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Task 2: Assessment Of Risks and Safety Plan For Road Projects

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Introduction: Task 2: Assessment Of Risks and Safety Plan For Road Projects

The assessment of the management of the risks & planning of safety is crucially impactful in the construction project of highways. There are risk factors that are involved in the planning & designing states of the project completion. There are construction projects which are involved with various higher risks & involvement of many contractors is estimated in the risk identification and & step-wise process of risk classification, risk analysis & risk evaluation for the determination of the quantitative measures to reduce the risk factors and for creating a scheduled solution of safety through the maintaining of the quality & cost of the project. There are also financial & budgetary problems that are variating in the integration of the factors of construction of highway and road projects. There are also factors of land acquisition for effective decision-making and analysis of the project.

Identification of Risks & Safety Arrangements for Road Projects

There are various project objectives & aim that is involved in the planning & designing of the projects (Chorus, 2021). Risks are tools, which is for the analysis of the adverse impacts and for the evaluation of the construction performances for effective risk management. There is also the factor of quality of projects and regulation of costs, which needed to be scheduled according to the construction project.

There are various classifications of risk factors that needed to be identified and for effective management of risk factors & creation of a safety strategy. There are various risks that could arise in the construction of road projects, some of which are discussed below

  • Site investigation error: There are various risks, which is associated with the construction of the road and project planning. There are roots of subcontractors & contractors, who are keeping track of the project assessment. There should be the engagement of experienced workers and should develop proper preparations for the programs regarding programs and also the deployment of machinery & rain delay causes which could delay the projects. There are various productivity contractor issues & risks for the continuation & conditioning of the projects.
  • Estimation failure and cost overrun: There are various issues that could arise in the various in designing and procurement of project design (Albrechtsen, 2019). There are some considerations of the designing of projects and indirect costs for the parameters and consideration of designing. There could be a defective design in the project brief, which should be understood by the contractors and clients for effective designing of the communications between the factors of the projects.
  • Risk of the uncertainty of the Markets & funds: There is the issue of price inflation of materials regarding construction materials, which could be affecting the principles of supply & demand of the market of materials. As it is an unavoidable risk for clients & contractors, which is needed to be considered before the project planning to bear with the risk factors. There is also the factor of funding and time, which could be observed in the lengthy scheduling. There are cost overruns & economic volatility in the projects, which could be a potential threat for the potential threat assessment for investments.

Diagram of Road construction assessment

Figure 1: Diagram of Road construction assessment

Risk Id Description of Risk Impact Likelihood Level of Risk
1 Site investigation error 5 5 High
2 Estimation failure and cost overrun 5 4 Medium
3 Risk of the uncertainty of the Markets & funds 4 2 Low
4 Drawing and design error 4 5 High
5 Soil test malfunction 4 3 Low

Table 1: Risk register of Constructional Performance

Risk assessment:

Hazard Description Person harmed Action to be taken Person responsible for taking action Consequence Likelihood
Buried services Workers & plant operators Finding out the possible position of existing services & use hand excavation method for that place. Site in charge Moderate Likely
Overhead lines Workers & plant operators Diversion of lines if possible or cutting the electricity supply during the work. Site in charge Extreme Possible
Falling into excavation Workers Installation of fall protection devices around the excavation Site in charge Major Likely
Falling of plant into excavation Workers & plant operators Planning the route of vehicles. Provision of stop blocks. Site in charge Major Possible
Risk of collapse of side having depth greater than 1.5 m Workers Provision of side protection of excavation. Site in charge Major Possible

Table 2: Excavation Risk Assessment

Hazard Description Person harmed Action to be taken Person responsible for taking action Consequence Likelihood
Poor lighting Workers Provision of enough illumination before starting work Engineer in charge Major Likely
Tripping & falling Workers Provision of side protection & reducing the surcharge of stocked materials. Engineer in charge Major Likely
Injury because of presence of hazardous materials Workers Removal of hazardous materials form the site Engineer in charge Major Likely
Slippery surface & walkways Workers All leaks in the workplace are needed to be stopped Engineer in charge Major Likely
Biological hazard Workers Application of materials for reducing the activities of rodents Engineer in charge Major Likely
Reduction of oxygen content Workers Provision of easy emergency exit. Provision of supplementary source of oxygen in case of emergency Engineer in charge Extreme Likely
Presence of dust like materials such as asbestos Workers Use of dust masks Engineer in charge Extreme Likely

