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Global Health And Sustainability Assignment

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The purpose

This briefing paper’s objectives are to present a thorough analysis of diabetes in the United Kingdom and to consider the potential solution to the problems this disease presents. To improve the health conditions of the persons affected by diabetes in the UK, this paper aims to inform people and organisations about the seriousness of diabetes and to motivate them to take necessary actions. Diabetes is a crucial public health issue, affecting over “4.1 million individuals and paying for 10% of the NHS spending” (Stoye and Zaranko, 2019). Thus “chronic condition” has the potential to cause serious health diseases, stroke, blindness and kidney failure. Regrettably, the prevalence of diabetes has increased recently and is projected to do so in the UK for the foreseeable future.

In the United Kingdom diabetes is a miscellaneous problem with lifestyle, genetics and socioeconomic all playing a role in its development assignment and management assignment. Furthermore, there are notable differences in the frequency and outcome of diabetes across other demographic subgroups, with members of racial and ethnic minorities and those who reside in impoverished regions being disproportionately impacted. According to a study, the age distribution of people diagnosed with “type 1 diabetes in England in 2020/21”. during this period, “roughly 40% of those diagnosed with type 1 diabetes” were between the “ages of 40 and 64” (Statista.com, 2023). A multifaceted strategy that includes diabetes prevention, identification and care is necessary to address the issues associated with the illness in the UK. Preventive measures like encouraging healthy lifestyles and addressing health disparities should concentrate on lowering the prevalence of risk factors.

A summary of the facts


The "UK" has gone through a long history of serious diabetes-related health problems. Diabetes was first recognised in the "UK" in 1934, according to records (Diabetes.org.uk, 2009). The "UK" government recognised diabetes as a serious public health issue and as a result, the NHS's first-ever “diabetes programme” was introduced. Through the provision of specialised care, raising “diabetes awareness” and funding research, this programme sought to enhance the treatment of diabetes. New therapeutic alternatives, like oral medicines, were accessible throughout the ensuing few decades. “Diabetes” comes in a variety of kinds, with types 1 and 2 being the most prevalent. An autoimmune condition known as "Type 1 diabetes" develops when the immune system inaccurately targets and kills the pancreatic cells that make insulin. Due to the lack of the hormone insulin, which controls blood sugar levels, type 1 diabetics must take insulin injections continuously. 10% of all “diabetes cases” are "Type 1 diabetes", which often develops in infancy or adolescence (Cdc.gov, 2023). This states that people are less affected by “diabetes 1”.

Contrarily, "Type 2 diabetes" is a metabolic illness that develops when the body stops producing enough insulin or becomes resistant to it. High blood sugar levels result from this, which increases the risk of significant problems like heart disease, kidney disease and blindness. About 95% of all occurrences of “diabetes” are “type 2”, making it the most prevalent kind (Who. int, 2023). It is frequently connected to lifestyle elements like obesity, inactivity and poor eating habits. Effective “diabetes management” and prevention require a thorough understanding of the various forms of “diabetes” and its prevalence. The burden of diabetes-related complications must be reduced to improve overall health outcomes and "Type 2 diabetes" in particular is a major public health concern. “Diabetes prevalence” in the "UK" increased quickly in the 2000s, with "Type 2 diabetes" being on the rise. A lifestyle change, such as being sedentary more often and eating poorly, was associated with this rise. NHS launched a program for “type-2 diabetes” in 2015 (England.nhs.uk, 2018). England had got national recognition as they were the first to offer such a kind of “type 2 diabetes” avoidance program.

The rise in the percentage of “diabetes patients” in the "UK" is followed by several adverse conditions. The largest risk factor is corpulence, with 80-85% of people being overweight. Sedentary behaviour raises the risk of "Type 2 diabetes" by up to 40%, making physical inactivity another important risk factor (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2014). Another risk factor for “diabetes” is age, with an increase in the likelihood of having the disease as people get older. “Type 2 diabetes” is more likely to strike people over the age of 45, but children and young people are also getting affected by it (Cdc.gov 2023). 4.9 million individuals in the "UK" are currently living with diabetes, with "Type 2 diabetes" accounting for about 90% of cases, according to Diabetes UK (Diabetes.org.uk, 2023). With almost 700 new cases of “diabetes” being identified every day, the prevalence of the disease is rising. A frightening 13.6 million people in the "UK" are now at increased risk of getting “Type 2 diabetes” (Diabetes.org.uk, 2023). Over 800000 people in the "UK" are thought to be living with “diabetes” who have not yet been diagnosed (Diabetes.org.uk, 2023). With millions of people affected by the disease and a sizable number at risk, these data demonstrate the concerning “growth of diabetes” in the "UK" and demonstrate the urgent need for preventative and management measures.

