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Understanding health and Illness Assignment Help

Introduction - Understanding health and Illness

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Health awareness is always important for developing both physical and mental health and often relies on personal situations and health education. It is essential as early detection can prevent major health problems for people and their families.

Good health does not just rely on the fact that the person’s body is healthy but that each person’s good health relies on the body’s general wellbeing which can also be affected by their social circumstances. Good health and wellbeing are often influenced by inequality and poverty. Governments have a duty to promote healthy lifestyles, provide social support and advise people on the best possible measures to obtain them regardless of their cultural social or background. The World Health Organisation (WHO. 2018)

 The assignment is mainly focused on Karim's family who are originally Pakistani, but they have lived in the UK for the last 3 years, but situations like this one can affect many other families.  Karim is facing lots of problems in his personal life with his wife and his three children and health problems have arisen with mental issues, insecurities as well as an anxiety disorder.  For this, they consulted with the GP for advice on these problems. The nurses have commenced monitoring and are trying to solve the health issues through proper advice and planning.  Health promotion is very important to the health and wellbeing of people


Learning outcome -1

Concept of health and well being

Health and wellbeing need to be carefully examined when there is any concern over physical or mental problems. It is important for every individual to have a firm basic emotional structure for personal well -being (Mandi? & Pavlovi? 2020)

 At the concept of health and wellbeing, there are 4 different parameters.  These are

Physical wellbeing, Capability level of body structure, Psychological issues, Controlling powers.

In this assignment, it shows that 35 years old Karim is facing lots of problems. Basically, he is facing problems due to consumption of alcohol. Before migrating to the United Kingdom, Karim worked at the farm where a variety of fruits and vegetables were cultivated including the poultry as well as the farm produce. For this, he had no money. So, he is economically poor. As he has three children, one is 8 years old and the other two are 5 years old and 1 month old, so he needs to work to provide for them.  In the United Kingdom, Karim feels insecure and is consuming alcohol as a relief from the small accommodation, low level of income etc. Karim has already gained employment as a cab driver but due to his mental disorders, his behavior is also changing day by day (Audet et al. 2017).  As a result, his mood is always switching, and he creates conflict with his family members. Not only this, Karim tried to find help for this, and he visited the GP to ask advise on how to maintain his diabetes level, blood pressure as well as the cholesterol. His family issues, and inadequate accommodation issues and the low family income have also affected to his children. 1 month old Amina cannot sleep properly due to noise. The health visitor advised them to visit some park for developing the child. But they have no money to go to the parks. Beside this, an insufficient diet creates dental problems for the three children. Zainabi, Karim's wife, gained weight with the fat, calories and the sugars at the time of pregnancy. She also took drugs at the time of the pregnancy. For this reason, her weight is also high as well as her BMI. But nowadays, it is reducing and back to normal. It is important that healthcare workers encourage people to actively care for their own health in whatever circumstances they find themselves. (Sorenson et al 2018) This reference is not in your list but was in your PDF copy – so it will need to be added to the references

Principles of public health including the promotions of health and prevention


Health promotion needs to address issues such as equality, fairness and inclusiveness in people’s lives in order that they can be empowered to improve their lives (Nowakowski & Sumerau 2019)

There are 5 different principles for a healthy life (Jumanova and Jumanov, 2021). These are:

Principle 1: Concept of health in positive view in wide range

Principle 2: “Maximizing the access and the inclusion”

Principle 3:  “Development of the Knowledge”

Principle 4: “Informed evidence and the reflective practices”

Principle 5: “Person-centered and the practices related to family sensitivity”

All of the people are focused, including their family members.  Beside this, all practices are done by the family members as well as the young members of the family.

The whole assignment shows that all of the family members of Karim are facing lots of problems. As Karim has no money with which to support his 4 family members, the whole family members are facing problems after their relocating to the UK. After reaching the UK, mood changes and behaviors changes create mental problems (Workneh et al. 2018) The health of Karim’s whole family are affected by their economic issues.

Learning outcome -2

Identify the social determinants of health and inequalities in health

People’s health often depends on causes which are not so much linked to medical conditions but social issues such as the birth conditions and lifestyle together with inequalities in society which are often avoidable. The model of SDH is important in addressing some of these inequalities in society. (Uchino & Rook, 2020)

Different countries have their own social ‘norms’ and usually are dependent on the general level of income and any particular health issues affecting that country. Models promoting health issues can have a huge positive or negative influence (Wadhwani, 2018).  It is shown that social norms always try to protect the income level. It behaves like the security guard of the society. It provides the proper educational systems. In the society norms, unemployment is an important part of the society. They also focus on the insecurity level of the job that creates the migration. their working lives are very unstable when changes are not obvious. The insecurity conditions of the food, poor basic amenities available in the society Not only this the housing security is one of them.  The awareness of society inclusion and discriminations are also needed in the society.