Table 3: Working in confined spaces Risk Assessment

Hazard Description Person harmed Action to be taken Person responsible for taking action Consequence Likelihood
Setting up temporary services at the construction site Workers, people providing the services Using proper location & PPE for the services Project manager Moderate Possible
Demolition & disposal of existing structures Workers & machinery operators Provision of protecting measures around the area of demolition Site In charge Extreme Likely
Injury from machineries Workers Use of horns & PPE Safety engineer Extreme Likely
Entering of dust into the lungs Workers Use of dust masks Safety engineer Major Likely
Collapse of embankments Workers & machinery operators Fall protecting measures Site In charge Extreme Possible

Table 4: Temporary works on highways Risk Assessment

Hazard Description Person harmed Action to be taken Person responsible for taking action Consequence Likelihood
Injury from instrument Workers Use of PPE and proper management of equipment Safety engineer Major Likely
Fall from height Workers Measures for protecting people in case of fall & use of PPE Safety engineer Extreme Likely
Slip & trip Workers Suitable measures for protection against these Site in charge Major Likely

Table 5: Working on structure Risk Assessment

The risk assessment for road projects consists various attributes in terms of the safety of vehicles of the road.

Identify the goals of the project: Obviously characterizing the venture's objectives, scope, and wanted results. This will help in grasping the unique situation and setting the establishment for risk evaluation. Identifying and engage relevant stakeholders like contractors, government agencies, local communities, and parties affected. Know what worries, interests, and dangers they might face.

Type of risk

Mitigation process

Responsible person


Proper estimation at the start of the project can bound the overall cost. Along with that proper usage of equipment and reducing wastage of material can help cost consumption.

Finance department

Delays in schedule

Delays in completing the can increase the overall cost as well as it occurs the risk of project failure. Proper following of the estimated schedule is the only mitigation process of this and it needs correct monitorition on regular basis.

Planning department


Flawless process of spreading information among the stakeholders can mitigate the problem of misunderstanding between the clients.

Client coordinator

Environmental risk

Preparing for possible impact of environment and taking proper precautionary measures can mitigate the environmental risk.

Project supervisor

Safety hazards

Particular place for dumping the hazards of construction is a mitigation process. Along with that recycling the products which can be reused is a good remedial process.

Safety officer

Table 6: Risk Assessment

Method Statement

Recognise Perils:

  • Audit project plans, particulars, and applicable reports to recognize potential dangers related with street development exercises. Work in the excavation industry, traffic management, operating heavy machinery, working at heights, handling hazardous materials, and so on are all examples.
  • Make site visits and inspections to look for any additional dangers that aren't listed in the documents.

Assess Threat:

  • Decide the probability of each distinguished risk happening. Consider factors like recurrence of openness, verifiable occurrence information, and experience of the undertaking group.
  • Consider the repercussions that could result from the hazard. This includes determining the extent of injuries, property damage, environmental impact, and project disruption

Risk identifying: Analyzing the road projects thoroughly to discover any potential dangers or risks. The project's location, environmental conditions, geotechnical issues, regulatory requirements, construction methods, and traffic management are all important considerations. Delays, price overruns, design flaws, inadequate materials, labor issues, equipment failure, and site accidents are all examples of these. Evaluate likely ecological effects, for example, harm to biological systems, water bodies, or safeguarded species, as well as consistence with natural guidelines.

Take into account the project's public perception as well as its social effects, such as the displacement of communities, disruptions to local businesses, traffic congestion, and noise pollution. Assess the state of the soil, the stability of the geology, the possibility of landslides, sinkholes, or other geological dangers that could have an impact on construction and safety. Examining the project's financial viability, access to funding, and economic factors that could affect its completion.

