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Casualty Trauma- A Pathological Assessment

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Introduction: Casualty Trauma- A Pathological Assessment

The introductory notes on casualty trauma or traumatic injury, or traumatic shock explain the indication which represents the traumatic state of an individual that may arise from various yet specific incidents. It can induce a shock or a state of ineffectiveness in body posture and movement. Traumas mainly involve multiple viscera, which cause systemic dysfunction with certain complexities. It may arise due to cardiovascular abnormalities, dysfunction in the respiratory system, or the central nervous system. Thus, trauma and injury are two inter-specific terms that constitute the pathological unit with presumptive assessment.

Part I

Character Breakdown

The identification of character from the study which has been observed with a bruise is Lucy, Clare's mother. From the first observation, it has been assessed that she has an infected bruise mark on her lower lip and also consists of track marks in both the arms along the side. The demographic information has suggested that she is a 35-year-old petite woman with a similar complexion and stature as her daughter. However, her posture and body configuration are too skinny to be compared to a normal and healthy individual. She lives with her daughter in a one-bedroom apartment in New York, London. Further, based on the information, it is also suggested that she has been on drugs for a long and her complexion is white.

Bruise and Cause

The proper understanding of the cause and implications for the bruise has been acknowledged while understanding the physiological and mental state of Lucy. Based on the critical reflection of the study, it can be promoted that the cold sore bruises on her bottom lip can be an indication of her reckless activities or maybe some other reasons which have not been customized in the script (Funt and Pavicic, 2013). The real understanding about the bruises and mainly the track marks insisted on prediction of her drug use with continuous intravenous injection of the drug. It is not mentioned whether she has been using drugs, but the rather indication of her marks induces a specific contemplation about her actions (both mentally and physiologically) with little to no care about her health.

Healing Process

The significant cause of the bruise and marks on the victim has already been discussed in the previous section. The main indication of a bruise explains about rupturing or damage caused to a blood vessel present under the skin that often changes colour over the specific duration, marking its healing process (Bailey et al., 2010). It happens when the blood just below the skin continuously breaks, and finally, changes are marking the healing process of the bruise. With the mention of the case in the script, it can be predicted that the bruise and track marks on Lucy's skin are either incidental or accidental or maybe both since the track marks are visible both in old and new forms. The bruises on her lower lip can be an indu=ication of either falling or from hitting. Thus, the prediction of the healing process for the bruise can be optimized as follows:

  • The first indication of colour is red due to the presence of oxygen in the blood and its presence in the epidermal layer of the skin.
  • When the wound is getting old (1-2 days), there is a reduction in oxygen level in the blood, which readily changes the colour in that region (Kirkeby et al., 2018). Thus, the bruise may appear black, blue, or purple
  • Eventually, after a week, the colour turns yellow or probably green due to the presence of bilirubin from the sudden breakage of haemoglobin.
  • Finally, after two weeks, it turns out to be brown or yellowish-brown, which indicates the complete healing of the bruise.

Influential Factors

The information indicating the case of Lucy explained minor complications. However, as far as the bruise on her lower lip is concerned, the infected appearance explains her uncaring gesture towards her wounds which turned to be severe over time (Finkelhor et al., 2021). The track mark, as it has been already noted, can be an indication of her substance abusive nature where even her daughter suggested bringing drugs for her mother. It is not clear whether the drugs are specified for her health or in any kind of addiction. Further, the bruise has made an appearance positively due to her heritable trait for white complexion (wiley.com, 2021).

Part II

Character Breakdown

The identification of the character that has experienced a traumatic injury based on the report evident from the case involves the case incident of Stuart. Based on the information being conveyed from the case, Stuart was a tall African-American male who had been designated as an NSE police personnel in New York, London. The demographic information about Stuart has suggested that he is a tall, black male individual of age 63 years who has been working as police personnel in the New York police station for as long as he can remember and is coming to the end period of his retirement stage. His body posture resembles a bending position with an enlarged beer belly. He and his assistant have been working in the mentioned police station and hence seeking a mischievous case to enlighten their present gloomy mood. According to the information gathered from the scenario, the critical understanding of the injury can be surreptitiously indicated as an accident that has been caused during one of his case-solving programs.

