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Personal Development, Health and Physical Education: Key Issues and Strategies

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Introduction: PDHPE Curriculum Design and Student Motivation

Personal Development, Health and Physical Education (PDHPE) is an essential subject in the education process and almost every country considers this module in the learning process. The concept of this subject is to deliver information regarding practices of physical exercise and guidelines for health maintenance to be fit in life. Every student needs this basic information to continue this culture throughout their entire career to maintain physical fitness and this fitness can deliver adequate support in completing their activities by providing energy in their tasks. This report includes issues and mitigation strategies in this learning process. In addition, this report aims to deliver future development processes in PDHPE in the education sector to enable every child and student in developing cognitive and physical skills in their career. 

Key aims of education and training in “Personal Development, Health and Physical Education”

Training and development process in the significant area is associated with improving knowledge-based and skill sets that contribute to making a person expert. Training in “Personal Development, Health and Physical Education” aims to improve capability and effectiveness in different areas of learning such as sports, and health developments concerning the physical, mental, and social skills of students. Apart from that, it can be stated that training and developments in “Personal Development, Health and Physical Education'' emphasise improving the “wholesome development of personality”.“Wholesome development of personality” is associated with Physical development, mental development and Social Development (Mbbcollege.in, 2021). Being an expert in a particular subject namely “Personal Development, Health and Physical Education '' is associated with meditation, participating in different activities, and learning about physical activities and human health. 

This training focuses on encouraging intellectual development, emotional development, physical and health development, character development, Neuro-muscular development, Positive health with Physical fitness and improving the personality of a learner. Moreover, the main objectives of this educational training process are associated with increased emotional value, mental relaxation, and Moral development with social and physical understanding important for personal development concerning psychological and physical fitness. As researched by Quested et al. (2021), developing motor skill is a significant aim of training regarding “Personal Development, Health and Physical Education” that contribute to increasing learning value in regular exercise, physical activities such as accolades, dance, sports and social interaction and different social activities that help to improve social skill, ethical behaviour, and the cooperative tendency of learners. 

Philosophical issues relating to education and training in “Personal Development, Health and Physical Education”

 Philosophical aspects of physical education involve different key elements such as Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism, Naturalism, Existentialism, Humanism and Eclecticism. In these aspects, Idealism is concerned with developing knowledge-based through improving understanding and inspiring candidates to participate in different physical activities. Realism focuses on creating knowledge based on factual aspects to improve the personal feelings of the learner. Naturalism is concerned with encouraging the historic development of learners and individual personal qualities. As opined by Benton et al. (2020), existentialism helps to encourage teamwork and the participation tendency of learners. Pragmatism is associated with creating different events and programs based on p physical activities for influencing the intelligence of participants that includes personality, mental and social growth of learners. Eclecticism involves approaching rigidity in the learning process by following a significant paradigm in the learning process as well as Humanism helps to improve feelings and social skills concerning the transformation of physical function and social involvements. Following those aspects by a learner to provide proper training is responsible for making the learning process more complex for trainers as well as learners. 

Moreover, the philosophical approach leads to the disposition to inquiries as well as cultivating curiosity that can affect the moral thesis of the learning process. As stated by Kryshtanovych et al.(2021), the philosophy of physical education is associated with different programs including physical activities for physical development, meditation for mental development, and social interaction to improve social skills as well as motor skills for increasing learning value and concern of learners. The inclusion of different programmes in this learning process is responsible for creating complexity in the learning process that leads to making the teaching process difficult and improper. A combination of physical, mental and social skills in Personal Development, Health and Physical Education” requires a more specialised coaching facility to become an expert in a particular area of this subject such as dance, meditation, yoga and sports. 

