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Nutrition, Digestion and Excretion 

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Introduction of Nutrition, Digestion and Excretion

Task 1

  • Dear Mrs. Smith,

This is to inform you that based on your health issues and lack of certain growth factors, it is necessary to maintain a good nutritional diet that contains all the six ingredients of a balanced meal. Good nutrition incorporates optimum value to the body to meet its required nutrition level, vitamins and also the mineral elements. It helps in promoting the growth and development of the body, bones and muscles and also boosts up the immunity to fight against infections (Volkert et al., 2019). It is always necessary to plan a proper meal and snacks, which includes nutritionally adhered meals that are mostly calorie-free. Now that it has been acknowledged the need for nutritional requirements with a healthy balanced diet, the necessity and importance of this diet need to be cleared as well. With your health condition and increased overweight, it is essential to acknowledge the important contribution of a healthy diet in your meal and also the importance of proper maintenance. Good nutrition not only helps in maintaining a healthy body weight but systematically maintains the following credentials:

  • Minimize the risk from certain diseases, which include cardiac issues, stroke, several cancers and osteoporosis
  • Minimize the cholesterol level
  • Improvement in well-being
  • Improve the ability in maintaining certain illnesses
  • Boost up the energy level

Based on your current health status, it has been observed that you are suffering from cardiac problems, numb feeling in one leg, frequent suffering from the cold, lower energy level and high cholesterol. While judging the issues, it is understandable that you need to maintain a proper healthy diet in your meals so as to provide sufficient energy and immunity to prevent the underlying disease mostly observed in your age (Marcolini et al., 2018). However, before indulging in your proper diet maintenance record, it is important to recognize the necessity of each component that constitutes a meal. It includes carbohydrate that provides energy and should be consumed based on body's requirement; protein, to be uptake at least one-fourth of the diet and must include fish, beans and meat (once in a week); avoid lipid-free or fat-free milk or consume a low-fat diet. The consumption of high fat can be the cause of being overweight with high cholesterol levels. It is necessary to consume fruits and vegetables on a daily basis for vitamins and minerals. And finally, for an adult, it is important to drink 2.7 L of water every day (Ene-Obong et al., 2019). It is a routine criterion for a healthy diet and roughage consumption to have an optimum health condition and thus need to be retained with an efficient diet chart.

The essential role of vitamins and minerals can be acknowledged to a greater extent among all the nutrient components since it promotes or influences maximum growth and development of the body. It helps in performing different activities in an active manner on a daily basis. However, a fine line can be recognized between adequate consumption and overconsumption of these nutrients. The consumption of a proper diet can always incorporate the necessary amount that the body needs to adhere to vitamin and mineral elements. According to your medical record, it is necessary to have some supplements for both vitamins and minerals because of the issue of tight muscle and other complications (Baillie et al., 2018). It is understandable, based on your health record, that there is a need for an optimum and proper balanced diet. However, the consistent approach to vitamin supplements along with minerals is some of the minor contributors. Further, you need to drink a sufficient amount of water, possibly 2.7 L that is mostly required by a grown woman with an appropriate level of physical activities.

Further understanding about your job stress at a higher level can promote a negative impact on your health if not taken good care of with efficient maintenance of a proper diet. The necessity and importance of a healthy meal and its basic requirements four times a day can essentially help in mitigating the current issues of your health. The necessary understanding of the factors and profuse contemplation of the same in incorporating good nutrition can have a critical impact on your health effectively over the issues. Thus, the information provided in this mail might assist you in understanding the importance of good nutrition and also instigates the information that you need to acquire the necessary information about your health requirements.

