+44 203 318 3300 +61 2 7908 3995 help@nativeassignmenthelp.co.uk

Pages: 20

Words: 4997

Mass Production And Its Transformation To Mass Customization

Introduction-Mass Production And Its Transformation To Mass Customization

Want the Best Assignment Help in the UK? Look to Native Assignment Help for unparalleled expertise and support. Our dedicated team of professionals goes above and beyond to ensure you receive top-quality assignments that exceed your expectations.

Mass production is mainly production of quality products in large amounts. It is mainly an application that has a labor division and also has some specialization. That is also a part of manufacturing goods. These processes can be high rate outputs that also can be produced at low cost. Through that way, mass production also will be high and cost will be lower. There are two different types of principles that can be used in mass production. One will be the human labor divisions. Another will be the intangible parts of productions like machinery, fully automated tools and other equipment. Nowadays, technological developments are increasing. It also brought some improvements in different types of goods. These improvements can be based on quantity, cost and quality. It also helps to develop sustainability at high standard living. There are some possibilities that can be changed through manufacturing some mass amounts of products.

Historical development of mass production system

Mass production techniques were revolutionized in 1920. It is enabled through American workers. It also helps to reduce the production rate. Few times the economy was increased through mass production. Therefore, new methods and ideas will be changed during manufacturing goods. There is also an improvement in the assembly line in mass productions. In the general concept machine assisted manufacturing concept, labor divisions, and also well established standardized parts. Slowly process increasing and also equipment also recognized at the end of 21st century (Shang et al. 2019). Therefore, manufacturing growth was acclimated in the board of transportation. During mass production there shipping, barge and rail will be slowly transported. The company also will enable different types of functions that can be transported during the raw materials. It also created some substantial demand to generate new industrial products. Demand also went high after industrial revolutions. It also generates some procedures and methods that organize some human labor to control the workflow. It also handled some details that can be informal information. This information was based on the precedents and patterns. This mass production mainly happens in the automobile sector. It also can be integrated at the mass production operations that convey to assemble all the parts. Henry Ford and his co-partner created the Ford motor company that helped them to assemble the flywheel. This approach also can be applied in the production lines to develop some analytical tasks. Therefore, that company also divides their work to make optimum speed lines, work heights. It also helps to create some simulation of the operations. Mass production also generates some efficiency that produces some production results in a systematic way. Therefore, total production also specialize some comprising tasks. It also creates some development in rapidly performing readjustment of motion patterns. It also simplifies the components that help to run the large productions. That also increases the production rate in the economy to achieve success. These operations also can be based on capital investments that also reduce the raw material costs. There are different sections of development of tools that also minimize human effort. It also reduces the raw material costs that come under standard rates. There is some production information that can estimate some techniques that will depend on short term demands. The production volume also can be increased to generate some sub-elements. It also can justify some process of machinery and helps to build some capital investment.

Advantages and disadvantages of mass production

There are various types of advantages and disadvantages of mass production. The advantages are:

  • Increase productivity

Mass production makes everything possible to produce a large quantity of products in a short time. Workers are gathering supplies that help to use the manually handled tools. There are some techniques that are also used in mass production. Therefore, it also helps to produce fast production. The process is also included to convey the rapidly growing systems and make the production faster (Suzi? et al. 2018). It also specifies some correct destinations to specify the products. It is also an advantage to encourage the systems.

  • Uniformity

Mass production mainly helps to ensure that machines will be manufactured with the same quality products. There are some manufacturing techniques that help to maintain the quality of the products. Then, customers also like the products. Therefore, it also generates some concern about the products to create their accessories. It also will make high standard products through modern equipment.

  • High quality of life

Mass production also generates some products that will be affordable to consumers. There are also ways to make less expensive products in the market. That way people also make low rate products.

  • Safer medicine

It also happens while making medical equipment that also leads to highly accurate products. It also standardized the rapid production rate and effect on the different types of products.