Trauma Injury and its Potentiality

A traumatic injury or trauma can be explained as the physical harm that mainly takes place as part of a sudden occurrence. It can be induced with a specific cause and to a certain degree of severe effect. The types of injury that can be identified through any kind of trauma suggestively require immediate care and medical attention (Stahr and Quesada-Ocampo, 2020). Further, it also requires firsthand dealing with healthcare specialists who can identify and promote special care to the injury without much divergence. However, based on the state and causative factor, trauma or traumatic injury sometimes require the process and care from rehabilitation. There are some specifications about major traumas that are potentially severe, can induce disabled conditions, and sometimes even fatal consequences such as death.

According to the statistical report that has been produced for traumatic injuries and death in New York, the main indication has suggested an overall presentation of 80% case, and that is suggestive of the age 40 are severely affected due to traumatic injuries in the UK (Ma et al., 2020). As far as the case is concerned Stuart, has been severely affected by an injury where a large burned scar mark is imprinted on his left cheek with a thin, elongated scab on the left arm, making a major identification. It is an incidental cause that has marked an impression of severe traumatic implication from one of his case-solving issues. It can be a natural occurrence or duty-based intervention, which after several years left an indication of the trauma.

The real cause which is evident about a traumatic injury implies the major effect from any type of external forces which can tactfully leave a mark on the victim's body about its occurrence (Goswami et al., 2019). Some of the predictive sources of traumatic injury can be symbolized through various traffic accidents, unceremonious falls, violent activities, criminal offences, and penetrations. The certain implications of traumatic injuries can be explored with certain degrees of effectiveness and the adverse effect it exerts in the aftermath. The information that has been delivered about the case of Stuart implies two aspects- firstly, the burnt mark on his face that can be either accidental or incidental that has a long-term effect on his health, and secondly, the traumatic effect that has caused both physiological and psychological harm. However, based upon the case scenario, it can be assumed that the victim has a strong personality and certainly need not dwell on his injuries (wiley.com, 2021).

The complications or potential effect of trauma, especially those from burns or shocks, mainly raises concerns as the aftermath that is often observed among the patients who are admitted in the intensive care unit section (ICU) for treatment. The potential effect of trauma can be explored for a long time and induces certain compilations as part of significant adversities (Wheeler et al., 2020). The irresistible complications may be deployed as part of the incident and hence severely affect the health condition of the individual. Although there is not much information has been gathered about the occurrence of the injury for the victim in the case scenario, or when it exactly happened, the unconscious caring of Stuart over the wound during his conversation with his subordinate, Jayne shows a deep internal scar in his mind regarding the incident.

Healing Process

The significant understanding about scaring can be considered based on the age of an individual, the ethnic contribution, and also the location where the burn occurs. The scars that have been formed from birds can go up to certain layers of the skin, especially to the dermal layer, as effective damage (Dahlquist et al., 2020). The significant formation of collagen fibres helps in the healing process of damaged skin. Under normal circumstances, these fibres are laid down systematically or in a specific manner. However, in the case of several bonds that cause hypertrophic scars, its real effects are fibres and thereby create a disorganized setup. Thus, it gives a very texture of the skin with an insignificant appearance.

The healing process of a scar can certainly take a longer duration based on the effect. It usually develops during the first 2 to 3 months as an aftermath of the world and elevates to a higher level nearly around six months (Gao et al., 2019). Based on its effect and complexities, a scar made from a burn can either be temporary or permanent. It is based upon the severity of the damage that happens over the skin. The victim that has been discussed throughout the case scenario has been referenced with a scar mark on the left cheek with an elongated scab on the left arm. The specification of these marks can be considered as an attribution for a particular event that not only leaves an external mark on the skin but is integrated with the deep internal scar. The real understanding of a burned car can be explored depending on its size and complications. The scars that widely cover facial features can certainly affect an individual's appearance (sciencedirect.com, 2021).

The treatment process for these scars depends on the degree and also the size determining the stages of the bond. It is always recommended to visit a doctor without using or applying any home treatment. The second-degree burn can be treated with the efficient use of antibiotic ointment that can give us a soothing effect with effective healing capacity. It is necessary to cover the wound with sterile and non-sticky gauges to protect the area from infections and increase the recovery rate. Based on the information about the scar mark and the scab present on Stuart, it can be assumed that the marks are minor complications and can be healed over time. Although the scar left only a burnt mark on his face, it can be recovered with proper treatment and care. However, it is unpredictable whether the victim ceremoniously induced with proper treatment.