It is shown that social norms always try to protect the income level. It behaves like the security guard of the society.

All of the factors are found in this assignment. As per the study, Karim has no money from their farm in Pakistan where fruits and vegetables were cultivated including the cultivations of the poultry. But they cannot get a healthy meal for their family members. In Pakistan. They faced economic problems, for this they migrated to the UK. In the UK, Karim is working as a cab driver. But the payment is irregular (Lehman et al. 2017).  For this, he is facing insecurity at an economic level. As they are immigrants from Pakistan, they are facing social insecurity (James and Hockey, 2017). They have no proper educational systems. Two children, Abdul and Ayesha are already admitted in the school where health is regularly checked up. From this case study, the case of unemployment is also noticed. It shows that Karim had no work in Pakistan. He was just a farmer where his wife Zainab was the housewife. It was because of this employment insecurity that Karim had decided to migrate to the United Kingdom for job opportunities. But in the United Kingdom, it shows that there are no opportunities for a new job. He got a cab driver where he was paid totally irregularly. This creates pressure on him as he is living with his wife and three children. Still now, he is facing lots of challenges in the UK. As they have no secure accommodation, and 1 bedroom is not enough for them. Beside this, unstable economic situation, they are facing the problems of the nutrition. They cannot get a proper diet. It has affected to the three children although Amina, a 1year old child, is still breastfeeding. For these difficult messy conditions, Karim is consuming alcohol to relieve the situation (Erickson and Frank, 2021). As a result, this creates conflict situations with his wife which gives rise to different diseases. Karim tried to live well, and he visited the GP for advice on how to maintain his diabetes, blood pressure as well as the cholesterol.  Due to his family problems accommodation issues and the low family income has also affected his children. 1 month old Amina cannot sleep properly due to noise.

Learning outcome -3

Issues that impact on the health wellbeing of the individual

Different factors are always influential on the health activities on an individual basis where wellbeing is also represented in negative ways.  Most of the time, health influences may be concerned with identifying the problems. The three most important social factors are the education level which always affects health. Nowadays, it is directly linked up with the income level; the economical section is an important part and it also affects your health. All types of health care should be accessed. Accommodation is also important. These factors are also an important part of the social factors (Glasby, 2017). For wellbeing is influenced through the proper economical sections, regular basis exercise, proper sleep with 8 hours’ time tables, networking with the close friends, proper diet and the happy relationships with the partnerships.

The Pakistani family is focused on the whole assignment where Karim is the main character of this case study. Karim and his family members are also facing lots of challenges after reaching London whose impacts are easily understood through the case study. These are:

  1. Economic issues

Karim is the single earning member of the family. But he has no proper educational level. He cultivated the fruits and vegetables including poultry farming in Pakistan. But that is not enough for continuing to provide for his family successfully. (Svenaeus, 2021). Already he is living with his wife and the three children. Not only this, he also sent his money to his old parents for supporting purposes. To reduce these economic problems, he migrated to the UK with his full family. He joined as a cab driver in London, UK with the local cab company.  But the fares are very irregular. For this reason, economic conditions are not stable.

Karim’s situation is unjust, like so many other people from specific populations and in similar circumstances (Lofters et al 2017)

  1. Lifestyle factors

Due to economical unstable conditions, Karim is facing problems. These are

Migration- Karim worked at the farm where a variety of fruits and vegetables are cultivated including the poultry as well as the farm productions. For this, he had no money. So, he is economically poor. For this, he migrated to London, UK. He joined as a cab driver in the local company (De Vries, 2017). Karim tried to live well for this; he visited the GP on how to maintain his diabetes, blood pressure as well as cholesterol.

  • Figure 1: Statistics of health for the migration problems
  • (Source: https://public.tableau.com, 2021)

From the above graphical view (figure 1), it shows that migration is affected to the health which was faced  by Karim after reaching Londin, UK.

Alcoholic- Karim is consuming alcohol due to the poor accommodation set up, poor economic level etc after reaching London, United Kingdom. For this, it mainly creates conflict among his wife. As a result, the economic level is decreasing day by day. For this, Karim’s family cannot get the opportunities for a full meal. Insufficient diet can also create lots of problems. The children are facing lots of this (Nazroo et al. 2020). The school nurse also checks up the diet of the children on a regular basis. The dentist should be needed due to their teeth problems due to their improper diet. Beside this, Zaiban, wife of Karim is also taking drugs at the time of the pregnancy. It helps to gain weight. Recently, Karim is facing blood pressure related issues with cholesterol issues including Diabetes.

