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Chapter 1: Introduction

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Introduction: EDU3105: Childhood Studies Dissertation

Under the scope of the educational framework, the reliable perspective that will help to focus on consistent primary student growth and development is important. There are different types of styles that are available in the educational system that focuses on consistent student experience and development in the long run. It has been observed that the incorporation of the blended learning approaches has become one of the major trends in the educational perspective that eventually helps to support the scope of growth and development for primary school pupils (Sisk, et.al 2018) There is a restriction related to technical skills incorporation of advanced technology in combine knowledge that includes infrastructure setup and strategy are at times costly. In a business setup, this is particularly true for large organizations having a variety of departments and huge workforce (Saltan, 2017).

Research background

Blended learning is a modern approach which has been implemented in many corporate sectors and educational institutions. Blended learning provides an integrated learning experience with the amalgamation of digital media and technologically advanced tools which is vital for modern-age education. The educator's consent and the learner. When instructor merge students in-class learning actions with those that influence online education, which not only are implement merged learning strategy, but are furthermore getting student engage in learning and prepare them with the skill they need for career and college. However, traditional teaching is vital for primary school education, which is a challenge for institutions and educators as the digital courses have to be incorporated at an optimal level. The vital objective of blended learning is to sustain the traditional values of fundamental education without depriving the participants of the modern digital methods which eases the way of presentation and understanding (Rachmadtullahet al. 2020). Classroom activities are equally important as the establishment of a profound knowledge base which allows the blended learning approach to be conducted with significant control. The relationship and engagement of a teacher and a primary school student is key to establishing the core integrity of the student as the learning experience and values are passed on directly due to prolonged exposure to classroom activities. This provides the logic behind the controlled usage of digital teaching methods.

Blended learning has a bright prospect to develop an elegant Even contemporary teachers opt for combining a multiplicity of education methods to teach students, as well as using merged learning models. model of learning opportunities which has both physical and digital engagement, which provides flexibility to the students in primary school to have an enhanced explorative perspective. The spontaneous learning prospect can be facilitated by digital equipment and printed materials which have a different scope of learning with a mix of traditional and advanced subjects. This blended learning format is vital for new generation students as the competition in the professional industry requires an advanced perspective which is aligned with this learning model (Dey and Bandyopadhyay, 2019). Additionally, children fit for primary school education are most viable to have smart devices and applications to which they have access to do activities, entrainment, gaming, creativity and factual learning. This scenario is acknowledged by modern educational institutions which provided a perfect opportunity to acclimate the students to the blended learning methods. The physical presence in school is as important as self-development at home, and blended learning provides room for integrating the learning perspective of these students. The first response of learning from the school premises provides enthusiasm to the students to apply and culture the information away from the school which has been acknowledged in the blended learning model.

Students nowadays are looking to learn outside conventional classes. Along with the basic requirement of a blended learning model, the unique approach to a personalised educational experience that it offers is commendable. The globalisation of blended learning would require a much-enhanced model with standardisation and training as the opportunity it offers to the population of children is vital for their personal development. However, this learning approach has been limited to various communities due to the unavailability of stable internet connection and its communal negligence which needs to be assessed with proper governance and administrative emphasis. Lack of admittance to a real teacher: In some cases, admittance to a real teacher can be moderately helpful in learning a topic. This can be inadequate in the case of most merged learning models. Furthermore, some student might necessitate urgent answer for which a educator might not be accessible. The COVID-19 pandemic was a crucial phase to enhance the acceptance of blended learning as it provided the direct opportunity to conduct digital classes and exchange digital study materials. Although, the approach was not efficient due to the lack of collaboration between teacher and students as the idea was relatively new to both parties. The visual educational prospect requires emphasis to implement an elegant and globally acceptable blended learning model for primary school education. There always be students who find a physical classroom more appealing which might be best learned and suitable with some physical experience. Merged learning tools aids to existing learning practices can in fact be far more advantageous than simply relying on merged learning classrooms alone.

Research aims

  • The primary aim of this research is to develop an understanding about the blended learning.
  • The secondary aim of this research is to estimates the benefits and limitation of the blended learning in the traditional environment.