Over the past century, “diabetes management” in the "UK" has undergone tremendous change. Insulin was developed in the early 1900s as a cure for "Type 1 diabetes", which was previously thought to be fatal (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2012). A new strategy was introduced to prevent the rise of diabetes-related problems like heart problems. This strategy needed a newer way in terms of “diabetes management”. This strategy included changes in lifestyle, eating habits, exercise and some changes in medication too. Education about diabetes was also a focus of this strategy. In today’s era, the application of newer technology is the main focus to prevent this disease. It includes technologies like “glucose monitoring systems” and “insulin pumps” which helps to control diabetes. These technologies help people to keep track of the disease effectively and keep improving their health.

Current Status:

“Diabetes” has become a common “chronic condition” in “the UK” today. Over 4 million people are facing critical issues in “the UK” from diabetes, and more than “100,000 are believed” to be “undiagnosed” (Alkundi et al., 2020). “Type 2 diabetes”, which affects the majority of individuals. “Diabetes” is typically linked to poor lifestyle decisions such as an “unhealthy diet” and “insufficient exercise”. Diabetes is a chronic ailment that, if not properly managed, can cause "catastrophic complications". An estimated “700 people die” "prematurely” from “diabetes” every week, and the number of cases rises every year (Diabetes.org.uk, 2023). Population ageing and rising obesity rates are two factors contributing to this. Several factors contribute to diabetes in “the UK”. “850,000 people” currently have “Type 2 diabetes” but have not received a diagnosis (Diabetes.org.uk, 2023). A diet rich in “salt”, “sugar” and “saturated fats” can raise the risk of “Type 2” diabetes. Leading a “sedentary life” can increase your risk of “Type 2 diabetes”. “Type 2” diabetes risk may be increased by a “family history” of the disease. Those “over 40” are at a higher risk of getting “Type 2 diabetes” than those under 40. People with “Type 2 diabetes” are more likely to come from certain “ethnic groups”, including “the UK”. “Insulin resistance” associated with obesity, which may also raise the risk of pre-diabetes and “Type 2” diabetes, is one of the main causes of “Polycystic Ovary Syndrome” or “PCOS” (Diabetes.co.uk, 2019). Women who experience “gestational diabetes” are more likely to go on to have “Type 2 diabetes” in the future.

“Type 1 diabetes", which results from the immune system attacking and destroying the “insulin-producing cells” in the “pancreas”, and “Type 2 diabetes”, which is brought on by a mix of hereditary and environmental factors, are the two main kinds of diabetes. Various things can be done to lessen the situation. It's important to inform people about diabetes and the risk factors that go along with it by “creating awareness”. It has been warned that unless the government significantly increases its investment in prevention programs, up to one in ten persons in “the UK” might acquire diabetes “by 2030” (Bmj.com, 2021). Healthy lifestyle promotion campaigns can aid in delaying the onset of “Type 2 diabetes” and promoting early detection. Increasing “access to healthcare” is important since problems from diabetes can be avoided by managing the disease early on. Expanding access to medical services like diabetes assistance and screening can improve people's ability to effectively manage their illnesses. “Promoting healthy habits” like regular exercise and a balanced diet can help people avoid developing “Type 2 diabetes”. “Since 1994”, more people have had diabetes diagnosed by a clinician, rising from “2% to 7% in 2019” (Healthsurvey.hscic.gov.uk, 2019). People with diabetes need “constant help” to adequately manage their illness. People with diabetes can control their condition and avoid complications by having access to “education”, “self-management tools”, and “support networks”. “Funding for research” should be increased because finding a cure for diabetes and its consequences will require better treatments. This research may be supported by increased financing.