Thank you

With Regards











Potato (small size) or kernel

Banana with skimmed milk



10 g (in the form of starch); energy




Fibre and potassium



A large bowl containing cabbage soup

Banana and skimmed milk

250 g meat with tomatoes

Vegetarian dish

65.82 g


48.85 g

A, B (folate), K, C


Potassium and calcium


Coconut water

2.4 average-sized tomatoes

Cabbage soup



10 g

A, K, C and folate


Magnesium, potassium and fibre


Guava or berries

Broccoli 1 cup

Two large bananas with low-fat milk

One bowl of tomato soup

One bowl of cabbage soup

5 mg

10 g (all in the form of sugar) for energy


A, B, C, D and K


Calcium, potassium, fibre

The efficiency of nutrient components in a diet, which includes carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamin, minerals and roughage, generally promotes a generous amount of nutritional value according to their necessities or requirements in the body. The essentials like carbohydrate, protein and lipid constitute nearly 90% of the overall dry weight value for the meal and 100% energy requirement credential. On the other hand, vitamins and minerals are considered to be the micronutrient properties of a diet that provides the roughage factor and promotes cellular activities in the body. The macronutrients essentially digested within the intestine and generally break down into their corresponding smaller units, i.e.

  • Carbohydrates into sugar molecules
  • Protein into amino acids
  • Lipids into fatty acids & glycerol

Now, constituting the thoughts about specific functions of these macronutrients, it is necessary to understand the appropriate needs of the body with sufficient amounts of these constituents. In a specific way, the body needs these units to build certain substances for proper growth and development, maintenance of various activities and other catalytic activities.

  • Carbohydrates- This particular component, based on its size, usually divides into two spectacular parts: simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are a simple form of sugars (glucose or sucrose) that can be easily broken down and are absorbed by the body for energy production purposes. It is necessary to consume 45-55% of total calories per day. Within this amount, the body requires a total of 20-25% carbohydrate per day, which essentially constitutes 300 g of carbohydrate according to the guideline suggested by US dietary expertise. Apart from glucose or sucrose, the stringent knowledge about complex carbohydrates usually the larger molecules that essentially reduced to simple carbohydrates before absorption. It includes starch or dietary fibres that are often required by the body but in a smaller portion.
  • Proteins- This component can be recognised into a simpler form which categories as amino acids. Since the structure of a protein is more complex than carbohydrates, the dietary constituent takes a longer time to break and absorb by the body. Thus, the energy production process from amino acids is comparatively lower. The person who poses excess body weight must have protein in lower quantity, especially meat and need to consume fish and beans instead or even veggies. The main requirements of protein in the body involve the proper maintenance and tissue growth with the appropriate function of different organs.
  • Fats- This can be recognised as the complex structure that essentially breaks down into simpler forms of fatty acid and glycerol. The body needs fat mainly for growth and energy production purposes. It also helps in the proper synthesising of hormones as well as other necessary components that are involved in different body activities. It is necessary to maintain fat in the body and remove excess amounts, which otherwise block the blood circulation through the vessels and also in various organs. Further, excess fat critically elevates the cholesterol level and often results in certain disorders and obesity.
  • Vitamins, Minerals and Water- It constitute the micronutrient properties that the body requires in minor quantities yet adequately. The requirements of vitamins and minerals in the body are considered to be essential since it promotes 80% growth of tissue and initiates cellular activities. They help in maintaining bone conformation, healing wounds and bolstering the immune system for immunological activities. Further, it also converts food components into energy and also repairs cell damage. Finally, the consumption of dietary fibres or roughage and water are the two additional components, among which an adult individual requires 3L of water and 20% of roughage consumption on a daily basis.








Reduced level of calcium intake- Likely to occur due to calcium imbalance which contributes to a diminished level of bone density with an early loss in bone weight and increased risk for the fracturing of bones and sprains

Eating Disorder- This mainly arises when an individual fails to maintain a proper diet and also impacts through skipping meals resulting in underweight.

Gastrointestinal surgery- It mainly indicates the losses arise due to surgical procedure where the surface area within the GI tract that prevents the adequate intake of nutrients and their proper digestion (especially calcium)

The proper diagnosis for osteoporosis to understand the actual condition of the bone or chances of fracture essentially involves bone scanning, where the main credential is determined through "bone mineral density (BMD)" measurement. It is mainly performed with the application of dual-energy induced X-ray absorptiometry or even bone densitometry.