Research objectives

To carry out the current research there are some important objectives that need to be taken into consideration and are mentioned below.

  • To understand the perspective of blended learning and the different factors those are associated with it.
  • To analyse the positive attributes that are correlated with the functional framework of blended learning and the way it is impactful on the development of primary school pupils.
  • To recognise the major gaps that need to be rectified in the blended learning process that predominantly support school pupil development.
  • To identify the primary ways that will be helpful in developing the blended learning process for primary school pupils.

Problem statement

The research predominantly concentrates on the conceptual framework of blended learning and the way it can be influential in terms of supporting the scope of development and growth for primary school pupils. However, a major problem of the study is associated with the conceptual review that focuses on blender learning but at the same time it does not end up synthesising the constructive development that needs to be incorporated in the process of blended learning aspects for pupils. In addition to this synthesising the proactive impact on the student specific to the blended learning aspects can have a negative impact as well that needs to be specified which remains a major problem of the selected subject matter. Blended learning offers a whole new world of learning opportunities and career advancement. Many people from various fields use blended learning courses to learn new skills, fill knowledge gaps, and to improve their knowledge regarding changing trends in their line of work. However, blended learning isn’t necessarily the best option for everyone. There will always be students who find a physical classroom more engaging or subjects which might be best learned with some physical experience. Since blended learning require online access, many rural and remote areas, particularly in developing country might not be able to take advantage from a steady network and internet connection. This may make merged learning complicated for students who are residenced in areas with harsh climatic conditions and weak communications transportation. 

Significance of the study

Blended learning has been implemented in many counties which have wider acceptability of modern tools and digital education. However, primary school education requires greater emphasis to optimise the learning experience without limiting the traditional education which has been provided for numerous generations. Blended learning models could be aligned with personalised subjects which would have a stimulating approach to education. The engagement opportunities that blended learning offers is highly recommended for primary school pupil as the prospect is exciting, explorative and has a strong learning outcome (Macarusoet al. 2020). The critical part of implementing blended learning is its balance of Face-to-face and online learning curriculum which is based on in-campus education and remote learning. These characteristics assure the modern generations of students have an incremental learning prospect, as the skills development could be enhanced through advanced educational modules (EliyasniThe personalised experience it offers to the student is vital to detect character traits and specific interests, which could be evaluated for a better understanding of their professional integrity in the future. Blended learning allow learning content to be prearranged bearing in mind the learner individual tastes and necessities. It provides tools to develop content that suit a variety of knowledge methods. Online learning management systems (LMSs) attached with the right blend of conventional face-to-face learning and E-learning can be used to produce a valuable mix of medium for training.

This dissertation is an elaborated knowledge hub which depicts the research is prepared to develop deep understanding into the description of modified learning and how blended knowledge can help with the unique methodologies of blended learning, which is vital for Practice presentation, production, pronunciation and personalisation. These key elements of learning are vital for the blended learning approach as an enhanced form includes learning through Instructor-Led training session (virtual or classroom), story-based, group "seminar" learning sessions, self-paced learning modules, scenario-based eLearning, gamified learning activities, podcasts and audio recordings, video-based learning modules, social learning via the LMS.

of package is delivered to the students which can be differentiated from the traditional means of education. With the advent of digital technology, the quality of blended learning also gets enhanced so the approachability to the students is widened with the rise in concern for the rampant societal incremental changes. Many times students can adopt for modified courses according to their knowledge needs. This allow them to choose courses which can help fill information gaps and get better their learning of precise topics only. During an online course, one can also skip parts for which there is theoretical clarity and focus on the topic that needs more attention. The pandemic was critical to uplift the prospect of blended learning as digital learning and connectivity had tremendous exposure from a worldwide perspective. This unnatural situation was vital to emphasise the education system where the emerging generation could adapt to these advanced changes, which are beneficial for the educators, as well as the students. However, the challenges during the pandemic were totally different as it was the only way to conduct regular classes through e-learning, digital material exchange and virtual classes. The blended learning approach does not compromise the traditional methods of classroom activities, group learning, direct interactions and social learning, which provided additional significance to blended learning prospects. The offline education would be core to the integrity of the upcoming generations, but the online approach would provide the ease of accessibility of these teaching and additional learning opportunities, which were not possible through traditional means. There have been various norms to optimise the blended learning approach, and many developing counties are thinking of standardising the primary education system by aligning with the blended learning approach. Academic learning must have social-persona effectiveness which has been addressed in this mode that include face-to-face driver model, rotation model, flex model and online driver model.