  • Lower cost

Mass production also enables some larger quantities that help to make several workers. That also generates some goods production rates to manufacture several products. The company also will sell products at low costs.

  • Job specialties

Industrial revolution also will develop some factors that can develop some efficient employees. Therefore, employees also get some benefits if they hire skilled employees. Employees will be specified with skilled tasks that also help to grow their skills. Mass production automatically generates jobs. The company also has requirements of having skilled workers.

  • Rapid evolution

After industrial revolutions the new products will be growing in the market. It also innovates some leads that help to produce new products and that leads to the innovations.

  • Increased worker safety

Producing goods at large amounts will be useful at times. It also keeps employees safe to face accidents (Ren et al. 2018). The workers also need to work safely to assemble heavy parts. Sometimes work also can be dangerous to others.

  • Less error

Machines also will be designed to perform specific tasks that can generate less mistakes. Machine also uses a low cost of production that helps to reduce the error. It also develops some special considerations that can be used to complete the tasks.

Therefore, mass production disadvantages also will be there to recreate some critical element in the economy. Through that way it creates some disadvantages. These are:

  • Initial costs

There are some capital costs that help to equip some special machinery. That also costs a lot of money to build. It also can be assembled with some lined machinery that helps to develop the line factory. Therefore, the investments also generate productivity and create some initial costs. It also creates some errors that will be redesigned. This also helps to generate some inflexibility in the work and create problems. The regulations also will be changed to make some significant adjustments.

  • Pollution

Factories also cause various types of problems. It also happened after the industrialization revolution. In a factory there are different types of pollutants like producing metals, chemicals and coals. That also can be released through the water to activate the pollutants. Therefore, water pollutants also rise in the world and companies need to take care of this situation. Therefore, automobile companies also will be responsible for it.

  • Energy consumption

Factories also will be good at manufacturing mass production. It is also required to generate some subsequent energy that helps to increase the production rate. Therefore, natural resources are also considered to make energy efficient to make some techniques. It also can be used to maximize the conversion rate. Therefore, a huge rate of energy also will be lost.

  • Affects employees’ wellbeing

Mass production rate also can be assembled with some repetitive work. Through repetitive work employees also spend their standard. Then, it also generates the same spot again and again. Therefore, employees also will be demotivated and isolated at home. Employees also can be bored at their workplace. A repetitive work also leads to a condition that can capture some carpal tunnel syndrome. It is also a dangerous type of syndrome. The employees feel neglected.

  • Unhealthy habits

Mass production also reduces some intensive labour tasks. It also engages with some physical activity but with fully automated machines that did not happen. It mainly happens in the automobile industry. Employees also promote some safety that generates some instances.

  • Loss of jobs for unskilled workers

It also innovates some developed fully automated advanced machinery that demand some special skills and technological knowledge. Therefore, companies will also hire highly skilled employees. Slowly the company removed the employees from the work. Therefore, unemployed laborers are also increasing at a high rate.

  • Inventory buildup

Mass production also creates some large productions that also reduce some high quantities products. Therefore, the company also built some space to increase a large amount of energy (Fuenmayor et al. 2019). It also helps them to sell the discount products at low cost. Therefore, the company also generates some limitations to increase the possibility to generate a large amount of products.

After seeing the disadvantages it is also hard to develop a view that is related to mass production. Therefore, the company also generates some involvement of mass production that can be considered after industrial revolutions. It also can be compared at a low cost. It also develops some unwanted reasons that need to be looked at. Mass productions also generate some demand to generate various types of profits. It also helped to build some consumer demand that required profits to make some efficient sales. Nowadays this mass production is also required to gather some profits. It also helps to make some extra benefits to use the techniques.