In “the UK”, diabetes is a chronic disorder that affects millions of individuals, and managing it requires constant care. The “COVID-19 pandemic” has significantly affected diabetic management, and there have been multiple setbacks in “the UK's” efforts to mitigate this problem (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2022). The pandemic's impact on healthcare services' availability has been one of the major disruptions. “Appointments and screenings” for diabetic patients have been delayed or cancelled as a result of many hospitals and clinics being forced to restrict or cease non-essential activities to concentrate on handling the pandemic. This has made it challenging for those who have diabetes to get the care they require to adequately manage their illness, which could eventually result in more serious problems. There has been an increase in unhealthy habits like overeating and decreased physical exercise because so many individuals work from home and have restricted access to physical activity and healthy food options. As a result, more people are developing “Type 2 diabetes”, which makes it harder for those who already have the disease to control their condition. Due to interruptions in global supply chains, many nations, including “the UK”, have encountered shortages of “diabetes drugs and supplies”. Due to this, it has become challenging for persons with diabetes to obtain the supplies and drugs they require to adequately manage their illness.

These hiccups have brought attention to the significance of continued diabetes control and the requirement to give care of diabetics top priority. To make sure that persons with diabetes receive the care they require, it is imperative to develop innovative diabetes care delivery methods, such as “telemedicine and remote monitoring” (Stoye and Zaranko, 2019). These approaches enable healthcare practitioners to remotely monitor blood sugar levels, give virtual consultations, and guarantee that patients receive the drugs and supplies that they require. Telemedicine and remote monitoring can increase access to treatment, lower the risk of COVID-19 exposure, and ultimately assist persons with diabetes manage their illness more effectively by harnessing technology.

Key Considerations:

Diabetes is a serious and rising health issue in the United Kingdom, affecting approximately 4.1 million people. Diabetes prevalence has risen fast in recent years and it is expected to rise further due to causes such as an ageing population and rising obesity rates. Diabetes accounts for 10% of the NHS expenditure, putting a substantial load on the healthcare system (Stokes et al. 2021). According to a study, diabetes presently affects “7% of the UK population”, undiagnosed “type 2 diabetes” affects around “one million individuals, 40 000 children with diabetes” and more than “3000 children are diagnosed each year” (Pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023). Diabetes-related direct costs include medical treatments like medication and hospitalisations, as well as the costs of treating consequences including heart disease, renal failure and blindness. While indirect costs include missed productivity and decreased quality of life for individuals and their families.

Diabetes is a big issue in the United Kingdom which affects many people and also increases pressure on the “National Heath Services” as well as the society as a whole. For this reason, it is crucial to give attention to disease prevention and management (Zhai et al. 2019 ). This includes encouraging healthy practices, increasing diabetic care investing in a better understanding of the illness and identifying new therapies.

A person’s risk of having diabetes can be increased by several different variables. The risk factors of diabetes are being overweight, not doing enough exercise, consuming unhealthy food and having a genetic history of the illness.

Individual actions, however, do not have a role in diabetes risk. There are also larger social and environmental elements that contribute to the condition's development. Those from ethnic minority groups, for example, and those who live in disadvantaged regions are more prone to getting diabetes than other groups (Sinclair et al. 2020). This might be attributed to several causes, including a lack of availability of nutritious foods and safe locations to exercise, as well as social and economic inequities. Addressing these disparities in the prevalence and outcomes of diabetes is critical for everyone to have the opportunity to live a healthy life. Part of this effort addresses the social and environmental variables that influence diabetes risk and provides targeted support and resources to disproportionately affected populations (Hill-Briggs et al. 2021). Addressing disparities in diabetes prevalence and outcomes can help create a fairer and healthier society for all.

To prevent and control diabetes, it is critical to prioritise activities aimed at encouraging healthy lifestyles and eliminating health disparities. This may be accomplished through promoting physical activity and a healthy diet through education and awareness initiatives, as well as addressing socioeconomic determinants of health such as poverty and access to healthcare (Gómez et al. 2021). Diabetes detection and diagnosis are particularly critical because they allow for prompt treatments and management of the illness, which can avoid or postpone the onset of complications. Frequent health screenings and check-ups can assist in identifying those who are at risk of or have undetected diabetes.