The essential understanding of the treatment procedure involves proper medication as follows:



Hormonal therapy

It involves early detection of bone density with proper interventions. It can be induced with proper exercise, a calcium-enriched diet and proper following of medication.


Typically identified through muscle cramps and tremors

Uncontrollable contraction of muscles with long, painful muscle cramps

Main cause due to lower level of calcium, also known as hypoglycaemia.

Compared to osteoporosis, it mainly occurred in muscle and effect may cause renal problems and diarrhoea.

Diagnosis usually confirms a reduced calcium level in the blood.

In this case, the blood level adhered to parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, magnesium and phosphorus generally helps in identifying the causes of tetany.

Compared to medications required in osteoporosis, the disorder requires the intravenous (IV) measure for replacing the calcium level. While incorporating calcium repletion, the magnesium level must be maintained to mitigate the issue related to "treatment-resistant hypercalcaemia."

There is no prognostic induction treatment for tetany as compared to osteoporosis. However, taking frequent breaks and reducing work pressure can help in controlling unnecessary muscle cramps and tremors in different regions of the body.


A common issue in softening and weakening of bones in children due to higher and longer duration of deficiency of vitamin D.

Similar features lie in understanding the affected organ for both osteoporosis and rickets.

Symptoms arise due to vitamin D and calcium deficiency in both cases

Rickets mainly occurs in children, while osteoporosis and tetany are observed in adult or adolescent individuals

The ticket can also be considered as an inherited disorder

Diagnosis mainly involves blood tests and X-ray based intervention.

Key findings involve lower calcium and phosphorus level in the body with a continuous elevation of alkaline phosphatase.

X-ray of bone sometimes shows the areas where there is a deficiency in calcium and Vitamin D which thereby resulted in bone deformation.

The inference of treatment for rickets children mainly contemplated depending on the conditions of the disorder. It can be illustrated with the fact that if there is lacking or deficiency of vitamin D in the meal, then the treatment initially involves a proper diet with an adequate amount of calcium and calcitonin. Consequently, if the disorder is inherited, then an appropriate treatment intervention is needed.

The prognostic treatment involves an appropriate diet and regular exercise under direct sunlight. In other term, sunlight is considered to be the natural source of vitamin D.

Task 2

Explanatory Notes for Digestive System

The integrative knowledge about the digestive system constitutes the main recognition of the gastrointestinal tract that is also known as the GI tract, or in a specific way, the digestive tract. It consists of the liver, pancreas and also the gallbladder (Boleto et al., 2018). The gastrointestinal tract follows a series of activities that are administered by different organs involved within the digestive system. It can be explained as a series of an idea to hollow organs that are interconnected as a long and twisting tube starting from the mouth and going down a long process, ultimately to the anus. The digestive tract induces a series of steps that result in proper digestion of food and hence considered to be important while considering the nutritional needs of the body from those food particles and why they produce energy e to perform certain activities and also staying healthy (Meegoda et al., 2018). The nutritional components that are digested and undergo the process of digestion eventually break into smaller components to extract the necessary juices and nutrients for growth and development and also to induce the cellular mechanism.

1. The first step in the digestive system with the involvement of the primary organ, that is, the mouth, initiates proper chewing of food when entered into the system and hence follows the process even before the actual mechanism starts. The saliva released from the salivary glands helps in the smelting of the food. The enzyme produced by saliva, also known as am I salivary amylase, breaks down the starch present in the food essentially constitutes the carbohydrate part. The next consideration comes with the involvement of the tongue that mixes the food particles with saliva. The teeth help in the property during cutting and grinding of the particles so that they can easily be transported through the food pipe into other organs for the process of digestion. Father soft palate present in the top junction of the mouth helps in moving the particles across the mouth and directly towards the oesophagus.