Research questions

The research question for this assignment is, “What does a review of research tell us about how blended learning can be used to support primary school pupils’ development?”

What is the development measures reconsider in the research for the make use of of blended learning amongst primary school pupils?

Organisation of the research

The constructive work approach of the study is to focus on the evaluation of the blended learning purpose and the way it is influential in the education development of primary school pupils. The mean organisation of the study is to understand the scope of education and blended learning aspects that helps to enhance the process of learning and student integration accordingly. Moreover, it is also important to find out the justification that helps to derive the influential value of blended learning that has been accessed by authors in the past. The main organisation of the study is to understand the perception of the technical factors along with the traditional aspects that influence the blended learning purpose and once it is implemented on the primary school pupil and its outcomes accordingly. The research also considered the scope of data collection as an important part of the study that helps to evaluate and answer the different questions and objectives of the study to fulfil the aim of the dissertation.

Rationale of the study

The dissertation focuses on the primary evaluation that helps to understand the constructive development that remains one of the most influential aspects of primary school pupils. Through this study, the main agenda of the research paper will focus on the incorporation of the different blended learning aspects that helps to enhance the conceptual framework of education for pupils that will enhance their capability to focus on educational engagement. The study will also consider the scope of justification that remains extremely important to understand the process of blended learning and the different technical attributes that can have a negative and positive impact on the purpose of teaching that will help to review and analyse the use of blender learning for primary school students. Hence, to accomplish learning goals in relation with blended learning in the best probable manner, the contented developers have to integrate the technological and other applicable aspects sensibly in the learning content. After all, blended knowledge creates more appointment amongst the learners, increase the rate of maintenance in organizations, keeps learners more motivated, provides the best learning environment and facilitate both the professional and personal development programs.

The main reason based on which the study is being conducted is to analyse the review process that has been optimised by past authors and helps to understand that blended learning is influential for the growth and educational development of primary school pupils. Moreover, the study will also help to evaluate the positive and negative factors that incorporate the blended learning attributes and the way it supports the consistent student growth and development that helps to motivate and engage them accordingly. The study will also consider the significant synthesis of the educational outcomes that are heavily facilitated by the recent technical derivation that focuses on the scope of primary school student development that is relevant to understanding.


This chapter of the introduction has helped to focus on the different factors that are relevant to the aspect of blended learning and the way it tends to have an impact on the overall scope of primary student development. In addition to this, the chapter has also helped to understand the research aims, objectives, and questions based on which the study will be processed. Moreover, considering the research background followed by the significance and rationale of the study will help to evaluate the primary needs and expectations of the study and the process of data assimilation can be optimised accordingly. Therefore this chapter has helped to define the main objectives and perceptions of the study that will evaluate the outcome of the dissertation.

Chapter 2: Literature Review


The chapter on literature review remains an important part of the research conduct and focuses on the evaluation of the different secondary information that is relevant to the study. This chapter will integrate the specifications of the gaps in literature followed by the evaluation of the different themes that are significant enough to shed light on the different attributes of the topic. Processing this chapter will help to understand the different literature factors that are associated with the study and have been established by authors in the past focusing on the main keywords of the study.

Literature Gap

The consequences of research remain a major factor that reflects on the inadequate information given in a particular set of data assets. According to the evaluation of the current study, it has been optimised that the study clearly indicates on the significant evaluation that focuses on the blended learning approaches and the way it supports primary school people but it does not focus on the practices that need to be incorporated by the teachers' work practising blended learning. There are some major considerations that teachers need to integrate while practising blended learning which need to be evaluated during the research conduct procedure that will help to enhance the outcome of the study.

