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MGBBT1TEN: Tourism Environment and Industry

Introduction: MGBBT1TEN: Tourism Environment and Industry

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In a wider prospect tourism industry can be seen as the sum of the entire business, which straightforwardly offers items or administration to ensure trade, satisfaction as well as leisure conducts away from the home ground. So, from this it can be concluded that the main aim behind conducting this study is to shed light on the topic of tourism principle along will improvement in the overall tourism industry. To do so the country that has been selected is Spain. The objective behind doing this essay to study the tourism ecology as well as its partners at the selected tourism destination of Spain. The concepts that will be cover under this essay are:

  1. Principles for sustainable tourism
  2. Stakeholders involved in the decision-making of sustainable tourism development
  3. Macro environmental factors contributing to the sustainable development of your tourism destination
  4. Micro-environment and tourists’ motivating factors influencing the demand of your tourism product

Before going deep into the study first of all it will be important to have some idea about the selected, Spain. Spain, a nation on Europe's Iberian Landmass, incorporates 17 independent locales with different geology and societies. Capital city Madrid is home to the Illustrious Castle and Prado Gallery, lodging works by European bosses. Segovia has a middle age palace (the Alcázar) and a flawless Roman water channel.

Main Body

Paragraph 1: Development of sustainable tourism based on the principles of sustainable tourism

According to the guidelines of UNWTO Sustainable Tourism, the management practices are appropriate to the different types of tourism at the destinations. It also includes huge tourism along with various segments of niche tourism. Sustainable tourism incorporates environmental, financial, and socio-cultural fundamentals, with an appropriate balance established between these three magnitudes to guarantee its long-term viability. More than a fraction of Spain's land area is committed to environmental conservation. UNESCO has designated Spain as the region with the largest natural ecosystem resources and the second largest quantity of conservation areas in the globe (González Pérez, and et.al., 2020).

Considering the rationale behind sustainable tourism, particularly in Spain, it can be seen that the country has 53 Biosphere Reserves in total. These areas work to conserve biodiversity by developing new sustainable solutions. Beautiful beaches, vibrant cities, and a genuine commitment to the preservation of their land, wildlife, and culture. Furthermore, the primary responsibilities of sustainable tourism in Spain include the protection of the environment, energy wealth, and wild places. Supplying social economic benefits to the society living in tourist destinations. Preserving cultural heritage and creating authentic tourist experiences.

The travel industry has proved its capacity to aid employment generation, boost social inclusion, safeguard the heritage of nature and culture, preserve and conserve species diversity, generate long-term sustainability, and promote better health when planned and administered prudently (Moreno-Luna, and et.al., 2021). The main statements highlight the significance of a responsible solution for power brokers in a nation like Spain:

  • Make stronger groups because of more resources and finance
  • Better the structure involving the system of transport and building
  • There is a high employment rate because of the tourism industry
  • Make improvements in understanding different traditions and culture
  • Preserve local culture
  • Culture and art are being commercialized
  • Buildings and natural landscapes need to be conserved
  • Celebrations and events were held in greater numbers

Here are some of the advantages Spain received from applying some of the above-mentioned rationales:

Economic Benefit

Societal benefit

Environmental benefit

§  Make stronger groups because of more resources and finance

§  Better the structure involving the system of transport and building (González-Torres, Rodríguez-Sánchez, and Pelechano-Barahona, 2021).


§  Celebrations and events were held in greater numbers

§  Preserve local culture

§  There is a high employment rate because of the tourism industry


§  Buildings and natural landscapes need to be conserved


Paragraph 2: Stakeholders' roles

Different stakeholders are normally involved in the method, and climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives come - first - serve on their precious decisions. In overall, the key events that compete for a significant part in the decision-making process are arranged in order of importance.