  1. The final step involves the release of the stools from the large intestine to the rectum. This particular organ induces significant functions (Kawabata et al., 2019). Firstly it helps in storing the faecal matter till its ultimate release, and secondly, it helps with sending signals to the brain for the effective release of the stools. The complete and final process within the digestive tract initiates with the removal of the stool from the rectum and finally excreted out from the anus.

5. In the third state, the food component eventually enters into the stomach and involves the proper breakdown of the food with the help of enzymes as well as acids produced from the lining of the stomach (Santos and Cunha, 2018). It contains the muscles that help in turning and mixing the food and hens, breaking them down into simpler and smaller pieces.


6. In the second step, the digestive process involves the integral role of the oesophagus. It can be considered as a longitude muscular tissue that helps in the proper transportation of food particles to the stomach. It is a synchronized process that promotes a waving mechanism suggestively known as peristalsis. Full stop the muscles within the intestine works in a similar way.


7. The fourth step involves the vital activities of the liver, pancreas and also the gallbladder that play an integral part in the digestive process; however, they are not directly involved in the food usually not passed through the organs. The pancreas significantly produces enzymes that help in breaking down fats, carbohydrates and proteins into their smaller components that are fatty acids and glycerol, sugar and amino acids. It is then released into the Duodenum. The liver then produces bile, specifically considered to be an important fluid that eventually breaks down the fats. Further its saints the juices to the gallbladder for storage and then release them into the Duodenum as per the requirements.


Task 3

The process of lipid metabolism initiates in the intestinal wall where the injection of triglycerides rockers and breaks down into smaller components, preferably fatty acids, and ultimately into monoglyceride molecules true pancreatic light basis (Heine et al, 2018). When the food reaches the small intestine as chyme, the release of a digestive hormone, also known as cholecystokinin (CCK), occurs within the intestinal mucosa. CCK then induces signals to the brain, which thereby act as part of a hunger suppressant.

The process of lipolysis exaggerates through proper breaking down of fat and triglycerides with the mechanism of hydrolysis to provide energy through two significant components that are fatty acids as well as glycerol (Jin et al, 2020). It generally occurs in the cytoplasm. The resultant fatty acids are then oxidized through beta-oxidation to acetyl CoA. It is used in the mechanism of the Krebs cycle.

Further, deamination involves the elimination of an amino group from a particular nitro molecule. In the human body, the process of deamination primarily occurs in the hepatic system, especially in the liver and also in the renal organ, kidney. The amino group that is released from the amino acid is then converted into ammonia (Weir, et al, 2018). This ammonia is then further converted to urea and uric acid through enzymatic activity with the addition of CO2 molecules during the urea cycle.

Task 4

  1. a) Renal artery

Renal vein

Renal pelvis


Superior Renal Capsule

Renal pyramid


Renal sinus

(b) The urinary tract or the urinary system mainly consists of two bean-shaped kidneys, two distinct ureters, the urinary bladder and the urethra. The main configuration of the structure of the kidney involves the specific location on the posterior region of the abdominal wall, just above the waist level. The shape of the kidney is similar to that of beans and is roughly 9-10 cm in length and 4-5cm in width (Kintscher et al, 2020). It has been encased within a fibrous capsule in the exterior region, also known as the renal capsule. The associative function of the kidney involves specific control of blood volume and its composition. It also helps in proper filtration of blood and other components with significant removal of waste products, salt and water through ultrafiltration and reabsorption process. In the last step, the overall components are secreted as a form of urinal composition and faecal matter.

While viewing internally, the gross structure or anatomy of the kidney composed of an external layer of the exterior cortex which is then surrounded by the interior medulla, the region of the medulla is composed of certain triangular pyramids that are also known as medulla re pyramids and form the striped appearance due to the composition of microscopic coiled tubules known as a reference. It is considered to be the functional or structural unit of the kidney. The urinal components are formulated by the nephrons and then pass into the collecting ducts. These ducts then essentially merge into the base of the pyramidal structure and thereby form the renal papilla.