Disadvantages of mass customizations

There are various types of disadvantages that also generate some impact. It also leads to mass customizations. After seeing the drawbacks, it is difficult to form an opinion about mass production. As a result, the company generates some mass production involvement that can be regarded as technological age. It can also be especially good in comparison at a minimal price. It also generates some unfavorable reasons that must be investigated. Mass production also generates some demand, which can be used to start generating multiple kinds of profits (Liu et al. 2018). It also aided in the development of consumer demand, which required profits in order to make a few efficient sales. Nowadays, industrial production is also necessary in order to make a profit. This also helps to gain some additional benefits from using the techniques.

Some capital costs are incurred in order to outfit some specialized machinery. That, too, is expensive to construct. It can also be gathered with some lined machinery, which aids in the development of the line factory. As a result, the investments generate both productivity and some initial costs. It also causes some errors, which will be corrected. This also contributes to some lack of flexibility in the workplace and the creation of problems. The regulations will also be altered to make some major changes. Factories will be adept at mass production as well. It is also essential to generate some successive energy, which aids in increasing the production rate. As a result, mineral wealth is also considered in order to make some methods more energy efficient.

The main question of a mass production system is whether it is operational and making things. As long as you have good or negative output, you will be tempted to run your device. Damaged parts can cause problems in the future, but the consequences of shutting down the device for repair are likely to be exacerbated. Mass production also results in some large productions, which reduces some high-quantity products. Factories also cause a variety of issues. It also occurred following the industrialization revolution. Pollutants of various types can be found in a factory, such as those used in the production of metals, chemicals, and coal. This can also be released into the water, activating the pollutants. As a result, water pollutants are increasing around the world, and businesses must address this issue. As a result, automobile manufacturers will bear some of the blame. Factories also cause a variety of issues (de Bellis et al. 2019). It also occurred following the industrialization revolution. Pollutants of various types can be found in a factory, such as those used in the production of metals, chemicals, and coal. This can also be released into the water, activating the pollutants. As a result, water pollutants are increasing around the world, and businesses must address this issue.

As a result, the company also constructed some space to boost a significant amount of energy. It also enables them to sell discounted products at a low cost. As a result, the company creates some constraints in order to boost the possibility of producing a large number of products. Some intensive labor tasks are also reduced as a result of mass production. It also engages in some physical activity, but not with fully automated machines. It is most common in the automotive sector. Employees also encourage some safety, which results in some incidents. Mass-produced orders are based on future demand forecasts based on historical data and trend analysis. The main weakness of this system is that even with a complete and complete understanding of history and a firm grasp of current market patterns, it is not possible to predict the future with sufficient accuracy. Machines will also be programmed to perform certain tasks that will result in fewer errors. The machine has a low operating cost, which helps to reduce error. It also begins to develop some special provisions for completing the tasks. Mass production also allows for larger quantities, which aid in the production of several workers. This also creates some goods production levels for a variety of products. The company will also sell low-cost products. Consumers will be able to afford some products as a result of mass production. There are also methods for producing less expensive products for the market. People can also make low-cost products this way.

Managers also will understand that product offering also understands a critical value. It also comes under a mass customization that can help to achieve success. There are various types of ways that will manage some mass customization to generate the best way. Mass customization is mainly realized by some tailored services (Fettermann et al. 2019). Therefore, consumers also generate some financial planning that helps to provide guidance. Mass customizations also generate some combinations that also help to generate some opportunities. Mass customization produces some unique features that add some features. Therefore, there are also many products that will be sequentially made with some highly informed services. There are various types of service business that also can be considered in customization terms. It can happen in the real estate business or automobile business. Therefore, it also has two different types of processes like output and input. There are some processes that help to gather raw materials like human resources, natural resources and raw materials. These are the most important materials that transform a service. There are different types of mass production that can be implemented in some work stations. It also represents different types of materials that also generate some additional products. These mass customizations also help to build some custom and unique products as per customer’s choice. It also gathered some information about a process to develop some customized products. The company also will recreate some personal information that can create guidance about the production.