Demographic issues- Karim and his family members originally belong to Pakistan. Due to financial factors, they migrated to the United Kingdom. After reaching the United Kingdom, there is no accommodation for them. For this they take a 1 bedroom flat on the 8th floor which is situated on the busy road. This is not enough for their five numbers of people. The girl of Karim is just 1 month old. Due to the extremely noisy conditions, she cannot sleep properly.

Figure 2: Health conditions of the different populations

(Source: https://public.tableau.com, 2021) 

It shows that (figure 2) lots of the health risks are raised. The health conditions of the Pakistani’s are are better than the others, but they faced lots of risk due to their poor economic situation. (Kube and Rozenkrantz, 2021).

Figure 3: Ethnicity, age and gender impact on diabetes in London

(Source: data.brent.gov.uk, 2021)

Different health conditions can influence the entire population, as shown in the above graphical depictions. Unhealthy lifestyles, which result in poor diets and psychological stress as a result of the strain, are among the causes of these illnesses. Nurses are attempting to take responsibility for teaching the person who is experiencing these issues and encouraging people to live healthy lifestyles at this time. The health visitors and the nurse are also responsible for delivering information on a healthy lifestyle to Karim's family. This advice may assist in preventing heart problems. Davis and Larson (Davis and Larson, 2017). Information regarding the dangers of drunkenness and drug use can also be provided.

  1. Social responsibilities

Karim is a single earning person. He cultivated the fruits and vegetables including poultry farming in Pakistan. But that is not enough for the continuing his family. Already he is living with his wife and the three children.  Not only this, he also sent his money to his old parents for supporting purposes (Audet et al. 2017). To reduce these economical problems, he migrated to the UK with his full family. He joined as a cab driver in the UK with the local cab company.


Figure 4: The impact of the migration of UK Company

(Source: www.researchgate.net, 2022)

From the above figure, it is found that lots of the economical problems are raised. During the last few years, it has impacted the UK economy. Economic development is influenced through both primary and secondary consequences of forced displacement. There seems to be no question that where immigration increases employment, overall GDP will rise. When it concerns per capita Gross domestic product, nevertheless, the picture is less straightforward. In terms of economics, proponents of repatriation say that migrants grow the economy by expanding employment levels and encouraging innovation. Opponents say that migrants damage close to the bottom employees by taking positions that may otherwise go to Working Americans or by lowering salaries for permanent resident reduced employees. Large scale immigration seems to be on the rise, and it's having a noticeable beneficial impact on native' salaries as well as occupation.  After enhancing the inventiveness, lots of the intellectual property rights per capita, which seems linked to increased productivity, seems to have been one financial incentive.

Learning outcome -4

Health risks for this individual and what possible advice and support could you as nurse give them to promote their health and wellbeing

The common health risks are individually based. These are: tobacco, smoking, consumption of alcohol in excessive intake, insufficient or unhealthy lack of exercise, intake of drugs etc. These creates lots of diseases (Davies et al. 2020). These types of the activities can cause hypertension other diseases of such as cancer, diabetes, issues related with the blood pressure, cholesterol, and obesity with its related problems.

In this case study, it also showed that Karim has no money from their own farming where he is continuing with his own family as well as supporting their parents.

It shows that different health issues can affect the whole population. The reasons for these conditions include unhealthy lifestyles, resulting in insufficient diets and psychological stress due to the strain. At this time, nurses try to take responsibility for educating the person faced with these problems and encourage people to maintain healthy lifestyles. In the case of the Karim's family, the health visitors as well as the nurse are also responsible for providing information about a healthy this advice may help prevent cardiac problems. (Davis and Larson, 2017). Information can also be given about the risks of alcoholism and drug taking.

For nursing strategies, it shows that behavioral strategies are one of the important strategies. It may focus on the change of the behavior. As a result, patience has increased. Not only this, the nursing intervention is also focused on the community. It also focuses on the initiations of public health. But all of the intervention strategies are correlated with others. All are interdependent in nature. The nursing professionals' main motto is to improve the health of the individual as well as the community.

Intervention strategies

Intervention strategies are also important which are provided by the nurse as well as the health visitors. In order to support patients that need this help, counseling is the most appropriate strategy. Counseling can help with the emotions and other issues although patience may be required. (Aldrich and Johnson, 2021). Intervention strategies include a good assessment and diagnosis, proper planning how to resolve the problems and an evaluation of the situation.