The perspective of blended learning on childhood studies

The teaching strategy has been changed technically with the rise of the 21st Century. Education has become more integrated, simplified, progressive, and illustrated across the whole world. With the advanced technique of blended learning among primary school pupils, the mode of education has been diverted to a new path of light. Indeed, it has the values of traditional learning and at the same time, it offers great feasibility by leveraging technological advancements to save time and money both. Other various kinds of blended learning are self-blend, flex, and so on. This learning strategy has now given rise to many learning platforms globally and is now one of the most adopted learning tools. E-learning and in-person learning are the most effective ways in today's world. Teaching and learning methods have become more enjoyable with the development of communication and information technology. Multimedia application tools are now used for visual learning methods. E-books have simplified learning much easier. A range of solutions and innovations is getting implemented in terms of health and safety.

According to Frankl and Bitter (2012), it is being noticed that the tendency of online and in-person learning has increased a lot among children. Based on his systematic and continuous research on this case study says that blended learning is a flexible way of teaching along with instructions that include explicit explanation on a particular topic, implying the facts with a more illustrative and collaborative environment in both online and in-person learning. This inherently helps the pupils to be more interactive. The research of Frankl and Bitter (2012) says that strategic planning by management, functional and affordable financial resources, technical skills, and learning based on problem-solving are some of the key factors in the victorious execution of blended learning. The viewpoints of the students on E-learning are quite approachable and positive. It is being noticed widely that there are huge variations in their developed study methods and they obtain better grades than before.a An effective learning strategy is not only implemented for the training of students but also at the corporate level. These advanced training strategies help the students to fully meet their learning specifications. This allows them to formulate more personalized learning instructions or strategies.

As per the research study by Syarah et al. (2018), it is being questioned whether there is any negative aspect to providing e-books to primary pupils. They tried to contend with the fact that it may have adverse effects on performances of the students.The necessity of blended learning in the present generation can bring challenges to primary school pupils. With the high range of technologies and learning, it can also bring feelings of unshared thoughts and loneliness. Sometimes students face various technical issues during learning. Due to a lack of social participation, children are unable to develop their communication skills as a result they sometimes feel a lack of confidence. At times students face slow internet connections and a poor range of connectivity. These issues often bring interruptions in ongoing sessions and also divert a child's focus on learning. It is observed that flexibility in learning online is very advantageous for students especially when they are from distant places. On the other hand, it is also observed that this often affects the personal lives of the learners. It is because the online mode of learning is to devote more time to study and less to personal circumstances. This may lead the pupils to feel dazzled and exhausted. This should be kept in mind while redesigning a course that high-quality learning does not always depend upon teachers' satisfaction, but also depends upon students' comfort and benefits. Blended learning allows primary students to work with instructors at the facility as well as take assistance from additional online resources while at home.

Different factors related to Blended Learning

There are various factors related to blended learning that influence students to get engaged. The author Hockly (2018) has mentioned that firstly, there are several available textbooks, solutions, journals, illustrative definitions, and other effective learning tools which guide students in their academics. It not just guides a student but also helps a teacher to show the correct path to the student through various features such as video lectures, images, quizzes, assignments, online tests, and many others. Secondly, the number of courses and quality material is designed for both students and teachers' academic necessities which provide a good impact on them. It is being observed and hence taken care of while designing various textbooks for students that materials should be well illustrated and explained elaborately along with assignment solutions with proper theory and many more practice materials else there will always be a risk of decline of students' interests on blended learning. This is also kept in mind that a student's needs and interests vary from subject to subject, so it is very important to design a large number of study materials and assignments depending on the need of some specific subjects. Thirdly, through blended learning technology a new advanced level of communication has been designed between the students, teachers, parents, and the administration team members. It is great connectivity for teachers and parents to provide feedback to each other and also instructions for the students to follow for assessments, assignments, and project works. Blended learning allows participants to work with instructors at the facility as well as take assistance from additional online resources while at home. With that, they can also avail the opportunity to communicate with their instructors using various online communication methods, receiving advice and support from the class. The variety of used formats keeps the content engaging and allows more creativity and space for the participants to dig deeper into the subject. (Rasheed, et.al 2020)