The real integuments of papilla then drain out the urine from the "cup-like structure", also known as "major and minor calyces". Further from calyces, the urinal components are drained out into a wide region known as renal that acts as a funnel-like structure to filter the urine from the kidney to the ureter.

  1. b) The main waste product which is usually excreted by the kidney is urea.

The typical production of urea mainly takes place in the liver, where it is then regulated by the assistance of N-acetyl glutamate. The proper dissolving of urea then occurred in the blood, where the reference dissolving scale ranges from 2.5 to 6.7 mmol per litre. It is then further transported as well as excreted by the kidney as part of the components of urine.

  1. c) The significant part of the kidney that specifically extends between the pyramidal structures, also known as renal pyramids, is the renal columns.

The external region of the kidney, also known as the renal cortex, is a granulated structure that mainly consists of the structural unit of the kidney that is the nephron. In the interior structure of the kidney that is renal medulla composed of a multi-complex unit of tissue masses that are triangular in shape and specifically known as renal pyramids full stop within the renal pyramids, there is an extension that suggestively made up space within and hence considered as renal columns which typically initiates the blood flow through the passage of the blood vessels.

  1. Afferent arteriole


Efferent arteriole


Glomerulus Capillaries


Proximal tubule

Glomerulus capsule

Renal corpuscle

The initiation of ultrafiltration proceeds in nephrons in the kidney. The blood flows from the glomerulus that is surrounded by a capsule-like structure called a bowman's capsule. The hydrostatic pressure present within the capsule allows the smaller molecules to pass from the blood within the capillaries across the podocytes and leaves the capsule. The fluid present in the capsule is considered as 'filtrate' that essentially enters the proximal convoluted tubule that permits reabsorption of glucose as well as amino acids. It is then passed from the loop of Henle, where salts are transferred and create an osmotic gradient for water absorption. Sodium and potassium ions are then formed from the loop to reduce the water potential. The water volume is then further observed within the collecting ducts, where it is controlled by several hormones known as antidiuretic hormones or ADH. Thus, the ultimate filtrate which is extracted from the glomerulus is urine which is then excreted out from the kidney.

  1.  A. Collecting duct
  1. Loop of Henle
  2. Ascending loop
  3. Interlobular vein
  4. Bowman’s capsule
  5. Glomerulus
  6. Interlobular artery
  7. Proximal convoluted tubule
  8. Distal convoluted tubule
  9. Peritubular capillary network
  1. i) True
  1. ii) True

iii) False

  1. iv) True
  2. v) True
  3. vi) True
  1. a) The functional and structural unit of the kidney constitutes the main regulatory role in processing the waste components for further absorption of water and hence transported the waste matter as a byproduct from the kidney. It helps in regulating water and other soluble substances from the blood through ultrafiltration and reabsorption process and excreting the remaining as urinal component. It also maintains homeostasis in blood, blood pressure and osmotic pressure.

The process of selective reabsorption is considered to be the second mechanism where water is further filtered from the blood and finally converted to urine. It mainly involves the re-uptake of substances that are present in the filtrate and normally occurs within the convoluted tubule (both proximal & distal). The major portion of this reabsorption takes place in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) and extends from the elaborated region of Bowman's capsule.

  1. b) The structure that reabsorbs most substances in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT).

The PCT contributes with microvilli within the cell lining that increases the significant process of reabsorption of different substances with an increase in surface area for proper filtrate absorption.

  1. c) The ascending Loop of Henle is impermeable to water.

The permeability of sodium chloride is actively incorporated through the ascending loop while restricting the movement of water to generate the osmotic gradient upto 200 mOsm per kg.

  1. The regulatory mechanism of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) usually lowers the volume of urine. It is essentially secreted from the posterior region of the pituitary gland so as to increase the plasma osmolarity with a certain increase in concentrated ions relative to plasma volume or a specific decrease in the volume.

The selection in osmolarity can be sensed through osmoreceptors present in the hypothalamus that then stimulates the release of the ADH hormone. It eventually acts upon nephrons to lower the level of plasma osmolarity and elevates the level of urine osmolarity.

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