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Mental Health And Wellbeing In Integrated Care

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Introduction - Mental Health And Wellbeing In Integrated Care

In the present study, an analysis of the situation is related to physical and mental health issues by a patient who suffered from long-term lung disease. An overview of the situation, which is given in the case study, is discussed in the present essay. Besides this, various issues are faced by the patient, which impacts his daily lifestyle. In addition, the health care policies of the nursing care plan for chronic patients are identified and various barriers are identified in the present study. Some recommendations are given on the issues identified during the integrated care of the patient.

The thesis statement of the study is to analyse barriers to integrated care of long-term occupational lung disease for miners.


Policy or guideline related to the integration of physical and mental health needs of the client

Integrated nursing care is beneficial for the client as he sufferers from occupational lung disease and it can be treated with “Long term oxygen therapy (LTOT)”. The need for the integration of care mainly denotes the potential healthcare nursing outcomes that can be achieved for both service users and patients (Campo et al. 2018). Integrated care is beneficial for nursing healthcare as it surely enhances the healthcare services provided to the client with unnecessary readmissions by delivering a better quality of treatment. As a result, the satisfaction rate of patients is being increased with effective self-care and “health literacy” which surely improves the quality of healthcare services for the well-being of the client (Lee et al. 2019). Integrated care services optimise the delivery of end-to-end healthcare services that effectively control the cost level by improving the quality of life.

The integrated care of occupational lung disease improves the experiences and care of the patient suffering from lung disorders by improving the long-term health outcomes for the population with respiratory problems. “Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT)” is effective for the client as it enhances the survival rate by improving the standard quality of the patient suffering from occupational lung disease by decreasing the quality of hospitalisations (Koczulla et al. 2018). The Government of the UK takes an initiative for the miners to improve their health in terms of the “Mining Health Initiative” in enhancing the productivity of mining employees in strengthen the relations within the community. According to the case scenario, the “Mining Health Program (MHP)” can be suitable for the client to receive long-term and systemic healthcare services by improving the health of the miners by focussing on integrated care (Gov.uk, 2020). However, the program mainly concentrates on the analysis of major findings that has been gathered from the client with a complete evaluation along with engagement with the community for potential outcomes.

The guidelines provided by the government for improving the health condition of the miners are beneficial in terms of delivering integrated care to the client. As per the views of Pescheny et al. (2018), the aetiology of occupational lung disease can be multi-factorial where the medicinal dose exposure measures the severity of the disease. The information related to industrial mining hygiene needs to be supplied to the employee in order to create awareness among them for the welfare of the patient’s heath. “Chest Radiography” is one of the essential diagnostic techniques for treating occupational lung disease that is used to cure the patient based on the history of the disease in their healthy body. Physical examination of the client is very much essential in order to identify the specific reason and cause of the disease (Shalaby and Agyapong, 2020). As a result, the major signs and symptoms of the disease are being clearly determined for diagnosis of lung disease quickly.

The healthcare model related to the integrated care system in the UK can surely detect the effect of the disease with good collaborative communication with each other. According to Yeoh et al. (2018), the “Chronic Care Model” is very much applicable in order to improve the quality of life by boosting chronic illness as early as possible with positive outcomes. The model provides a framework that can effectively deliver care to improve chronic lung disease by demonstrating a strategy of collaboration with the patient, “system intervention” and services providers. “National Health Service (NHS)” provides a long-term plan by delivering clinical support and guidance to treat occupational lung disease in order to manage their health condition positively with “personalised care” (England.nhs.uk, 2022). The need for the integration of care mainly denotes the potential healthcare nursing outcomes that can be achieved for both service users and patients. The exposure to the mining industry needs to be controlled with proper treatment facilities to decrease the progression of the disorder. [Referred to Appendix 2]

Effectiveness of applied integrated nursing practice on physical and mental health

In the present case study that is found the client suffered from a long-term lung disease which impacted his mental and physical health as this is a chronic disease. The client has suffered from a long-term lung disease, and he got the support of oxygen therapy for the long term (case study). Besides this, as he lives alone, it is much more complicated to get support for the illness rather than nursing care to support the patient. In the nursing care plan and integration, support “improvement of the lifestyle and avoidance of smoking” is to give support to the patient (Patel et al. 2019). Based on the nursing integration strategies, some effective strategies are present which may help to overcome the physical issues. “Minimise Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution, Regular Check-ups, Prevent Infection, avoidance of smoking and free hand physical exercise” are some effective strategies for long-term lung disease (Wang et al. 2019).