On the other hand, the authors Nortvig et al. (2018) had highlighted certain factors in their research that affect the implementation of blended learning. As per the study, there are some least effective factors such as previous failures, parent support, pre-service feedback, and most importantly internet accessibility. Some other factors affect the implementation such as technology tools, time management, physical environments, technological assistance, and administrative support during the session and process of implementation. In certain cases, teachers' strategies for teaching, usages of technical tools and other elements, and classroom protocols also become barriers to reducing the engagement of students. Due to online assistance, students are often unable to interact with their respective teachers for their doubts. Converting education has brought a revolution in academics but at the same time, it has decreased the interpersonal communication between teachers and students. Moreover, limited internet accessibility is a major issue in implementing blended learning. Teachers and students have the same views on how to deal with the existing issue of poor internet connectivity during the session. This problem affects not only their ongoing classes but also online assignments, projects, assessments, and other activities. This has become a burning problem that needs to be resolved to develop the implementation of blended learning among students not only in primary classes but also in higher education. Finally, it can be said that having a collaborative environment, time management, administrative skills, supporting teachers, and numerous prospects for students' communications play a significant role in academics. But at the same time, a study plan should be designed in such a way that online learning becomes fun learning for students other than a burden.

Positive attributes related to the functional framework of blended learning

The blended learning implementation requires a definitive framework which has national as well as global acceptance. The framework is dependent on the incorporation of technology, digital tools, and advanced teaching methods which needs a standard methodology to align with the teaching schedule. The primary school students are sensitive to learning, given student face-to-face interaction and various aids to receive timely performance feedback have made blended learning a unique training and development strategy. The overall result of this particular training strategy is to enable every learner to focus on the information and skills they are in need of, without having to attend long unnecessary lectures or going through piles of unrelated information. age and hunger for asking questions, so the educator must have boundaries of blended learning to culture only the educational and social part of the curriculum (MulyantoThe conjugative influence of online and offline education is the fundamental framework which is optimised with criteria, policies and standardisation. The vital part is to incorporate the blended learning culture among the educators as the competent training and coursework compatibility would denote the effectiveness of the framework.

The administration of the regional institutions would require to develop a designated database and learning management system which would establish a sustainable and standardised framework of curriculum, engagement and communication. This is an advanced initiative as the digital connectivity would be enhanced, ensuring all the students and educators are connected in a singular platform for ease of communication and management. The functionality would involve sharing supplementary course materials, learning modules discussion, evaluator questionnaires, activity log, interaction network establishment and application tutorials. However, this is an advanced approach and could be optimised according to the available resources in regional educational institutions. The objective would be to digitally connect with the educational angle even Blended learning allows primary students to work with instructors at the facility as well as take assistance from additional online resources while at home. when the students and teachers are away from the institution. This framework is decisive for the establishment of competent update facilitation to notify each member of their respective assessment, activity and evaluation. This attribute of the blended learning framework would enhance the independent engagement of the student which is crucial for personal development achievement (Hwang et al. 2019). Culturing this prospect with mobile blended learning would enhance the approach of device usability and adaptation to smart tools which is an incremental learning achievement. This scenario is vital for future usage of digital platforms as the pros and cons would be cultured among the student group as a proactive approach. However, the intervention from the parents is another angle to tackle which needs to be induced through logical discussions and motivation.

The blended learning culture would be a strategic initiative designed by understanding the cultural sustainability of the regional community as the model would be adapted to the social angle as well. According to the author Firdaus Unlike traditional classroom, blended learning offers a good collaborative environment for childrens. This substantially increases collaboration amongst the learners and between the instructor and the learner, which makes blended learning strategy one of the best online training platforms. As the learners use many collaborative tools such as blogs, online discussions, instant messages and others, they are able to collaborate with each other in a better way and in fact, in or out of the training room.