  • Analysing and assessing risks: Evaluating the probability and seriousness of recognized gambles. Prioritize risks based on how they might affect stakeholders and project goals. This should be possible through subjective techniques or quantitative strategies.
  • Risk reduction: Foster systems and activity intends to oversee and relieve distinguished gambles. Engineering controls, emergency planning, insurance coverage, safety protocols, and environmental management measures may all fall under this category. Think about administrative consistence, partner commitment, and public correspondence in the moderation cycle.

Developing safety plans & assessment of risks of civil engineering Activities

In the increasing development of the construction and civil engineering industry, there are various risks and safety issues could be observed, which needed to be eradicated with safety measures & evaluation of the safety operations, and assessment of the conditions of the field research (Gye, 2019). The safety of the construction is regulated by the effective safeguarding of the laborers and employees. Through project planning, effective cost & time management is required in the effective workflow. There are core elements that needed to be evaluated in the construction projects, they are

Effective leadership management & work attitude

Through the process of effective management & procurement of safety measures, there are work balance and prioritization of the well-being of the workers, are the main focus points in effective work management. Providing safety gear and constant checking of the workers’ safety should be assessed at every level of construction work. All the workers should have to be clear about the work to which they are assigned & proper reporting of the safety hazards & threats should be concluded.

Training & hazard prevention

Training the workers is significantly crucial in the planning of hazard prevention & also to prevent hazards for proper work safety (Jin, 2019). Proper training in work & encounters with hazardous situations could be beneficial for the prevention of unfortunate incidents. There could be also the making of the policy of adoption of precautions & assessment of the safety guidelines that could be effective in threat management & elimination of the risk factors.

Periodic evaluation & safety measures

There are measures of health & safety that should be correctly followed periodically. There are health plans & inspections of the employees & work situations for the construction site. As protective measures, Head Protecting hats, and eye & face protection should be provided. In the works of construction, effective scaffolding techniques should be instigated temporarily for unwanted movements for the temporary operations of the lifts for construction purposes. Scaffolding techniques are also implicated in the betterment of the conditions of the building structure & to prevent failures of structures.

Diagram of Road construction assessment

Figure 2: Diagram of Road construction assessment

Safely Plan Measures Descriptions
Effective Management of Leadership It helps in the work balance & prioritizes the well-being of the Workers.
Working Attitude It is for the understanding of the assigned work & also proper reporting of the hazards & threats of every level of construction work
Training & prevention of hazards Proper Training helps in work safety & helps in the prevention of accidents by maintaining standard work guidelines.
Observations & Inspections Through the process of work and risk management, there is also the factor for the safety inspection & personal assessment of equipment protection for work evaluation & performance Management.
Periodic Evaluation Through this measure, health plans & providing in adequate safety gear could be instigated for the construction purposes

Table 6: Safety Measure of Risks of Constructional Performance

Site safety plan on confined spaces:

The confined spaces of roads define the area where the design of entry and exit is not done according to proper plan. These area occurs during the construction time and the safety plans for the confined spaces are given below.

  • Locate Contained Spaces: The road design project's confined spaces must first be identified. Restricted spaces normally incorporate regions with restricted section and leave focuses, deficient ventilation, and the potential for perilous circumstances, for example, low oxygen levels, harmful gases, or actual deterrents.
  • Perform a Risk Analysis: Play out a far-reaching risk evaluation for each bound space distinguished. Assess expected perils, like the presence of perilous substances, the gamble of engulfment, or the chance of falls or capture. Determine the appropriate control measures and assess the severity of each risk.
  • Put in Place Controls: Create control measures to reduce the risks that have been identified. Proper ventilation systems, the provision of personal protective equipment (PPE) like respirators, harnesses, and lifelines, or the establishment of a permit system to control access to confined spaces are all examples of this. Take precautions to ensure the safety of workers working on road design projects.
  • Lay out Safe Passage Methods: Safe entry procedures for confined spaces should be clearly defined. Protocols for entry, exit, communication, and rescue ought to be included in this. Ensure that employees have received adequate instruction on these procedures and are aware of their significance.

Excavation and temporary works on highways:

Various attributes are maintained during the excavation job of the road developed project. During excavation, it is essential to adhere to appropriate engineering practices and safety measures to avoid accidents, maintain stability, and safeguard existing infrastructure. At the point when excavation works are done on roadways, brief traffic the executive’s measures are carried out to guarantee the protected progression of vehicles and people on foot through the development zone.