Application to a company

The mass production was developed in 1913 by Henry Ford the founder of the Ford Motor Company. The owner of the company produced the moving assembly line for the development of the automobile. This reduced the time of manufacturing and this process was continued by the company. This approach reduced the cost of the products and the care developed by the company became affordable to the general public and this would increase the production and sale of the automobile. Through the mass production the products can be approached to the general people rather than limited to a few people (Zaki et al. 2019). The production orders of mass production firms are based on a forecast of future demand based on historical data and trend analysis. The system's primary weakness is that no one can anticipate the future with sufficient precision, even if they have a complete and faultless understanding of history and a solid feel for current market patterns. It doesn't take long to find examples of failed attempts to accurately reflect a product's brand value. The Edsel is one of numerous automobiles that debuted to a mostly disinterested audience with great fanfare. A new Coca-Cola formula unveiled in the late 1980s is another example of economic predictions gone awry. IBM has a spate of personal computer cases, including the controversial IBM PC Jr. (which failed in the market despite IBM's finest market research). These blunders demonstrate the difficulty in anticipating what will sell and in what amounts. Even market-successful products have a quantity limit that customers will accept. When manufacturing is based on projected future demand, the risk of excess production is substantially higher than when manufacture is based on market demands. Proponents of mass production emphasize the need of keeping the lines running, and the only way to do so is to have a sufficient number of replacement parts on hand for any eventuality.

Figure 1: push system of mass production

(Source: pearsonhighered.com)

As shown in the above figure the mass production is a push system. The market forecast tells the manufacturer what to make and how much to make; primary materials and goods are acquired, stockpiled, driven into the front end of the manufacturing process, and then pushed through each successive stage of the procedure until the finished product arrives at the shipping port. It is assumed that these commodities will be purchased before then, or else the goods will have to be conserved or coerced (pushed) into the hands of dealerships, a frequent practice in the car sector. From the incorrect commercialization projection to the storage or the dealership, the entire process is one of pushing.

The major issue in the mass production system is whether it is operational and generating things. The temptation would be to keep the equipment running as long as there is output, good or negative. Damaged parts may cause problems in the future, but the consequences of shutting down the equipment to fix it are considered as an even worse concern. Good judgment requires that equipment be well maintained at all times, which can be difficult in a large industrial operation (Pathak et al. 2019). As a result, in many North American industrial companies, machinery is ignored until it breaks down, following the technically correct but revealing proverb "If it ain't broke, don't repair it." Toyota solved the machinery problem by implementing a comprehensive preventive maintenance programme that keeps all equipment in good working order, alters it for improved dependability or efficiency, and even forecasts when components should be modified or changed to ensure the highest quality production. This is referred to as complete preventive maintenance or productive maintenance (TPM). It has seen widespread acceptance in forward-thinking enterprises. Total preventive management prevents multiple line shutdowns by keeping the equipment operational when it is needed.

Impact of len/JIT approach

The creator of the Lean/JIt (Just-in-time) system was Taiichi Ohno, The Lean/JIT system was created based on seeing the waste produced by the mass production system in every step. The elimination of this waste is at the heart of the Lean/JIT system and this would produce at reduced cost. The Lean/JIT system has an impact in the four important factors these are work-in-process and inventory, cycle time, waste elimination, and continual improvement. 

Work-in-process and inventory

The main focus of this system is the inventory to be zero and in actual basis the minimization of the inventory and the maximization of the possible extent without shutting down the production of the factory. There are three types of inventories. First, there's the inventory of parts and raw materials needed to make the product. The inventory of semi-finished products at the work-in-process stage is another consideration. The third group is completed product inventories (Horst et al. 2018). It would seem logical to reduce material, work-in-process, and part inventories if a factory's manufacturing operations were under control and could be relied on to perform as intended. However, unless the methods are under control and properly understood, dramatically reducing inventory will almost certainly result in industrial stoppages. Only the inventory of completed things remains. As methods and providers improve and the JIT/Lean line grows, manufacturing will be focused on customer needs rather than revenue predictions. 