Aims and structure of key qualifications in “Personal Development, Health and Physical Education”

The key aim of specialists in Personal Development, Health and Physical Education” is to provide knowledge and skill regarding physical, mental and social skills and make them mentally, physically, and emotionally fit. This learning process developed by PPE specialists contributes to improving social and personal qualities through increasing health awareness and interest in physical activity among learners. As cited by Maksymchuk et al. (2020), PE specialists emphasise boosting physical competence and knowledge about safety measures in social life through conducting different physical activities that contribute to building a healthy and active lifestyle in society. PE specialists can be classified as secondary and primary level concerning their qualifications and expatriates in this area. Secondary-level ex-pats play a crucial role as a supervisor during practising different physical activities by diverse learners and primary-level specialists emphasise providing proper training and understanding for students in significant areas. The required qualification for being an expert in “Personal Development, Health and Physical Education'' is associated with athletic ability, good communication skills, strong ability to inspire and motivate, problem-solving capability, and adequate knowledge about the human body. Becoming a PE trainer and specialist involves requirements of different qualifications that include either undergraduate or postgraduate in the subject of the “Personal Development, Health and Physical Education '' level.

Study and qualification of trainers and specialists have to include sports-related degrees namely “Sports Coaching and Physical Education degree” and Postgraduate Certificate of Education '' concerning the primary and secondary status of educational qualification in this particular area (Bcu.ac.uk, 2022). BA (Hons) in “Secondary Physical Education'' and qualifying for a QTS degree is beneficial for achieving recognition as a specialist in “PDHPE''. Secondary-level specialists have a detailed knowledge of a different range of sports namely, football, netball, rugby, basketball, athletics, hockey, as well as swimming comparing the understanding and capability of primary-level specialists. Increasing knowledge and skill set is associated with completing a QTS degree and “Secondary Physical Education'' that helps to represent secondary level trainers concerning qualification and teaching posts in training centres as well as the different institutes. Apart from that, it can be identified that graduation and post graduation in “PDHPE” are important for becoming specialists and increasing prosaically knowledge-based. Moreover, a QTS degree and “Secondary Physical Education'' helps to improve your level as a PE specialist concerning the development of knowledge depth. 

Structures and aims of learning programmes

The aims of the learning programmes related to “Personal Development, Health and Physical Education (PDHPE)” are to keep the students free-minded and active listening process. As opined by Kennedy et al. (2019), “Resistance Training for Teens” has been developing the cultures of physical activity that have focused on “Promoting resistance training (RT)” in adolescents. Teachers have also been provided with training facilities in multiple ranges of specific subjects related to improvements of background information and improvements of developments modules have been considered one of them. Thus, explorations of intervention reaching, effectiveness, adaptations, maintenance and implementations have been also sustainability conducted by using the method related to “RE-AIM” effectively.

In contradiction, Young et al. (2021), have argued that the “Physical Literacy (PL)” assessments have created a precise concept regarding the continuous developments rates of task identifications and making acknowledgements activities by generating the values regarding the multiple ranges of values of H/PE and PL by improved the skills developments activities. Thus, it can be stated that the reason behind providing the training facility among the students is to maintain a healthy life and develop a culture of flexibility. Besides that, the improvements in movement proficiency and the presence of sport spirit cultures by having sound sleep and appetite have also been treated as other objectives that have been improving the cultures of fitness and growing cultures. The determination of the “Personal Development, Health and Physical Education (PDHPE)” is to physically literate people with skills, knowledge infrastructures and confidence for enjoying lifetime accuracy and improving the cultures of physical activity.

Approach for preparation and planning for the delivery of a learning programme

Analysed the learning techniques there have been four ranges of learning styles that have been followed by the teachers for maintained the accuracy of the learners and improve the cultures of teaching professions. As stated by Roberts et al. (2021), Reductionist approaches have been conducted in the operational progress by improving the “Physical Literacy (PL)” to make an understanding of platforms by improving the cultures of comprehensive platforms by integrating the physical learning modules. Furthermore, the integration of Physical Literacy has improved by taking the help of the “Teaching Literacy in Physical Education (PE)”. However, other approaches related to “Game Sense (GS)”, and “Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU)” have analysed the problematic issues and maintained professionalism by underpinning the technological advancements sustainability. In this regard, the development of performance modules “Constraint-Led Approach (CLA)” the chances of sport pedagogy have created assessments by making a wider range of developments in the different kinds of aspects related to “Autonomous Individuals, Intelligent and Application of Physical Education” have been also treated one of them.

