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Technology In Organizations

INTRODUCTION - Technology In Organizations

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Question 1

  1. A) The evolving role of the cloud computation can be described in the following way:

The main five technologies have played a vital role in the evolution process of cloud computation in companies like Amazon:

Distributed System- This system is known as the composition that is made because of the multiple independent systems but the systems are seen always as a single entity for the users. The purpose of this system is to share and use the resources efficiently and also effectively. This system has the characteristics of “scalability, availability, continuous availability, concurrency, and failure in independencies”. Although, the main problem that is involved is that the systems need to be present at the same location that was at the starting point (Zhou et al. 2021). In order to solve this problem, this computing led to computing like Main-frame computing, grid computing, and cluster computing. Mainframe computing was used to handle large data. This system has increased the capability of the process but it was too expensive. In order to reduce the cost, cluster computing was developed. In this process again problems that were related to the restrictions of location arose. Then the concept of grid computing came up which solved this problem, but again the low ability of the bandwidth was observed.

Virtualization- It mainly refers to the way how a virtual layer is created over the hardware of the system which helps the user in running instances simultaneously. It is done using the technology of cloud computation (Hu et al. 2020). Hardware virtualization is still considered very common.

Web 2.0- In this interface, the services of cloud computing are seen to interact with the clients because of the fact that web 2.0 has dynamic web pages and increases the flexibility among the pages. It consists of two important concepts of “quality of service and service level agreement and Software as a service”.

Service Orientation- It is considered to be the reference model for the purpose of cloud computation.

Utility computing- This computing model defines the provisioning techniques of the service that are used for the services like compute services including the major services like storage (Qian et al. 2020). These technologies help the cloud computation technique to arise and prove to be helpful and useful.

  1. B)

The well-known company Amazon adopted the cloud computation so that they could increase their profitability and collection of revenue. They got many benefits through this like

Agility- The cloud is capable of giving the user access to a huge number of technologies for the purpose of innovating the system and making it faster and capable of building anything that is needed. The resources can be spun up quickly whenever it is needed from the services of infrastructure like computing, database, and storage, machine learning, analytics, and many more (Shi et al. 2021). The technology services can be deployed within minutes through the use of cloud computation and also the company is able to get the idea of how to do the implementation that may result at a faster pace. This concept also helps in giving freedom to the experiments so that new ideas could be tested for the differentiation in the experience of the customers and can be able to transform the business.

Elasticity- The use of cloud computation has helped the user avoid the over-provision of the resources upfront they used to do for the purpose of handling the business level at the peak time in the future. Instead of this, with the use of cloud computation, the users are able to provide the resource amount that is actually required by the company. The resources can be scaled up or sometimes down to instantly change the capacity to grow or shrink as the business needs.

Cost Savings- The cloud development in the companies like Amazon proved to be very useful for the purpose of saving costs. The cloud helps in allowing the user to make trades on the expenses that are fixed like the data centers and the physical servers. They also provide for variable expenses and it is seen that these expenses are very much lower than what the user is going to pay for only because of the economy's scale (Saxena et al. 2019) . Once the company has entered into this cloud facility, the employees get easy access to the data of the company, which will, in turn, save the money and also the time in the startup of the projects.

Flexibility- The cloud has the capability to provide the companies with more flexibility overall than the one which could be found in the hosting as the local server. If there is a need for extra bandwidth, then the cloud-based service can help the user to meet the demand instantly instead of undergoing the process of complex updates that are related to the infrastructure of the IT system. This type of improved freedom along with improved flexibility can help the companies to make a huge difference in the overall efficiency of their organization. This is one of the most important reasons that cloud development has become so popular because of its flexibility.

Automatic updates of the software and integration- The integration of the software and delivery of the new updates in a continuous mode is highly reliable as the versions of the new software can be very easily tested and can also be deployed in the environment of the cloud. It allows the innovation of the product at a higher velocity, more features are released to the user that is at the endpoint on a monthly, weekly, or sometimes on the daily basis (Alam 2020). The cloud environment is also seen to be integrated with the common tools of DevOps and with the logging systems in order to make the process easier for monitoring and also for detecting the issues that may arise while doing the production of the data.