Plans for traffic management are made to divert traffic, create work zones, and put up temporary signs and markings for detours, lane closures, or speed limits. These actions are intended to limit disturbances, keep up with traffic stream, and give clear direction to street clients exploring through the development region.

Temporary works consist various works which are performed during the construction parallel to the major works. Ground adjustment is one of the key temporary works which is completed in short duration but has permanent impact. Exhuming for thruways might require ground adjustment methods to build up the dirt or forestall avalanches. Soil nailing, ground anchors, sheet piling, and retaining walls are all examples of ground stabilization techniques that can be used to maintain stability during excavation and prevent slope failures. The purpose of these measures is to guarantee the road's safety and long-term structural integrity. By and large, removal and brief deals with parkways assume a pivotal part in street projects. They empower the development of protected and utilitarian streets while limiting interruptions to traffic and guaranteeing the wellbeing of laborers and street clients. The project's success depends on these activities' effective design, planning and execution.

Safety & health legislation codes of civil engineering

In the assessment of the issues of the health & safety of the construction sites, there are various regulations and legislative codes (The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974) in the operating, construction, designing, and commissioning of the regulation & control of the risk factors. In the legislation, there are regulations present in the health & safety of the design of buildings & constructions (Alruqi, 2019). World labor organizations have deployed various regulations. They are the management of the health & safety at work regulation, the provisions of the usage of work equipment at work regulation, Compressed work usage regulations, control of the Noise and Vibrations regulations, and Reporting of diseases, injuries & dangerous situations regulations are a variety of safety issues and additional duties. There are also client requirements that also needed to be evaluated by HASAWA legislation.

Method Statements for Civil Engineering Projects

In the Method statements, there are various methods which could be procured in the projects of civil engineering; some of the statements are discussed below

Control & quality assurance

Through the assessment of the activities and control of quality, the assurance of the project exercises could be done effectively in vast record keeping of the documents regarding the operations and inspection of the materials and defecation for the required involvement of the projects. There should be tests & inspections, which is required according to the requirement of clients & monitoring of the availability of the materials that are provided. This quality checking and soil testing can be started after initiation of project's initiation on 06.07.23.

Preparation of road pavement

This method of statement can be applied on 01.09.23 and onwards. Through a proper understanding of the work areas, the commencement of the proper handling of tools and usage of skills should be instigated. Through the proper understanding of the job and having proper preparation for the work, executions could be helpful in the understanding of the responsibility and should also be administered in the directive control & for the performance evaluation for the advancement projects (Hindawi.com, 2020). There are hazards and the dissemination of the briefing of the tasks, which is needed to be required for the designing & intervals.


In the conclusion of the analysis of the risk management and procurement of the safety measures, there are proper assessment & handling techniques that are needed to eradicate the risk factors, which is significant in the proper understanding of the health & safety hazards. There are also tasks & priorities of the clients which need to be maintained & also the regulations of the safety of workers also maintained. Through the instigation of the proper safety measures the reduction of the risk factors, could be helpful in effective risk management of the construction sites.


Chorus, (2021) Toxic cyanobacteria in water: a guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management available at library.oapen.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.12657/47047/9781000262025.pdf?sequence=1[Accessed on 13.5.2023]

Albrechtsen, E., Solberg, I. and Svensli, E., 2019. The application and benefits of job safety analysis.Safety Science,113, pp.425-437.

Gye, H.R., Seo, S.K., Bach, Q.V., Ha, D. and Lee, C.J., 2019. Quantitative risk assessment of an urban hydrogen refueling station.International journal of hydrogen energy,44(2), pp.1288-1298.

Jin, R., Zou, P.X., Piroozfar, P., Wood, H., Yang, Y., Yan, L. and Han, Y., 2019. A science mapping approach based review of construction safety research.Safety science,113, pp.285-297.

Alruqi, (2019) Critical Success Factors for Construction Safety: Review and Meta-Analysis of Safety Leading Indicators available at ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0001626 [Accessed on 13.5.2023]

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