The whole case study is focused on Karim and his family. They are originally Pakistani. From Pakistan. After reaching the United Kingdom, they are faced with economic issues, accommodation issues, insufficient diet, social issues etc. These are not faced in Pakistan. In Pakistan, Karim has his own farming ground as well as the cultivation land. For this, they had no money, but they got the proper meal (Raphael and Bryant, 2019). They had proper accommodation. In the United Kingdom, they have no proper accommodation. They are living in a 1 bedroom with 5 members. For reducing mental stress, the subject of this case study is taking alcohol. As a result, it creates blood pressure issues as well as cholesterol problems. For this, the GP suggests the health visitors check the health conditions of the whole family members. Zainab is also addicted to drugs (Feuston and Piper, 2018). Intervention strategies are also important to reduce their stress, reduce premature death and promote how to develop a healthy lifestyle. Different types of intervention strategies are required to improve the planning of how to reduce the risks to their health. For betterment of the health conditions of Karim and his family members, behavioral counseling of individual level is one of the important factors. Not only this, the reduction of smoking is also needed. Karim and his family should be needed

  1. Individual level of the behavioral counseling
  2. Cognitive behavioral therapy
  3. Regular basis exercise and the meditation


The assignment is mainly focused on Karim's family who are originally Pakistani, but they have lived in the UK for the last 3 years. The problems experienced by this family show how wellbeing and health risks can occur due to inequalities in circumstances.Karim is facing lots of problems in his personal life with his wife and his three children. They faced mainly economic issues as well as lifestyle factors and social responsibilities. As a result, mental disorder conditions are created. Karim tried to live well, and he visited the GP for advice on how to control his diabetes blood pressure as well as the cholesterol. Karim’s problems following his migration have caused alcohol issues including demographic issues which have also affected the situation. Common health risks are based on an individual basis.

 Factors which can affect health are tobacco, smoking, and consumption of alcohol in excessive intake, insufficient amount of diet, insufficient exercise, intake of drugs etc. Which can cause lots of diseases which could have been preventable. It is very important that healthcare professionals support people in order to promote their health and wellbeing.



Aldrich, R.S. and Johnson, J.M.Q., (2021). Mental Health, Mental Illness, and Suicide. The Routledge Handbook of Health Communication, pp.63-76.

Audet, M., Dumas, A., Binette, R. and Dionne, I.J., (2017). Women, weight, poverty and menopause: understanding health practices in a context of chronic disease prevention. Sociology of health & illness, 39(8), pp.1412-1426.

Davies, L., LeClair, K.L., Bagley, P., Blunt, H., Hinton, L., Ryan, S. and Ziebland, S., (2020). Face-to-face compared with online collected accounts of health and illness experiences: A scoping review. Qualitative Health Research, 30(13), pp.2092-2102.

Davis, M.E. and Larson, K.L., (2017). Responding to the Mayan Understanding of Health and Illness.

De Vries, H., (2017). An integrated approach for understanding health behavior; the I-change model as an example. Psychol Behav Sci Int J, 2(2), pp.555-585.

Erickson, P.I. and Frank, C.A., (2021). Cultural Variations in the Experience of Health and Illness. The SAGE Handbook of Social Studies in Health and Medicine, p.19.

Feuston, J.L. and Piper, A.M., (2018). Beyond the coded gaze: Analyzing expression of mental health and illness on Instagram. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, 2(CSCW), pp.1-21.

Glasby, J., (2017). Understanding health and social care. Policy Press.

James, A. and Hockey, J., 2017. Embodying health identities. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Kube, T. and Rozenkrantz, L., (2021). When beliefs face reality: An integrative review of belief updating in mental health and illness. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 16(2), pp.247-274.

Lehman, B.J., David, D.M. and Gruber, J.A., (2017). Rethinking the biopsychosocial model of health: Understanding health as a dynamic system. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 11(8), p.e12328.

Mandiü, K. and Pavloviü, K., (2020). Resilience in health and illness. Psychiatria Danubina, 32(2), pp.226-232.

Nazroo, J.Y., Bhui, K.S. and Rhodes, J., (2020). Where next for understanding race/ethnic inequalities in severe mental illness? Structural, interpersonal and institutional racism. Sociology of health & illness, 42(2), pp.262-276.

Nowakowski, A.C. and Sumerau, J.E., (2019). Reframing health and illness: a collaborative autoethnography on the experience of health and illness transformations in the life course. Sociology of health & illness, 41(4), pp.723-739.

Raphael, D. and Bryant, T., (2019). Political economy perspectives on health and health care. Staying Alive: Critical Perspectives on Health, Illness, and Health Care, 3rd edn. Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc, pp.61-83.

Svenaeus, F., (2021). Health and Illness as Enacted Phenomena. Topoi, pp.1-10.

Uchino, B.N. and Rook, K.S., 2020. Emotions, relationships, health and illness into old age. Maturitas, 139, pp.42-48.

Wadhwani, R.D., (2018). Poverty's monument: Social problems and organizational field emergence in historical perspective. Journal of Management Studies, 55(3), pp.545-577.


Workneh, T., Emirie, G., Kaba, M., Mekonnen, Y. and Kloos, H., (2018). Perceptions of health and illness among the Konso people of southwestern Ethiopia: persistence and change. Journal of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine, 14(1), pp.1-9.

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