People can also minimise their chance of having diabetes by keeping a healthy weight, engaging in regular physical activity and eating a well-balanced diet low in sugary and processed foods. Individuals, healthcare professionals and governments may all contribute to a healthier and more equitable society by emphasising diabetes prevention and management activities.

Diabetes identification and diagnosis are critical in controlling and preventing complications. Diabetes screening should be provided to those who are identified with high risk such as those who are overweight, have a genetic history of diabetes, or are members of ethnic minority groups, according to the National Institute for Health Care Excellence, NICE (Charlton, 2020). Diabetes is routinely diagnosed with blood sample tests and “HbA1c”. According to a study it is estimated that Intervention expenditures can be recouped through NHS savings within 12 years, with a net “NHS savings of £1.28 over 20 years for every £1 spent” (Pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023). Diabetes patients should get proper treatment and care after being diagnosed, which may include medication, lifestyle changes and daily check-ups. Quality diabetes treatment can help avoid or prevent problems such as “blindness, renal failure and amputation” (Harshitha et al. 2022). It also enhances the quality of life of diabetes patients.

To encourage quick and successful diabetes treatment, healthcare professionals must prioritise early identification and diagnosis of the diseases, particularly among the high-risk groups. This has the potential to improve health consequences and lower the overall burden of diabetes on individuals and society.

Diabetes management necessitates a multidisciplinary strategy that includes lifestyle changes, medicine and digital technology. Individuals can benefit from structured education programs to help them adopt good lifestyle choices and manage their diabetes, while digital technology can provide remote monitoring and assistance. Diabetes management in the UK has major obstacles, including a lack of resources, insufficient access to treatments and poor integration between primary and secondary care (Catapan et al. 2021). Moreover, the “COVID-19” epidemic has disrupted diabetic services and worsened already existent health disparities. Solving diabetes concerns in the UK may require a concerted effort from the government, healthcare providers and individuals. Improving access to services, boosting financing for diabetes prevention and control and promoting health equality in policy and practice are all potential answers.


There are several numbers of considerations and actions to address the issues and enhance the diabetes treatment and prevention, after taking into analysing the crucial factors for diabetes in the “United Kingdom”.

  • Promote healthy lifestyles: To avoid developing diabetes and enhance the diagnosis for those who have already been diagnosed, it is crucial to encourage healthy eating practices, frequent exercise and weight control. This may be accomplished through running educational and awareness efforts, as well as by giving people access to tools and encouragement to make better decisions (Alam, 2021). Also, by including lifestyle changes in diabetes treatment plans and giving patients access to tools to manage their illness, healthcare practitioners may play a significant role in encouraging healthy lives. Promoting healthy lifestyles as a main priority can help reduce the prevalence of diabetes and improve people's overall health and well-being.
  • Increase access to diabetes services: For early detection and efficient treatment, access to diabetes services which includes screening, diagnosis, education and management, must be improved. This helps ensure that services are available to all communities and are suited to their lifestyle. People can obtain swift and suitable treatment in this way, which can postpone or avoid issues and enhance their quality of life (Heidari, Navimipour and Unal, 2022). Providing thorough diabetic care and sending patients to the proper experts when necessary, healthcare practitioners may also play a significant part in ensuring that people have access to the treatments they require.
  • Invest in research: It is crucial to keep funding research to further understand diabetes and provide better management tools and medications. This includes performing studies to pinpoint the origins and danger signs of diabetes as well as investigating cutting-edge methods for its detection, diagnosis and treatment (Fayyaz et al. 2023). Also, the research can guide the creation of individualised diabetes care programs and aid in increasing the efficacy of already used strategies. Research funding can also promote digital technologies like wearables and smartphone applications, which can enhance remote monitoring and self-management of diabetes. In the end, funding research is essential to expanding understanding and enhancing diabetes outcomes both now and in the future.
  • Address health inequalities: Reducing the differences in diabetes prevalence and outcomes across various demographic groups requires addressing health inequities. This necessitates focused interventions aiming at lowering the social and economic health factors and enhancing ethnic minority groups and underserved areas' access to diabetes care. The healthcare profession can play a significant role in resolving health inequities by addressing the socioeconomic determinants of health and taking a person-centred approach (Mezzina et al. 2022). Moreover, policies that aim to lessen inequality can help prevent the onset of diabetes and improve outcomes for individuals who have already been diagnosed. Examples of these policies include expanding access to healthy foods and encouraging physical exercise. It can make society more egalitarian and healthier for everyone by tackling health inequities.
  • Improve integration of care: For people to receive the right assistance they require throughout their care journey, there must be improved coordination and integration of diabetes services between primary and secondary care. This can enhance management, reduce problems and guarantee care continuity (Maresca et al. 2020). People with diabetes can get timely treatments and support, such as screening, diagnosis, education and management, through enhancing communication and coordination among healthcare professionals. Better health outcomes, lower healthcare expenses and more patient satisfaction may result from this. Efforts should also be made to address the significant disparities in diabetes prevalence and outcomes across different population groups, with a focus on promoting healthy lifestyles, investing in research and allocating adequate resources to diabetes services to ensure that individuals receive appropriate care regardless of their background or circumstances. By acting on these fronts, society may endeavour to create a healthier and more fair environment for all.