Cycle time

The process cycle time is defined as the time between when resources are transferred to the production line for product manufacturing and when finished products are sent from the manufacturing unit to storage of finished goods or a customer. Any component that contributes to cycle time is observable in a JIT/Lean system, and the JIT/Lean paradigm fosters continual refinement and improvement. Because nothing is made in advance of the following process's demand, stockpiling time isn't a concern with JIT/Lean. In a traditional manufacturing setting, a single incident can easily shave off 80 to 90 percent of a cycle time. Prior to JIT/Lean, producers aimed to cut cycle time through mechanisation. The solution was discovered to be improved manufacturing control, which was attained through JIT/Lean. JIT/Lean is the most effective method for reducing cycle time.

Waste elimination

The Lean/JIT system has the p[ower to eliminate waste. The common types of waste in the factory and its reduction process through the Lean/JIT system are as follows

  1. Over producing - In the Lean/JIT system, factories produced nothing extra without Kanban and originates with consumers (Shukla et al. 2018). There is overproduction in this system.
  2. Transport - In this system the transportation waste is low because all the materials are delivered to the point of use so there is no in and out of the storage.
  3. Waiting (time) - wait time may be different because in the Lean/JIT system parts are located in the workstation, machine maintenance and tools are set aside to reduce the repair and replacement time.
  4. Processing - the Lean/JIT system is based on continual improvement, wasteful processes are identified soon and improved to eliminate the waste.
  5. Production of defective goods - the production of the defective products is low in the Lean/JIT system compared to the traditional factory.
  6. Unnecessary on hand stock - The on hand storage increases the cost associated with it and the Lean/JIT system aims to eliminate the stock then there is no toleration of the on hand stock.
  7. Unnecessary motion - The Lean/JIT system aims to reduce the motion in both products and the workers because motion consumes and adds no value to the factory.

Continual improvement

Continual improvement attempts to eliminate waste of any kind, improve service and product quality, and improve customer response while cutting costs. The data in the JIT/Lean factory is visible to all and may be used by anybody. Production rates that are excessively quick or too sluggish, as well as manufacturing faults, become immediately visible (Yuan and Huh, 2018). JIT/Lean immediately dispels the quick-fix approach by emphasising obstacles, instead requiring that problems be solved indefinitely. If JIT/Lean hadn't brought the problem to light, it would probably certainly have gone unnoticed. JIT/Lean is a transparent process by definition, revealing defects and possibilities for improvement.


Mass production is mainly mass production of high quality products. This is primarily an application that has a division of labor and some expertise. The company can also increase production to generate some sub-elements. It also justifies some processes on the machine and helps to build a capital investment. Mass production has several advantages and disadvantages. Benefits include increased productivity, uniformity, and improved quality of life and reduced costs. Disadvantages include acquisition costs, pollution, energy consumption, and unhealthy habits. The Lean / JIT system is a mass production system at every step. Eliminating this waste is at the heart of lean / JIT systems, which reduces costs. The main focus of this system is to keep inventory to zero, in fact to minimize inventory and maximize what can be done without shutting down the factory. JIT / Lean are the most effective way to reduce cycle time.

Reference list


Andersen, A.L., Brunoe, T.D. and Nielsen, K., 2019. Engineering education in changeable and reconfigurable manufacturing: Using problem-based learning in a learning factory environment. Procedia Cirp, 81, pp.7-12.

de Bellis, E., Hildebrand, C., Ito, K., Herrmann, A. and Schmitt, B., 2019. Personalizing the customization experience: a matching theory of mass customization interfaces and cultural information processing. Journal of Marketing Research, 56(6), pp.1050-1065.

Fettermann, D.C., Tortorella, G.L. and Taboada, C.M., 2019. Mass customization process in companies from the housing sector in Brazil. In Managing Innovation in Highly Restrictive Environments (pp. 99-118). Springer, Cham.