  • Businesses
  • Society
  • Administration
  • Travellers
  • Intended Subdivision

In terms of the selected country like Spain, there are some of the crucial stakeholders are mentioned with the significance of developing sustainable development in tourism. It is based in Spain:

  • Public Sector: The government is considered a primary stakeholder in terms of the public sector which provides finance for the tourist destination for appropriately doing things. The purpose of a government, particularly in Spain, is to embolden civilizations to care for their places, along with their natural and cultural surroundings, so that tourism benefits instead than harming indigenous residents (De Madariaga, and Del Hoyo, 2019). The Spanish government's central duties and responsibilities in fostering sustainable tourism growth are as follows.
  • Offer straightforward infrastructural amenities that include local management and zoning preparations.
  • Plan tourism growth as a part of the strategy regarding the overall development.
  • Develop a center substructure at the starting stage of the growth to prove the area’s possibility.
  • To encourage private investment in the tourism sector, provide domestic and foreign investors with the necessary support facilities and incentives
  • Private Sector: The private sector plays a major role in terms of investment in tourism for a long period of time and develops many facilities for tourists as it also includes restaurants, shopping complexes, accommodations, and other different areas. There are some of the various essential roles along with the significance of the private sector in Spain that aid to developing the sustainable growth of tourism:
  • Create and manage the desired facilities of the tourists in their interest.
  • Make sure tourist attractions are preserved and protected, and lead the way in green observes (Mamirkulova, and et.al., 2020).
  • Provide public conveniences and facilities and maintain monuments, museums, and parks. Ensure that tourism benefits the local community appropriately by involving them in tourism projects.
  • Voluntary Sector: NGOs must be involved in Spain's tourist industry, especially as they aid in the industry in this region. The BRAC NGO's key action is to alert the public about the marketing of tourism resources and assets. Furthermore, they direct where growth should take place.

Paragraph 3: Macro Factors

Several quantitative factors impact the expansion of tourism development. Innovation imagination, environmental patterns, collective patterns, and market figures are all important macro factors (Sharpley, 2020). The three major variables and their benefits and costs for Spain are debated in the following table.

Technical Invention trends: Consumers' and enterprises' tourism perspectives are being reshaped by new tech. It will save period, simplify, as well as open up a plethora of new chances for both commuters and businesses. The future of journeys is digital, from cashless transactions and check-ins to travel agencies and automaton hotel guests. For example, the application of digitalization- Clever tourism, and e-tourism- is having a significant impact on Spain's responsible tourism, even though they are regarded to be somewhat pricey. VR is a three-dimensional computer-engaging atmosphere that gives Spanish customers the sensation of being within a real-world situation (Tien, and et.al., 2019). Through this mainstream press, individuals will gain knowledge about tourist spots and some of the hotel services offered. As a result, people can significantly impact the performance of the sector of tourism and hospitality.

Social and Cultural Trends: The millennial market significantly impacts the long-term growth of the tourism industry in Spain. Younger generation travelers, for instance –, value truthiness, satisfaction, and sustainable development. That is a statement that tour companies, travel companies, and the whole tourist industry must comprehend (Buhalis, 2019).

Trends in the environment: As the 21st century unfolds, climate alteration's significance and costs will define our world. Climate change has been found to destabilize ecosystems, reduce tourism patronage, and affect travel decisions, resulting in the death and migration of wildlife species, flooding eco destinations, and significantly increasing the cost of running ecotourism in different eco destinations (Konovalova, and et.al., 2018). Many places to visit, such as those in Spain, are temperature and, by augmentation, atmosphere heavily reliant. As a result, global warming is very likely to have an impact on your company or organization soon or later. Climate change can start reducing snowpack, rise, and protracted warmer temperatures, and alter annual weather patterns. It is important to consider the changes in the trends of the environment, it is necessary to manage the scenario of the tourism industry. However, make changes in the environmental trends need to be implemented for enhancement in the services if tourism and proves to be effective for tourism.

Paragraph 4- Micro factors

Tourism is one of the most lucrative businesses of Spain, it constitutes about 14.9 percent of the GDP of Spain and supports 2.8 million jobs across the country which is much larger than any other part of Spain. This aspect of the economy has helped the country to move out of the financial crisis it had been facing since 2007. Despite these figures, over the years, the citizens of Spain have developed hostility towards tourists that manifested itself in the form of damaging tourist spots, vandalizing restaurants, attacking tourists' hotels and lodges, and so on. This trend has especially been noticed in and around Barcelona, however, the inflow of tourists has not been much affected by this. 

Maslow's hierarchy needs

According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Spain has a pretty organic estimation of the analysis of this model. The hierarchical model is divided into four parts, psychological needs, safety needs, sense of belongingness, and self-esteem.