However, Nathan et al. (2021) have argued that the interventions of “Multi-component school-based physical activity (PA)” have developed the cultures of PA and “Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF)”. The absenteeism of complex natures related to interventions have delivered the scales and the impacts of sizes that have effectively diminished and modified the school uniforms the chances of enabled activities can be also getting’s successful in enhancing the student's health conditions. Therefore, the improvements in data collection have been allowed the students in grades 9-12 by making existing sports uniforms and providing two additional shirts and sports around one pair of shorts. As opined by Dinham and Williams (2019), the effects of health have been maintained the lifestyles and making attention on children by developing the cultures of physical literacy and improving the multiple ranges of attributes related to cognitive, social, physiological, expressive, and cultural and performance ratio. Therefore, the ultimate range of reliable information and improvements in commitments and confidence modules can create beneficial aspects by boosting the environmental sectors and generating skills.

Approaches for preparation and planning

According to Mavilidiet al. (2018), “Personal Development, Health and Physical Education (PDHPE) have been required to improve the cultures of success rates, that can be modified, and adapting the ultimate ranges of succession ratios based on abilities. In addition, the chances of the development of safe working places and delivery of instructions of varieties of ways by selected relevant literature have been sustainably conducted by enhancing the disabilities. The multiple ranges of subjects related to cognitive, physical activity and learning modules have created an establishment for increased rates of learning modules and generated the skills by making an epidemic culture. It has also been briefly considered into four kinds of attributes related to “Post-intervention- cognition, task behaviour and learning outcomes related to grammar and spellings”. Besides that, the development of “Task behaviours related to working memory and cognition and Results” has also been enhancing the ultimate ranges of children’s educational outcomes. The rates of physical activities and developments of prevention rates have been effectively considered by making a stronger range of differences and improving the cultures of optimism by removing the barriers regarding cultural and physical barriers. Analysed the graph it can be stated that in the year 2015, the rates of “Primary PE Specialisation (through new initial Teacher Training” are 40% and “In post Continued Professional Development (CPD)” rates have been transformed by nearly 29% in the UK [Refer to appendix 1]. The rate of “Secondary PE Specialisations” is 16%, “Specific Coaching Qualifications are 6%, “Experienced Teachers”-2% and “Others” have been nearly considered at 6%.

However, Ricci et al. (2022) have argued that the situation of the Pandemic “Middle Eastern (ME)” has made a responsive culture and improved the culture of lifestyles by adolescents the lifestyles and collection of valuable opinions effectively. Along with that, effective ranges of usages related to the “Motivation-Behaviour model” have improved the cultures of performance rates and boosted confidence rates. The ultimate ranges of engagement opportunities and improvements of physical opportunities have been also sustainably considered by the creation of participatory frameworks and removing the barriers of cultural attributes (Milleret al. 2018). Thus, the continuous development rates of independent mobility have created a greater range of comparison between the expressing interest and social environments. 

3.2 Planning and preparation of learning programme in (PDHPE) for taking account of new and emerging technologies and critical curriculum issues

Priority issues of health and well-being of the UK include the health inequities experienced by certain members and groups of society, the ageing and growing population, and the increasing rate of morbidity due to chronic illness. Eliminating inequity in well-being and health services, promoting diversity and inclusiveness and establishing a supportive environment are three necessary changes that need to be incorporated to eliminate social issues. There is alarmingly high diabetes and injury incidence among the 15-24 years age group. It is an example of social inequity in the health and well-being of the UK population. Multiculturalism in the societies of the UK has significantly different statuses of health and causes health priority issues. People with low socioeconomic backgrounds have high-risk factors related to diseases like elevated levels of cholesterol, high levels of blood pressure etc. 

According to Tinning, 2018 physical education is important for the construction of knowledge, dissemination and legitimating. It also helps to engage ideology, culture and power critically and taking account, the issue related to opportunity equality, gender equity, diversity, unjust practices and multiculturalism. Transformative pedagogy in the school curriculum of personal development, Health and Physical Education is an effective approach to dealing with the issues related to health and personal development issues. Transformative pedagogy has two changing dimensions that are social change and personal change. With the assumption that individual empowerment can lead to the entire transformation of society in a more equitable, democratic and social approach, the transformative pedagogy contains discourse communities of critical pedagogy, critical teaching, critical action research, critical enquiry, critical reflection and liberator pedagogy. 