The intervention as mentioned above may help in the physical support of the client rather than mental health support. As he lived alone and his close relative moved away, some mental support from the nursing care was needed for the client (Stuijfzand et al. 2020). On the other side, in such chronic patients, “depression and anxiety” are the most common mental health issues which are identified for long-term occupational lung disease. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)” recommended guidelines for long-term occupational lung disease where “self-help programs, or online CBT” (Hoy et al. 2018). In the UK, in the year 2021 that is seen 95% of the long-term lung disease cases are preventable, which helps in the control of the situation (Hse.gov.uk, 2021). Therefore in the critical; analysis that is seen, the application of such intervention strategies for the identified health issue may help the client.

CBT is effective mental health support for chronic patients such as in the present case identified in the client. In the present case that is found the client suffered from loneliness, which is identified as the beginning symptoms of depression which may be overcome with the application of Cognitive behavioural therapy (Mauer-Vakil, 2021). On the other side, “Relaxation therapy” is another supportive care for the chronic patient, which is also applicable to the client of the present case study (Barnes et al. 2019). Therefore in the critical analysis of the situation that is seen, the application of yoga is effective for a patient who has suffered from long-term lung disease. According to the NCBI reports, the use of appropriate care models such as the “chronic care model” is helpful for the care plan for chronic disease people (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2021). Therefore in the critical analysis of the present case study that is found various mental and mental health supports are needed for the client, which is discussed above. [Refer to appendix 2]

Besides this, primary care and nursing care for the minor population are needed, which are common in the present situation. On the other side, some barriers are found in the potential care plan for present care plans, which are related to mental and physical health. According to the view of Auschra (2018), there are some barriers identified in integration care, such as “limited resources, poor coordination of finances and care pathways and lack of budgets”. In the critical analysis of the given case study, it is found that “poor coordination and environmental hazards, loneliness and isolation” are the most common barriers to integrated care. In the present case, it is found that mental health-related issues are more common and work as barriers in the care plan. The client is isolated, and that impacts their living style, where he is not able to coordinate with the nursing care plan.

In the present case, it is found that the client belongs to the minor group of the UK, where they are faced with some barriers during care service for long-term occupational disease. According to the view of Mauer-Vakil (2021), in the UK, “lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs” are common barriers to health care service. On the other hand, “administrative and legal barriers, lack of knowledge about rights, language barriers and fear for minority or isolation” are some other issues which are common in the minority population (Wakida et al. 2018). Therefore in the critical analysis that is found, those barriers are negatively impacting the care plan which is developed for the clients. The care service for the client of the present case study, which is identified in the above section, may not be implemented effectively due to those barriers.

Nursing stigma

Self form of stigma can affect the client based on the case scenario that mainly demonstrates all types of negative behavioural attitudes suffering from both physical and mental illness based on the health condition. The major impact of stigma is categorised in three different forms including “isolation”, “feeling of shame” and “hopelessness”. Self-form of stigma provides a great impact on the client in providing integrated care by providing a barrier from the recovery level, increasing depression, and reducing self-esteem and empowerment (Giralt et al. 2019). As a result, this type of stigma also decreases the orientation of recovery along with an increase in discrimination and “perceived devaluation”. The integrated care of occupational lung disease improves the experiences and care of the patient suffering from lung disorders by improving long-term health outcomes. The negative influence of stigma literally increases several psychiatric signs and symptoms with provides certain difficulties in maintaining a stable social relationship with each other (Bonsu et al. 2020). As a result, the likelihood of the treatment facilities is being reduced by giving rise to many certain mental and physical complications. 

Nurses play an important role in addressing the stigma of the client based on the case scenario by playing a unique part in reducing both physical and mental health problems. A nurse can positively ensure the “active involvement” of the health care practitioners along with the public in organising and creating a specific “anti mental health stigma group” (Hazlehurst et al. 2020). Campaigns are organised in order to focus on the major mental health disorders by delivering support and care to the persons suffering from mental health issues. The nurse can share her knowledge and point of view for addressing the issues related to stigma by ending the negative behavioural attitudes toward the well-being of the patient. A registered nurse can utilise her position regarding trust in assisting the public by understanding the opportunities and role of advocacy that are essential for ending stigma (Arnold and Baker, 2018). The nurse can correct the negative behavioural attitude along with all types of negative languages in diversifying the community by avoiding stereotypes based on stigma-related issues.


It is concluded that in the present case that is found the client belongs to the minority group of the UK, where various issues are faced by him during nursing care. It is concluded that the client has suffered from mental health issues besides physical health issues. In the above discussion, it is found that adaptation of CBT, relaxation therapy, LTOT and the chronic care model may be effective and helpful for the nursing care process of the client. It is concluded that due to regulatory barriers and lack of knowledge of the rights of the miners, works are barriers in the care strategy. Therefore it is concluded that the application of intervention strategies in primary care with mental support may help to overcome the health issue of the client.


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