders of the project and the professionals who were involved in the construction and also the workers who were doing the fieldwork. A lot of consistency was created in reporting and the presence of unclear reporting has created a lot of confusion among the working members under the project of "Newcastle City Campus". Further, it has created a lot of delays in their project and also overruns the overall estimated cost for the project (Vishnivetskaya and Mikhailova, 2019). Further, unclear communication has resulted in a lot of injuries and issues regarding the safety of the employees working for the “Newcastle City Campus” project. It was an environment of high risk which was reflected by the statistics as over 20 employees faced major accidents during the construction of the "Newcastle City Campus". The majority of the fatal injuries were caused due to the collapse of the electrical system and electrical shocks. The effectiveness of communication can make the difference between a winning and losing endeavor and one that doesn't quite work out. Using project management tools like eSUB may dramatically improve communication. It offers real-time access to project data to enhance stakeholder interactions. The more likely everyone is to have a successful project, the more important it is for all stakeholders to agree.
The involvement of BIM technologies helps in improving the communication between clients, architects, contractors, and also other parties that are involved in the management of projects (Gamil and Rahman, 2019). The technologies of BIM help in improving the communication among the project members as it focuses on a system of "single source truth". This involves all of the information that is required in the construction of "Newcastle City Campus" which includes the involvement of models, notes for design, and estimates that are always stored in a single place and shared from there and therefore avoid any kind of miscommunication or misinterpretation. This includes everyone who is involved in the project to see the information and even everyone could provide suggestions for the improvement of the overall project (Pruskova and Kaiser, 2019). The help of effective collaboration with the help of BIM helps in the elimination of silos in any important information and proving the solution that is best based on the analytics of data. The usage of BIM on-site is an additional advantage. Contractors may construct this building of “Newcastle City Campus” using the most recent designs and processes since they have mobile access to BIM software. This lessens conflicts as well. Contractors shouldn't have to waste precious time looking for answers on-site since it is simpler to see issues before the building starts. The system of communication by BIM helps in making the construction of projects safer. The BIM helps in allowing architects to predict hazards that might be caused during the phase of development of the "Newcastle City Campus" project. Further, it allows the architects to prepare for the hazards by making quick adjustments in the design of the project. The contractors further lead their team to safely take through all the processes involved in the phase of contribution and also documentation of the process that will help in meeting the safety regulations that are required in an on-site project evaluation.
In a construction project overrun of cost is one of the most dangerous causes that act as a barrier to the success of managing projects and maintaining the activities in the project. As the “Newcastle City Campus” project was based on design drawings that were done on paper, the overall time involved in the project exceeded and therefore the overall cost of the project also exceeded the cost which was estimated. The "Newcastle City Campus" included financial constraints and also involved a lot of expenses which have provoked the growth of the department organizationally (Mandi?ák et al. 2018). The overrun of cost for the "Newcastle City Campus" was due to the uncertainty in management, due to estimated errors, uncontrolled changes in the scope, and also because of the underestimation of complexity in the project "Newcastle City Campus". But the major reason for the overrun of cost for "Newcastle City Campus" is because of the failures in the performance of the project which was due to the poor coordination of resources and also in poor management of resources, the project also lacked the required skills for the workers and also because of the inadequacy in the motivation of employees. Another major factor that has led to the over budget of the project was because of errors that were caused in paper drawing and because of that a lot of time was wasted in redesigning the planning for the "Newcastle City Campus" project.
The implementation of BIM processes provides a greater advantage of providing reliable cost estimation involved in the project of "Newcastle City Campus" before beginning the phase of construction. With the help of tools such as the "BIM 360 docs" which helps in estimating the overall cost involved in buying materials, shipping of material, shipping of the modular pieces that are pre-fabricated, cost involving in labor which involves the payrolls in the construction project and which are based on the timelines of construction (Liu and Zou, 2021). Further, the implementation of BIM helps in choosing materials that help in the collection of cost-effective materials, finding the ideal time which helps in buying the material at the lowest cost, reduction of errors that are caused by humans, and most effectively streamlining the workflow that is involved in the process of construction.