Question 2

The three security requirement that is needed by any organization for implementation areas are listed below:

  1. A strong protection suite of the internet- The organization must make a selection of the best antivirus they can afford to put even if the cost is high. The various parameters kept in mind while the workforce is being spread, the people's movement both outside and within their network, and the environment of the host will help the user to form the parameters that are used for the selection of the optimum antiviruses (Ullah et al. 2018). Most of the vendors are seen to cover a variety of malware, viruses, and ransomware, so the software should be chosen according to the response based on depth and speed. If the monitoring could be performed between the two internal networks then it can allow the user to make detection of any malicious activities and can take the measures to prevent them immediately. The use of an active firewall policy can help the user limit the unimportant traffic in the network and also helps by stopping the unnecessary movement of the traffic from the malicious sites and the network is protected (Silva et al. 2018). There is the presence of many other firewall solutions, which the organization must select on the basis of their suitability.
  2. The end-points should be secured- The use of mobile phones in recent years has increased rapidly. With this the number of endpoints that may be used with the intention of hacking the data of the organization they work for. It is estimated that the devices are seen to carry almost 3 to 4 endpoints individually. As the models of the devices vary and also the configuration varies, each endpoint is found to be different from the other one. Although, in spite of the difference, each endpoint should always be secured. It has become mandatory for organizations to have a comprehensive endpoint so that high productivity can be achieved in the workforce. The securing of the system is a continuous practice and is considered to be a secure method that must be carried on every day. The practices of security should be imbibed in the organization’s culture (Ahmed et al. 2019). If the organization fails to understand the security's fundamental aspects, then the organization becomes vulnerable to the possible attacks.
  3. Security should be included in the system architecture- The system that is used by the organization must be designed in such a way that it could be with the integrated security instead of being added as a patch later in the system. When the system is being built, the practice of safe coding should always be followed, and also security should be built into the process of the business. The organization should make up a separate role for the information security officer for taking up the charge of the organization in the cyber sector. If the security aspects are added to the system after the enterprise architecture is being implemented and designed will make the solutions of the security complex (Silva et al. 2018).The frameworks that are used by the organization for the purpose of providing security and also for controlling the data are in the following ways:
  1. The “US National Institute of Standard and technology” developed Nist Cybersecurity framework-The NIST Cybersecurity Framework. The initiative was made by the government and was collaborated with the private sector for making the fight initiative against cyber risk to be successful. This framework was separated into three components: They were core, the implementation tiers, and profiles. The core describes the goals of cybersecurity and is organized into five main phases and they are recovering, detecting, protecting, identifying, and also for recovering. For example, it can be used in addressing the management risk in the supply chain in the process of identifying the phase. The implementation tiers are used in determining the effectiveness of the cyber security effort that basically is known to make the target the goals of the framework (George and Rajakumari 2019). The profiles are known to provide help to the organization by comparing the objectives that are already existing to the core of the framework and also help in making identification of the opportunities that could be made for the improvement. This provides guidance on how the Nist can be used so that it can serve the specific needs of the organization.
  2. COBIT framework- The COBIT stands for Control Objectives for “Information and Related Technology” and was developed by the “Information systems audit and control association”. This framework was found to be making a reduction in the technical risks of the organization by providing help to the companies to make development and for implementing the information strategies of the management. The COBIT is known to be updated a lot of times for keeping the protection against all types of security threats. The updated version of the COBIT mainly focuses on the alienation of IT with the business goal, risk management, and the governance of the information (Vaisla et al. 2018). It is mainly used by the traced companies publicly. For Example, the It companies make use of this for fulfilling their needs of business goals
  3. FISMA- The FISMA stands for the “Federal Information Security Management Act” and is known to insulate the assets of the US government against cyber threats. It is known to be applied to third parties and the federal governments for operating on their behalf. It can be considered to be much similar to the NIST, FISMA which makes the documentation necessary of the assets that are in digital form and integration of the network (Moorthy et al. 2020). For example, The Organizations should monitor their infrastructure of IT and risks should be evaluated regularly

Question 3

  1. a)

The organization that is being selected for discussing the network infrastructure that is used for business operations every day is the Telecom-based company Verizon Communications. The Telecom company Verizon Communications is based on the asset-intensive type of business. With the passing of time, the assets of the network infrastructure have brought a huge difference from the traditional strategies of developing the business (Ullah et al. 2018). The infrastructure that is involved in the Telecom companies is a huge variety of assets which basically includes the towers of the telecom, network types of equipment of both negative and passive, centers of the data, real estate, fiber networks, inventory warehouses, copper networks, and many more. The built-up of these extensive assets of the network makes use of lots of resources.This company needs to invest millions in using the resources. The most important thing that this company needs is a long time frame and manpower substantially for the build-up of networks. The company Verizon communication launched its 4G LTE. The social media platforms that Verizon uses are Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Youtube, and Instagram. The company Verizon chooses the CDMA for its operation seeing the rise since the 90s. It is known that the innovation centers that are being created by Verizon are the main source from where the ideas for the new products come up. The filter content of Verizon has helped the parents to keep control of their children which sites they are accessing (Moura et al. 2018). The telecom networks that developed the data explosion that is driven by the 4G and 5G development can be considered as an important key to the development of the network infrastructure.