Physical education is recently repositioned in the academy curriculum in many governments, most frequently within more extensive configurations of knowledge of school level such as ‘health and wellbeing’. This requirement and repositioning for teachers of physical education to function with unexplored subject matter exceeding games and sports has assembled risk but also extended new opportunities for critical pedagogy in precarious and turbulent times. In the present rising age of precarity, the younger generation in their variousness encounters some identical threats as they guide their route to adulthood, including the usual pains and aches of growing up, depression, obesity, disturbance of body image, self-harming, social media abuse, cyber bullying and homophobic violence. In such context, there is accelerating attention since the past decade among researchers of physical education for enduring problems such as well-being and health among the younger generation (Quennerstedt, 2019). In addition, associated matters such as inspiration, coping and resilience (Lang et al. 2017), the image of own physique (Kerner et al. 2019), and perseverance of physical competence (Bardid et al. 2016). Every health-related issue that are being discussed here have significant dimensions of effectiveness in terms of emotions, values and attitudes of children and the young generation.

Ways of meeting the need of individual learners through learning and teaching resources including new and emerging technologies

“Effective learning” has been viewed as a fair aspiration for the programme of PDHPE but commonly as a by-product that is hoped-for relatively more than an intentionally and directly pursued development. Nevertheless, current interventions in PDHPE have assessed various elements of affective learning as straightforward outcomes of the school curriculum. These interventions of pedagogy represent learning in the domain that is effective as straight intended learning outcomes of PDHPE can be described as“pedagogies of effect” (Kirk, 2020). There are several studies related to meeting the need of individual learners through learning and teaching resources. Teraoka et al. (2020), found transformations in students’ affective development including motivation, positive attitudes and fun towards their peers through various approaches that are game-centred such as the “Teaching Games for Understanding” and “Tactical Games Model”. A review of interventions of motivational climate adopting the “TARGET framework (i.e., task, authority, recognition, grouping, evaluation and time)” revealed that there were favourable effects on affective developments such as enjoyment and attitude (Teraoka et al. 2020). These studies demonstrated that pedagogical programs and models can favourably influence “effective learning” in the PDHPE curriculum. Multiple reviews have studied the efficacy of “school-based interventions on psychological variables” such as enjoyment and motivation in influential learning of PDHPE and fulfilling the need of individual learners. In order to understand the reason and process of occurrence of effective learning through the programme of intervention, it is crucial to provide details on all elements of pedagogy (i.e., “curriculum, learning, teaching, and assessment”). The alignment of lesson content and teaching is able to influence effective learning. 

Inclusiveness of own use of teaching and learning resources in Personal Development, Health and Physical Education (PDHPE)

Young individuals are an exhilarating and diverse gathering and their capacity to embrace an active and healthy lifestyle is affected by the cultural and social experience they obtain at their school. PDHPE has a crucial role in obliging all young individuals to address these impacts and in safeguarding, encouraging and revitalising their soundness. It also helps in their awareness of inequities and the significance of fostering inclusiveness and creating a community that is sustainable for all people. For making the learning outcomes inclusive, the learning areas should be identical. Students will understand a sense of “self, adolescence and change”, the origins of emotional support and the spirit of caring and positive relationships. Students will scour the components of the composition in the course of developing and refining skills of movement in various contexts, in teams and in individuals. Students will consider the lifestyle balance and the significance of physical training and its numerous benefits. Students will learn to successfully take part in a vast range of exercises and to embrace roles that facilitate a more vibrant community. Students will learn about distinctive health issues like mental health, sexual health, road safety healthy food habits and drug use. They will examine threats, services, products, and the process of accessing health information.