Impact of blended learning on the development of primary school pupils

The application of the blended culture has been accepted by various educational environments as the utilisation of technology in an innovative way has suddenly struck this idea of enhanced digital education. However, the study of Kholifah et al. (2020) have highlighted that this framework is easier to develop in higher education systems and business sectors, due to the ease of understanding and reasoning among adults. The implementation of blended learning in primary school pupils has to be delicate due to the particular stage of their lives. The variety of used formats keeps the content engaging and allows more creativity and space for the students to dig deeper into the subject. It has been seen the impact of blended learning provides a positive result when the modern educational prospect is concerted. The inculcation of explorative attitude has been widely observed which is vital for the personal development and skill development prospect of the students. When the students are deprived of explorative prospects from a generalised perspective, it is natural they want to apply their own reason to counter that and eventually the scenario turns sour. This phenomenon impacts their learning from the angle of education and character development. Instead, the blended learning culture projects its widened utilisation prospect which is inculcated by the educators by standard measures and curriculum (Wahyuni, 2018). The activities involving group interactions, online assessment, physical activities, submission to evaluations and digital media usage are equally important in blended learning. The critical part is the commitment of the educator and learner’s acceptance of following the learning module which would enhance the impact of blended learning. The scenario of competition regarding blended learning is another impact that has enhanced the development prospect of the primary school students as they understand all the participants are treated equally. This attribute has been a positive factor that depicts the importance of blended learning.

Other than the learning outcomes denoted by the students, the teaching methods are also enhanced where digital tools and devices are implemented subjectively to perform presentations, demonstrations and collaborative activities which is not possible in traditional methods. This scenario has a major advantage for the learner's understanding and the educators have to submit themselves to the application methodologies of this digital system (Rasmitadilaet al. 2020). The graphical representation and mixing of diversified topics in the curriculum are vital to enhancing confidence among the student which is only possible through digital learning methods. Interpretation of concepts and examples are easier when computers and smart devices are introduced to the students which they recognise with a different perspective in the homely atmosphere. The implementation of these devices in educational institutes is key to showing how diversely these can be utilised in academic prospects where the students only have a narrow perspective of using them for entertainment. The blended learning approach is vital to reducing the workload of primary school students as digital work representation is much easier than manual work (Anthony, 2019). The advent of blended learning emphasises advanced learning, which is another vital impact on the integral development of career traits identification among the student groups.

Major gaps in the blended learning process

The major gaps in implementing blended learning frameworks are its compatibility issues with the regional community acceptance, learner Like any other learning strategy, blended learning also has positive and negative aspects. In today’s world, the learning and working environment offer unparalleled opportunities for online training facilitation just by adopting blended learning approach. This learning strategy can be applied to any program which holds on to the values of traditional learning and incorporates digital media with that. The approach is a lot more efficient, effective and appealing to individuals than anything that has been ever before. of external entities, approval of various educational boards and interested investors. These elements are very difficult to conjugately assess due to the scale of effort required for the part of convincing them is humongous. The community as a whole is a rigid block of obstruction which resists the transformation of the education system into a model of blended learning. However, Learning is no longer confined to merely brick and mortar schools where students are confined to whatever is taught by the teacher. It is now common for students to reach out to multiple sources, especially via the Internet to enhance their perspective regarding a topic. the coronavirus pandemic period has created a favourable atmosphere to implement the blended learning approach. The investment required for this system is huge as the in-campus setting would require a modern infrastructure with enough space to accommodate utilities and individuals. The technological development to facilitate the blended learning model is another angle which would require external advice for establishing a fluent system of network and communication (Dziuban

The capabilities of cognitive response and following an educational model are other major gaps in the blended learning system establishment. In many cases, the students may not respond to the rampant methods of education in an uncontrolled way, which is natural, given their age. The convincing part of the learner’s attention is dependent on the educator’s capabilities which are linked with the traditional value of education. This may be a vital situation if the students are given extensive freedom and not emphasised in the projected curriculum. There are some situations where even if the student is attending the classes but the understandability and response are not satisfactory which is an issue of engagement with the educator. However, these situations are occasional scenarios which must be addressed beforehand while developing the education system model. The involvement of digital education requires a different tutorial which is another difficult part to inculcate among the students but it is the primary objective to establish the atmosphere of the blended learning model (Anthonysamyet al. 2020). The acceptability of the blended learning model would vary among the student due to the diversified family backgrounds and cultures. This makes it very difficult for the educators to align the mindset of the participating students with the blended learning model.