  • Psychological: Spain offers a wide range of good hotels and resorts of different budgets for all classes of people to afford it.
  • Safety needs: Spain is considered to be one of the safest countries for female solo travellers.
  • Sense of belongingness: Customer service in Spain has very divergent views. The southern part of Spain is the most hospitable towards customers, however, the other parts are not so much.
  • Sense of belongingness: Spain does not quite like the cultural disparity that the tourists have with the indigenous (Vicens et al., 2021).

Internal attraction

Apart from the beautiful churches and chapels located in the astonishing valleys of Spain. Spain (Barcelona) is immensely famous for its football. Hence the Barcelona, Spotify Camp Nou is a special attraction for football lovers. Spain is also famous for its museums and mosque, the royal palace of the ancestral family of Spain is another famous tourist spot that is visited. Spain offers a range of sceneries that are very available for all kinds of tourists.

Pathocebtric and Anocentrice Analysis

Spain is a place that conventionally provides peaceful sightseeing in the country. The tourists who visit Spain are mostly psychometric. Since Spain is a huge territory to cover, people visiting this place mostly like to plan their entire trip and take safer and known routes that are prescribed by the tourist's guides. These people like to pre-plan their entire itinerary and do not seek many adventures. Hence allocentric people are less found here, apart from the youth in the 'Tomatina Festival' that occurs only once a year (Huete et al., 2019).


So, it can be concluded that sustainable tourism development not only brings various prospects but it also helps countries like Spain to flourish keeping the environmental factors too. It can also be concluded from the overall study Spain provides focus on both macro and micro factors which help them in attracting more. The country also receives various economic, political as well societal benefit that additionally helps them in keeping them ahead of the tourism principle. Still the country needs to restructure their tourism principle so that they can always get prepared to deal with any sort of uncertainties maintaining the sustainability factor.


Buhalis, D., 2019. Technology in tourism-from information communication technologies to eTourism and smart tourism towards ambient intelligence tourism: a perspective article. Tourism Review.

De Madariaga, C.J. and Del Hoyo, J.J.G., 2019. Enhancing of the cultural fishing heritage and the development of tourism: A case study in Isla Cristina (Spain). Ocean and Coastal Management, 168, pp.1-11.

González Pérez, D.M., Martín Martín, J.M., Guaita Martínez, J.M. and Sáez-Fernández, F.J., 2020. An analysis of the cost of water supply linked to the tourism industry. An application to the case of the Island of Ibiza in Spain. Water, 12(7), p.2006.

González-Torres, T., Rodríguez-Sánchez, J.L. and Pelechano-Barahona, E., 2021. Managing relationships in the Tourism Supply Chain to overcome epidemic outbreaks: The case of COVID-19 and the hospitality industry in Spain. International journal of hospitality management, 92, p.102733.

Huete-Alcocer, N., López-Ruiz, V.R. and Grigorescu, A., 2019. Measurement of satisfaction in sustainable tourism: A cultural heritage site in Spain. Sustainability, 11(23), p.6774.

Konovalova, E.E., Yudina, E.V., Bushueva, I.V., Uhina, T.V. and Lebedev, K.A.E., 2018. Forming approaches to strategic management and development of tourism and hospitality industry in the regions. Journal of Environmental Management & Tourism, 9(2 (26)), pp.241-247.

MacKenzie, N. and Gannon, M.J., 2019. Exploring the antecedents of sustainable tourism development. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.

Mamirkulova, G., Mi, J., Abbas, J., Mahmood, S., Mubeen, R. and Ziapour, A., 2020. New Silk Road infrastructure opportunities in developing tourism environment for residents better quality of life. Global Ecology and Conservation, 24, p.e01194.

Moreno-Luna, L., Robina-Ramírez, R., Sánchez, M.S.O. and Castro-Serrano, J., 2021. Tourism and sustainability in times of COVID-19: The case of Spain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(4), p.1859.

Sharpley, R., 2020. Tourism, sustainable development and the theoretical divide: 20 years on. Journal of sustainable tourism, 28(11), pp.1932-1946.

Tien, N.H., Thai, T.M., Hau, T.H., Vinh, P.T. and Long, N.V.T., 2019. Solutions for Tuyen Quang and Binh Phuoc tourism industry sustainable development. Comparative analysis. International Journal of Research in Marketing Management and Sales, 2(1), pp.101-107.

Vicens-Colom, J., Holles, J. and Liern, V., 2021. Measuring Sustainability with Unweighted TOPSIS: An Application to Sustainable Tourism in Spain. Sustainability, 13(9), p.5283.

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