It is crucial to understand that putting these alternatives into practice may need considerable funding and cooperation from a range of stakeholders, including the government, healthcare institutions and community groups. Even so, it is impossible to overestimate the potential advantages of these efforts in terms of better health outcomes and lower healthcare expenses. Also, the COVID-19 pandemic has emphasised the need to utilise modern technology to enhance diabetes treatment and respond to changing conditions (Intawong Olson and Chariyalertsak, 2021). Diabetes patients may obtain treatment and assistance from home with the use of telemedicine and remote monitoring, which eases the strain on healthcare systems and enhances patient outcomes.

Ultimately, tackling the issues posed by diabetes in the UK necessitates a multidimensional approach that includes promoting preventative measures, boosting access to services, funding research, addressing health inequities and enhancing care integration. Individuals and groups may work together to create a healthier and more equitable society for all by taking action on these fronts (Kumanyika, 2019). Policymakers, health assignment professionals and community leaders must work together to design and prioritise comprehensive policies to address the complex and overlapping concerns underlying diabetes. Progress may be made in decreasing the burden of diabetes and improving the health outcomes of individuals and communities via collaborative efforts and continuous investment.


Diabetes prevention has become a significant factor in the world. To prevent the consequences of “Diabetes” a few things need to be done. One of the most necessary things that need to be done is spreading awareness of the disease and its prevention methods. Schools, community initiatives and media campaigns can all help to spread knowledge about and encourage healthy lives. Furthermore, to avoid problems and enhance outcomes, early screening and diagnosis are essential. “High-risk individuals”, such as those with a family history of diabetes or obesity, should routinely be screened by healthcare professionals, who should also offer support to patients who want to modify their lifestyles for the better. Additionally, modifying one's way of life is essential for controlling and avoiding diabetes.

Millions of individuals throughout the world suffer from diabetes, a “chronic metabolic illness”, which causes adequate manufacture or utilization of “hormone insulin” to control blood sugar levels. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle includes “eating balanced food”, “getting regular exercise” and “keeping a healthy weight”. Medication like metformin may be administered to people who are at a high risk of acquiring diabetes. Those who already have diabetes must check their “blood sugar levels”, take their medications as directed, and modify their lifestyles by eating a balanced diet and exercising frequently. In some circumstances, administering insulin to manage blood sugar levels may be necessary. Although there have been some gains in the management of diabetes in “the UK”, there are still many issues that need to be resolved. The “high expense” of diabetes care in “the UK” is one significant issue. Many patients find it difficult to pay for the drugs, equipment and other therapies they require to control their disease. This may result in poor treatment plan adherence and worse health results. Additionally, in some places, especially in “rural or underprivileged populations”, access to care may be restricted. Despite these difficulties, there have been some encouraging advancements in the management of diabetes in “the UK”. In conclusion, the “UK diabetes management system” provides a thorough and research-based strategy for controlling diabetes. The system offers a solid foundation for offering high-quality treatment and support to persons with diabetes, even though there are still certain issues that need to be resolved. A comprehensive strategy that addresses both the health requirements of people with diabetes and the bigger issues of “global health and sustainability” is needed for the “management of diabetes” in “the UK”.


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