"ISO 19650-1 establishes the concepts and guidelines for information systems as per "BIM and ISO 19650-2" defines the specifications and guidelines for management systems within the framework of the delivery phase of assets,". Due to the participation of several stakeholders, building projects generate a significant volume of information at various project phases throughout their lifespan (Ahmed, 2018). This makes information management extremely important for simplifying the procedure by properly allocating resources to meet the information demands of the customer. A BIM execution plan created following ISO 19650 "allows parties for the development of a structured, primary function, verified, and validated representations which claim to support data exchange in a cohesive management information system efficiently, minimize data over-processing," according to the standard.
After setting the team which is required for the implementation of BIM for the "Newcastle City Campus" according to the improvements that are required to be done in improving the present conditions using the technologies of BIM. The appointed lead party is responsible for the confirmation of every plan that is to be executed by the team that is to be followed according to the requirement of the BIM implementations (Hossain and Nadeem, 2019). The important requirement is to set the major parties who will be responsible for the conduction of BIM processes as it will help in information management, updating the team on the different strategies of information delivery, and finally will help in the development of the responsibility matrices. This will be helping in the infrastructure of the development and will help in the identification of any other requirement that will help in the modification of the “Newcastle City Campus” project and delivering the major requirements of the project using the BIM processes.
The time for delivering the plan of the project is before the implementation of information management strategies of the "Newcastle City Campus". For every task that the team is responsible for conducting and is also responsible for maintaining the plan for the "Task information delivery plan” and also responsible for delivering the “Master information delivery plan” (Wibowo et al. 2018). The team that is responsible for the conduction of the tasks is The selected parties in charge of organizing and overseeing the project's activities. The head of the appointing party, who is responsible for managing the duties and management of data between the teams responsible for completing the project and between parties responsible for the appointment, is the second essential responsibility party. It is the principal contractor for the "Newcastle City Campus" case study. One of the most crucial appointments is for the delivery team, which is made up of the parties that have been overall appointed and comprise the principal contractor, principal subcontractor, and suppliers who are involved in inventory control for the project "Newcastle City Campus". The information must be shared with the overall team who are responsible for delivering the plan for the project of "Newcastle City Campus".
The appointed parties are responsible for leading the work that is conducted in the project. The second important responsibility party is the leader of the appointing party who is responsible for the management of the responsibilities and management of information between the teams who are responsible for delivering the project and between the parties who are responsible for appointment (Stanitsas et al. 2021). The case study of "Newcastle City Campus" is the major contractor. One Of the most important appointments for the delivery team is a combination of the overall appointed parties which include the major contractor, major subcontractor, and also the suppliers involved in the supply chain management for the project of “Newcastle City Campus”.
A research result verified that the precise synchronization of works for mechanical, electrical, plumbing, etc, and the designer inputs are needed with the suitable information flow from each party to complete a comprehensive BIM-based collision detection for the MEP systems. For the implementation of BIM, the principal contractor must take into account the information delivery requirements and deadlines of the affiliated appointed parties, including the interior designer, civil engineer, QS, BIM supervisor, Labour mp engineering technicians, cost optimization, and doors subcontractors, among others. Furthermore, it is crucial to give details on temporary buildings.
Similar to this, the architect will be in charge of verifying the information provided by the doors subcontractor, who has been designated as the party responsible for providing relevant data such as dimensions, amount, substance, and wrapping up of the problems regarding construction, ironmongery, and manufacturer details, etc.
The facade subcontractor has been designated as the person who is responsible for supplying the data such as measurements, quantity, material, finishing touches, manufacturer details, etc., for the order to prepare the fabrication attempting to draw for the facade that is enabled by BIM (Stanitsas et al. 2021). The architect will be in charge of verifying the information. Additionally, the information about the proportions and structure is the responsibility of both the building contractor and the civil engineer.
Figure 3: Responsibility Matrix
(Source: Self- created in MS Excel)
This research has concluded the implementation of BIM for "Newcastle City Campus". The implementation of BIM has helped the project mitigation of the major challenges that were faced during the project completion. This research has discussed the three major problems that were faced by the "Newcastle City Campus" project and further has provided mitigation solutions for the different problems using the technologies of BIM. This research paper has further focused on producing a strategy of management for the project case study based on the "Newcastle City Campus" and has helped in deriving a responsibility matrix that is seen during the phase of development of the project. The help of BIM implementations has helped in smoothing of streamlining that has shared the data to the team and also has helped in the elimination of the different possible miscommunications, losses, and also in inconsistency in completing the project and also in the building of the environment.
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