  1. b)

1)

The sum function was used in excel for calculating the totals number: C/R number)”. This helped in finding out the total for each country in each quarter and also the total for their yearly valuation. The minimum value from a column can be found using the column values) will show the minimum value that can be used for plotting the graph for the required evaluation of parameters. Similarly, the maximum value from a column can be found using the column values) which shows the maximum value based on which performance of each country can be seen. For the mean value average function is selected which follows the basic formula of mean which is the sum of all values divided by the frequency of values). The median shows the most occurring values or their nearby values that can be found (selecting column values).

Country

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Quarter Totals

Canada

45000

36000

41000

44000

166000

Singapore

33000

32000

35000

30000

130000

Pakistan

25000

21000

22000

21000

89000

Nigeria

10000

9000

11000

8000

38000

UAE

51000

57000

55000

52000

215000

Spain

19000

22000

21000

22000

84000

Germany

26000

28000

30000

29000

113000

Total

209000

205000

215000

206000

835000

minimum

38000

maximum

215000

mean

119285.7143

median

113000

2)

Figure 2: Forecast of countries more than 27,000 in Q2

The graphical representation of the data helped in revealing the countries having more than 27000 in Q2 which are Canada, Singapore, UAE and Germany.

3)

Figure 3: Forecast of countries less than 15,000 in Q4

The graphical representation of the data helped in revealing the countries having less than 15000 in Q4 which is Nigeria only.

Reference

Li, Z., Zhou, X., Liu, Y., Fan, C. and Wang, W. 2021, A Computation Offloading Model over Collaborative Cloud-Edge Networks with Optimal Transport Theory, Cornell University Library, arXiv.org, Ithaca.

Long, J., Yueyi, L., Zhu, X., Entao, L. and Mingfeng, H. 2020, "Computation offloading through mobile vehicles in IoT-edge-cloud network", EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2020, no. 1.

Xing, L., Zhou, Y. and Shi, Y. 2021, Over-the-Air Computation via Cloud Radio Access Networks, Cornell University Library, arXiv.org, Ithaca.

Xu, S., Guo, C., Hu, R.Q. and Qian, Y. 2020, Multi-Agent Deep Reinforcement Learning enabled Computation Resource Allocation in a Vehicular Cloud Network, Cornell University Library, arXiv.org, Ithaca.

Alam, T., 2020. Internet of things: A secure cloud-based manet mobility model. Tanweer Alam." Internet of Things: A Secure Cloud-Based MANET Mobility Model.", International Journal of Network Security, 22(3).

Moorthy, V., Venkataraman, R. and Rao, T.R., 2020. Security and privacy attacks during data communication in software defined mobile clouds. Computer Communications, 153, pp.515-526.

Saxena, D., Vaisla, K.S. and Rauthan, M.S., 2018, July. Abstract model of trusted and secure middleware framework for multi-cloud environment. In International Conference on Advanced Informatics for Computing Research (pp. 469-479). Springer, Singapore.

Alam, T., 2020. Cloud Computing and its role in the Information Technology. IAIC Transactions on Sustainable Digital Innovation (ITSDI), 1(2), pp.108-115.

Liazid, H. and Lehsaini, M., 2021. A brief review on integration between wireless sensor networks and Cloud. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, 33(20), p.e6328.

Silva, F.S.D., Lemos, M.O., Medeiros, A., Neto, A.V., Pasquini, R., Moura, D., Rothenberg, C., Mamatas, L., Correa, S.L., Cardoso, K.V. and Marcondes, C., 2018, June. Necos project: Towards lightweight slicing of cloud federated infrastructures. In 2018 4th IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization and Workshops (NetSoft) (pp. 406-414). IEEE.

Ullah, R., Ahmed, S.H. and Kim, B.S., 2018. Information-centric networking with edge computing for IoT: Research challenges and future directions. IEEE Access, 6, pp.73465-73488.

Ahmed, Z.E., Saeed, R.A. and Mukherjee, A., 2019. Challenges and opportunities in vehicular cloud computing. In Cloud Security: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 2168-2185). IGI Global.

George Amalarethinam, D.I. and Rajakumari, S., 2019. A Survey on Security Challenges in Cloud Computing.

Biswas, M. and Whaiduzzaman, M.D., 2018. Efficient mobile cloud computing through computation offloading. Int. J. Adv. Technol, 10(2), p.32.

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