The attributes of the educator are a vital part to address it as an issue as the blended learning model requires modern thinkers as the administrative and teaching staff. The problem that could imminently arise is the scenario of replacing a teacher or a system administrator where the model has to be explained from the initial stages (Whalen, 2020). In this case, the transition of the staff is critical as the engagement factor with the students is another major obstacle. The criteria of the curriculum and the culturing of the blended learning model are subjective in many regions which would create a problem of adaptation.

Rectification of blended learning process to support school pupil development

According to Prescott et al. (2018), a popular approach to reading instruction in recent years is blended learning. Blended learning may be recognised as an appropriate approach to meet the needs of different groups of students, such as students with varying degrees of proficiency in English. Currently, there is limited research at the elementary school level examining the effectiveness of blended learning. According to him, blended learning offers the unique advantage of incorporating teacher-led instruction face-to-face with digital technology with the help of actionable data for providing students with a personalised learning path. With blended learning, the pace, content, location and timing of students' learning are closely related. It is also mentioned that Real-time data typically plays a valuable role in a blended learning approach as delivered through digital technology enabling teachers to differentiate instruction based on student progress. Teachers using blended learning are able to target instruction to their student's specific learning profiles because blended learning models are able to support small-group, whole-class as well as independent work. As a result of differentiating instruction, blended learning contributes to providing class- or school-wide improvement opportunities for students with diverse populations (Prescott et al., 2018). Based on the perceived advantages over traditional instructional models, blended learning is continuing to gain popularity in general education settings as well as targeted populations.

As the article stated by Alsalhi, Eltahir and Al-Qatawneh (2019), their research on the effect of using blended learning on improving student achievement in science subjects for ninth grade indicated that a considerable difference was noticed between the control group students and experimental group, which is in favour of the experimental group students. In this article, various experimental methods have shown that blended learning has played an influential role in education, especially in higher education. This article notes that learning can be considered more effective if the advantages of a web environment are combined with face-to-face interaction in courses that are more visual. Based on the recommendation, encouraging teachers to employ a mix between direct learning and technology with the help of blended learning may prove to be a good way. Adapting and designing activities in science textbooks for blended learning may be a better approach (Alsalhi, Eltahir and Al-Qatawneh, 2019). In implementing this, similar studies can be applied that reflect the views and experiences of blended learning practitioners in science education and improve teaching skills in teaching science through training courses to inspire the use of modern and innovative techniques such as blended learning.

According to this article written by Liya (2021), it is argued that the impact of Google Classroom on students' English achievement is undeniable. Google Classroom plays a vital role in significantly improving the performance of college students in English as a foreign language, especially in their reading as well as writing skills. In this research, Google Classroom was used as a hybrid learning to support students' learning activities. In the research, it was found that during the study, students received more assignments as well as materials through Google Classroom. Also, students are showing a positive attitude towards using Google Classroom as its ease of use, accessibility, and usefulness are undeniable. This study acknowledges the contribution of Google Classroom as a method of blended learning to enhance writing and reading skills. Finally, Liya concluded that Google Classroom could help students learn the English language and can have a significant impact on university students' skills (Liya, 2021). Needless to say, a statistically significant difference was observed in students' English proficiency regarding the application of Google Classroom in a blended learning environment. However, all the arguments suggest that the need for blended learning is by no means minimal.

Primary ways of developing blended learning

Mobile blended learning makes an essential contribution as a unique form of blended learning, and it enables the description of learning opportunities in which mobile technology plays a special role in supporting situational learning activities as well as linking learner mobility to the concept of learning opportunities. Suartama, Setyosari and Ulfa (2019) stated in their article that systematic planning is critical in designing a successful instructional system for mobile blended learning. A combination of different models can be used in this case. Learning process design can be represented through two models. These are the top-down model and matrix model. The top-down model is unable to link each instructional component (information, objectives, assessment and practice/activities) to each other, hence the lack of proper alignment between each of these components (Suartama, Setyosari and Ulfa, 2019). Meanwhile, the matrix model represents the consistency between instructional elements and succeeds in playing a more influential role in aligning instructional elements. They also point out that mobile blended learning can serve (virtual ILT session, usually via lecture videos or short learning modules)as a means to restructure learning strategies and focus more on students. This gives them more room to effectively engage in the learning process, which can be implemented through the use of the e-learning platform, i.e. Moodle Open Source.