Collaboration of own practice with specialist areas for developing own practice

This collaboration of own practice and skill is useful in specialist subjects such as Personal development, health and physical education (PDHPE) for improving practices enforced by organisations and developing better transmission and coordination within the education process among all learners. In some countries, subjects are taught during primary school only and it is important to have these subjects in higher classes as well for developing own practice. The effective and qualified performance of PE under specialised teachers could offer opportunities to young people in a healthy and fit way (D'Elia, 2020). Nowadays, there is growing interest in initiatives and innovative activities for the professional self-development of teachers in areas like sports and physical education. A teacher needs to liaise psychological characteristics by two core approaches such as typological and institutional approaches in their practice concerning this specialist area. Studying the relevance of psychological aspects for specialist sport and physical education is not mutually exclusive. The development of capability for innovation and concerning issues for particular sensitives and professional changes, with quadratic deviation and diagnosis specialists in physical education is significant in own practice for a specialist teacher. In the UK, the prevailing conservative style is adopted by more than 61% of teachers for readiness to take risks and take judgement as well while focusing on personal and professional self-development (Palamarchuk et al. 2020). Teaching activities should be oriented related to the upgrade of experiences of the teacher’s practice for teaching and developing body language must be acknowledged as an effective language to express himself and a student may be aware of the concern of issues the person wants to deliver. Among school sports policies, transformational value is also important in allowing teachers to independently carry out sports and physical education (D'Elia, 2020). Through, the collaboration between the school and family, all teachers need to agree that thoughts about technical methods and teaching practice are necessary for their own practice and that would be effective for child development. 

Impact of liaison with other teachers and trainers within own specialist area and own practice

The lack of studies concerning ways and conditions of self-development is an area of concern in this specialist area for a teacher and collaboration with another teacher can effectively solve problems for teachers and trainers. Confounding this dissimilarity is possible by facilitating “high-level psychological readiness with specialists in physical education and sport for professional self-development” and their proficiency to innovate. In this way, significant connections have been found for trainers in developing their practice such as communication and building high-innovation and low-innovation group ideas. Physical education helps in maintaining fitness and develops effective mental and physical health. It develops personal training skills and helps in building skills for collaborating with sports academic and local sports clubs. This subject helps maintain a good relationship with famous sports clubs and various sports academics. This connection provides opportunities for students and faculties to attain a speciality in gaining skills and perfection. The teacher needs to maintain a relationship with a specialist sports teacher who has an idea of how to communicate with young people, maintain their body structure. In addition, engage in a team for concerning tasks are delivered to them and solve them effectively to identify, the current level of an emotionally tense situation, and individual difficulties experienced regarding stress, the specialist teacher may take the help of a psychological teacher to realise a negative attitude towards sustainable and efficient self-development prevails (Palamarchuk et al. 2020). In overcoming discrepancy, the desirable and actual value is important for a student and understanding changes in future professional process reasoning is revealed in understanding. In this way, Mathematics teachers play an important role by taking the help of numerical data of people who participated in listening practice. Concerning the behaviour of students is necessary and that can be delivered with the help of proper statistical data and help in this professional and particular teaching field in a specialist area. 

Effectiveness of individual knowledge and skills in a specialist area

The learning programme is a constructivist educational approach needed in a specialist area to deliver solutions to a particular problem. Personality theory is concerned with the paramount everlasting importance to adopt complex problems. Personal development, health and physical education is an effective specialist subject and as a specialist teacher assisting the student in a classroom to manage influences and promote their health self-knowledge and skills are required for building a community (Huntershd-h.schools.nsw.gov.au, 2022). The curriculum related to this subject plays an important role that helps in enhancing connectedness and resilience. As young people are an exhilarating and diverse group that is influenced by cultural and social experiences and as a specialist teacher, it is important to have a good knowledge of social and cultural experiences. Friendship and relationships with students are necessary for a teacher in this as students mainly face tackles in their life related to puberty, smoking, alcohol and drug consumption and self-esteem as well as child welfare. In this way, in the personal development program, while teaching a lesson, an active lifestyle is necessary for a teacher and incorporating it into health and physical activity can be considered in a significant way. It is also important to be aware of collaboration skills for exploring a movement's potential in a way of team sports explore all issues that affect their lives and deliver them good People for the future as well. Skills related to communication, problem-solving interacting and planning and moving are necessary for me while teaching expertise in a specialist subject. Achieving sound training is a must-have skill in the physical education area for values across a range of careers. Fitness choices, ongoing participation and fundamental movements are a range of physical activities and as a specialist teacher team play, tactics, and focusing on techniques is an important range of knowledge required. 