Influential Factors

The influential factors that determine the severe impact of the injury and also acknowledge the healing mechanism for the wound indicate the facts that deliberately contribute to the action. It has been readily observed from the case scenario that Stuart has been victimized by a certain situation that has caused the occurrence of the incident, which has a synergistic effect on the victim's body (Tottoli et al., 2020). However, the elaboration of the factors can be considered as probable assumptions since they can be accidental or incidental. However, it can certainly be assumed that the occurrence of the incident surely has a link with his profession, which has created a long-term effect. Thus, the influential factors are highly considerable aspects that can be regarded to have low to higher impacts on the occurrence of a particular injury or the healing process.


The critical assumption and exploration of the case scenario involve two particular cases where the first case explains a bruise that has been caused due to uncaring attitude and self-harming nature of the white, petite woman, Lucy. This particular scene depicts the irrational behaviour of the person regarding their health and also about the pathophysiology of the bruise. The second case explains a traumatic injury caused due to an incidental or accidental occurrence where Stuart has been left with a burnt scar and a long scab along his face and arm. Several implications and complexities have been denoted and explained about both the cases and finally enhanced with a clear understanding of the factors that typically influenced the cases to happen in the first place.

Reference list


Bailey, J.A., Hurley, R.W. and Gold, MS, 2010. Crossroads of pain and addiction. Pain Medicine11(12), pp.1803-1818.

Dahlquist, A., Degerstedt, L.E., von Oelreich, E., Brännström, A., Gustavsson, J., Arborelius, U.P. and Günther, M., 2020. Blast polytrauma with hemodynamic shock, hypothermia, hypoventilation and systemic inflammatory response: description of a new porcine model. European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, pp.1-9.

Finkelhor, D., Turner, H. and LaSelva, D., 2021. Medical treatment following violence exposure in a national sample of children and youth. JAMA network open4(5), pp.e219250-e219250.

Funt, D. and Pavicic, T., 2013. Dermal fillers in aesthetics: an overview of adverse events and treatment approaches. Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology6, p.295.

Gao, J., Wang, L., Xia, C., Yang, X., Cao, Z., Zheng, L., Ko, R., Shen, C., Yang, C. and Cheng, C., 2019. Cold atmospheric plasma promotes different types of superficial skin erosion wounds healing. International wound journal16(5), pp.1103-1111.

Goswami, N., Blaber, A.P., Hinghofer-Szalkay, H. and Convertino, V.A., 2019. Lower body negative pressure: physiological effects, applications, and implementation. Physiological Reviews99(1), pp.807-851.

Kirkeby, L., Frost, P., Hansen, T.B. and Svendsen, S.W., 2018. Disability and return to work after MRI on suspicion of scaphoid fracture: Influence of MRI pathology and occupational mechanical exposures. PloS one13(6), p.e0197978.

Ma, H., Tung, K.Y., Tsai, S.L., Neil, D.L., Lin, Y.Y., Yen, H.T., Lin, K.L., Cheng, Y.T., Kao, S.C., Lin, M.N. and Dai, N.T., 2020. Assessment and determinants of global outcomes among 445 mass-casualty burn survivors: A 2-year retrospective cohort study in Taiwan. Burns46(6), pp.1444-1457.

Pollanen, M.S., 2018. The pathology of torture. Forensic science international284, pp.85-96.

Stahr, M. and Quesada-Ocampo, L.M., 2020. Assessing the role of temperature, inoculum density, and wounding on disease progression of the fungal pathogen Ceratocystis Fimbriata causing black rot in sweet potato. Plant disease104(3), pp.930-937.

Tottoli, E.M., Dorati, R., Genta, I., Chiesa, E., Pisani, S. and Conti, B., 2020. Skin wound healing process and new emerging technologies for skin wound care and regeneration. Pharmaceutics12(8), p.735.

Wheeler, A.R., Cuenca, C., Fisher, A.D., April, M.D., Shackelford, S.A. and Schauer, S.G., 2020. Development of prehospital assessment findings associated with massive transfusion. Transfusion60, pp.S70-S76.

Online articles

sciencedirect.com, 2021, The ageing of bruises: A review and study of the colour changes with time, Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/037907389190154B [Accessed on: 15-5-21]

wiley.com, 2021, Complications of injectable fillers and neurotoxins, Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1529-8019.2012.01455.x [Accessed on: 15-5-21]

wiley.com, 2021, Systematic Review of Clinical Trials of Small- and Large-Gel-Particle Hyaluronic Acid Injectable Fillers for Aesthetic Soft Tissue Augmentation, Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/dsu.12036 [Accessed on: 15-5-21]

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