Fuenmayor, E., O'Donnell, C., Gately, N., Doran, P., Devine, D.M., Lyons, J.G., McConville, C. and Major, I., 2019. Mass-customization of oral tablets via the combination of 3D printing and injection molding. International journal of pharmaceutics, 569, p.118611.

Horst, D.J., Duvoisin, C.A. and de Almeida Vieira, R., 2018. Additive manufacturing at Industry 4.0: a review. International journal of engineering and technical research, 8(8).

Ituarte, I.F., Kretzschmar, N., Chekurov, S., Partanen, J. and Tuomi, J., 2019. Additive manufacturing validation methods, technology transfer based on case studies. In Additive Manufacturing–Developments in Training and Education (pp. 99-112). Springer, Cham.

Liu, X., Zhao, H. and Zhao, X., 2018. Absorptive capacity and business performance: The mediating effects of innovation and mass customization. Industrial Management & Data Systems.

Nahavandi, S., 2019. Industry 5.0—A human-centric solution. Sustainability, 11(16), p.4371.

Pathak, P., Pal, P.R., Shrivastava, M. and Ora, P., 2019. Fifth revolution: Applied AI & human intelligence with cyber physical systems. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 8(3), pp.23-27.

Pilloni, V., 2018. How data will transform industrial processes: Crowdsensing, crowdsourcing and big data as pillars of industry 4.0. Future Internet, 10(3), p.24.

Ren, W., Wen, J., Guan, Y. and Hu, Y., 2018. Research on assembly module partition for flexible production in mass customization. Procedia CIRP, 72, pp.744-749.

Shang, X., Shen, Z., Xiong, G., Wang, F.Y., Liu, S., Nyberg, T.R., Wu, H. and Guo, C., 2019. Moving from mass customization to social manufacturing: A footwear industry case study. International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 32(2), pp.194-205.

Shukla, M., Todorov, I. and Kapletia, D., 2018. Application of additive manufacturing for mass customisation: understanding the interaction of critical barriers. Production Planning & Control, 29(10), pp.814-825.

Suzi?, N., Sandrin, E., Suzi?, S., Forza, C., Trentin, A. and Aniši?, Z., 2018. Implementation guidelines for mass customization: A researcher-oriented view. Int. J. Ind. Eng. Manag, 9(4), pp.229-243.

Tomac, N., Radonja, R. and Bonato, J., 2019. Analysis of Henry Ford’s contribution to production and management. Pomorstvo, 33(1), pp.33-45.

Tran, N.H., Park, H.S., Nguyen, Q.V. and Hoang, T.D., 2019. Development of a smart cyber-physical manufacturing system in the industry 4.0 context. Applied Sciences, 9(16), p.3325.

Weking, J., Stocker, M., Kowalkiewicz, M., Bohm, M. and Krcmar, H., 2018. Archetypes for industry 4.0 business model innovations. In Proceedings of the 24th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS) (pp. 1-10). Association for Information Systems (AIS).

Xia, T., Dong, Y., Xiao, L., Du, S., Pan, E. and Xi, L., 2018. Recent advances in prognostics and health management for advanced manufacturing paradigms. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 178, pp.255-268.

Yuan, Y. and Huh, J.H., 2018. Customized CAD modeling and design of production process for one-person one-clothing mass production system. Electronics, 7(11), p.270.

Zaki, M., Theodoulidis, B., Shapira, P., Neely, A. and Tepel, M.F., 2019. Redistributed manufacturing and the impact of big data: a consumer goods perspective. Production planning & control, 30(7), pp.568-581.

Recently Download Samples by Customers
Our Exceptional Advantages
Complete your order here
54000+ Project Delivered
Get best price for your work

Ph.D. Writers For Best Assistance

Plagiarism Free

No AI Generated Content

offer valid for limited time only*