Identify own strengths and areas for improvement

I was recently appointed as a specialist inPersonal Development, Health and Physical Education (PDHPE) in a well-established and reputed organisation. The organisation focuses on getting creativity and motivation in the learning process to enhance students. The organisation put the responsibility on me to deliver subjective knowledge to continue with a quality assurance framework in the learning process. Therefore, focusing area of the organisation is to identify students’ knowledge and skills throughout the entire annual session and to measure the skills and development of students in their career journey. Identifying self-strength is required to continue the learning process as this can show needed development in the career. The capability of interpersonal skills in this learning process and movement skills can deliver information regarding flexibility (Balgowlaht-p.schools.nsw.gov.au, 2022). I prefer to stand as a mentor by being an active listener to identify everyone’s learning and personal career issues. This can help a teacher to develop relationships with others and problem-solving abilities in anyone’s career. According to de Vlieger et al. (2019), this research included information regarding the benefits of a healthy diet for students and children and included that this can develop their learning capabilities and well-being, which can contribute to performance development in the learning process. This research included that interventions can play an effective role in developing healthy lifestyles and behaviours of children in society. 

A career needs to identify developing parameters that can provide support in developing accuracy and grabbing opportunities in a career. I analyse that, I need to improve my management skills and update my knowledge in PDHPE to develop the ability to share current information with every student. Management skills have a great requirement in the learning process as various aged pupils show different natures in their behaviour. For example, some students like to practice physical exercise and sports and follow a daily diet routine to maintain their health, whereas some students show distractive nature and do not continue the daily practice of exercise and health routine. Therefore, managing every different type of student can be a challenging role and management skills show great demand in this place. According to Lambert et al. (2021), curriculum policy and artefacts can deliver effective support in managing personal development and health activities in the learning process. Artefactual development can deliver effective support in developing skills and physical ability to a wide community. Management skills include various types such as relationship management, planning, prioritisation, cognitive knowledge and critical thinking skills. I, therefore, focus on developing planning and critical thinking skills to continue with an effective physical learning process in this education sector and this can help in developing student attention in exercise and knowledge in diet routine. 

Identification of opportunities to improve and update knowledge and skills

The organisation has great management as everyone in the hierarchy supports each other to complete individual activities. According to Althubayt (2018), sports lessons cannot provide enough information regarding physical activity and students can get enough information about reducing obesity. The continuation of effective physical education provision can develop students’ theoretical results, extracurricular activities and traditional physical workouts to develop health. The ongoing and decreasing physical ability proficiency of students consider a global concern and participation in physical exercise is a decline in the learning process (Mavilidi et al. 2019). Therefore, a wide requirement for physical education is present to develop health to reduce chronic illness in people. The opportunity can come in terms of learning wider information from various departments in the organisation and this information can be learning-centric, behaviour-centric, student-centric and teaching-centric. As a fresher in the educational sector, a teacher needs to communicate with every departmental teacher to identify student behaviour and learning capability. Every teacher can have a wide variety of comments and this can deliver identification and strategic foundation to learn a wide range of students with ease. In addition, subjective knowledge such as nutrition, psychology, statistics and sports activity, these can deliver effective support in developing personal skills to maintain students in a classroom. The teacher can develop managerial skills and communication skills by communicating with the management of the organisation and can deliver effective support in managing critical issues in the learning process and personal career. In addition, the teacher can develop the physical ability of self through practising regularly with students in every physical education class and can develop experience in this field to get opportunities to develop self-career. 


Physical development, health and physical education (PDHPE) deliver effective support in constructing the physical ability and health of a person. This practice is considered a mandatory learning process in every educational sector in the UK as declining physical ability created so many issues for people. This report includes information regarding issues in a child’s health and physical ability and overall issues from a physical perspective in a community. This also delivers information regarding the impact of physical development, diet routine and physical exercise in developing lifestyles and behaviour of students or people. This report includes teacher perspective information by delivering strength, needed development and opportunities in the education sector. This report wants to deliver future scope for further development of this research. 



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