According to Musdalifah et al. (2021), The application of blended learning in corporate and academic circles is increasing day by day. Blended learning was ranked among the top ten trending educational systems in the June 2016 American Society in Training Programs list. They mentioned in their article that the application of a full-day self-paced eLearning course(s) to provide in-depth knowledge about the concept(s), followed by a graded online assessment. school policy had made a very effective contribution by looking at the advantages and disadvantages of the community (Musdalifah et al., 2021). The management system plays an effective role in fulfilling the responsibilities of education which is mainly based on three types of environment, i.e. school, family and community. Educational autonomy contributes to improving the quality of education that takes place in elementary school institutions. However, despite having a full-day school policy in several schools, it is not observed. This full-day school policy contributes to providing adequate time for students to learn, structuring teaching and increasing educational opportunities. Full-day school policy is gaining acceptance as a strategy for blended education system development to integrate knowledge and skills. It is regarded as a golden period by parents, communities, teachers and governments to support the full-day school policy program in view of the need for curriculum coordination in the preschool period as well as the learning needs of students in primary school.

As Alammary (2019) states in his article, he mentions five models for the development of blending education systems. Even modern teachers opt for combining a variety of teaching methods to teach students, including using blended learning models. mixed model. In this model, practical coding, as well as content delivery, takes place both online and face-to-face. The author believes that this model has flexibility regarding the online courses and learnings and what should be taught in the traditional classroom. Not all traditional lectures are able to be replaced by video lectures as some students are unable to learn the variety of materials effectively from video lectures. It is, therefore, imperative that instructors should use a mix of both classes as well as online resources to deliver content that allows students to learn better (Alammary, 2019). Continuous improvement of instructional videos, revision of assessment methods, and use of up-to-date technology combined with the course is expected to make the course more acceptable to students and provide a more effective learning experience. Above all, however, it is clear that there are different approaches to Blended learning development, and each approach has certain characteristics that cannot be denied.


On the completion of the literature review chapter, it can be summarised that the different things that have been evaluated in the research focus on some of the crucial attributes of blended learning practices. This chapter has elaborate and focused on the description of the different themes followed by the analysis of the gaps in the literature. Moreover, understanding the perception of the past literature is influential to evaluate the process of Data collection along with the derivation of the research methodology that will help to process the outcome of the study.

Chapter 3: Methodology


This research methodology chapter in this study helped in analysing ways to incorporate blended learning in primary school. In this context research approaches and philosophies have been justified for systematic literature review. Along with this, the search strategy by highlighting the PIO research question, inclusion and exclusion criteria, data extraction and synthesis process is also described. In order to prove authentication, thorough details of ethics maintenance, reliability, and validity have been justified.

Research approach

In this study, a secondary research approach was considered which includes data collection from existing resources. The secondary research approach is the method where data can be gathered from internal and external sources (Largan and Morris, 2019). In order to analyse the topic, the researcher did not consider the primary research approach and relied on pre-existing data only. The difference between primary and secondary research approaches includes the primary approach time consuming and expensive while secondary Primary research is one that involves the gathering of fresh data, i.e. when data about a particular subject is collected for the first time, then the research is known as primary one. On the contrary, Secondary research is a research method which involves the use of data, already collected through primary research. Secondary Research is extensive and cost-effective. This second method of data collection has many advantages. They can also save you time and money. Secondary data can be used to fill in any gaps or weaknesses in an organization's essential extra. Secondary data can be obtained from many sources, which makes research more efficient. data is inexpensive and less time-consuming (Gupta and Gupta, 2022). As the research purpose is to understand the blended learning method in primary education, considering the primary approach would be difficult so the secondary approach was more appropriate and convenient for the researcher. Besides this, time constraint was another reason which influenced to consider a secondary approach.

Types of review

Review types consist of the systematic review and narrative review. The traditional review helps in analysing broader aspects of the topic and does not show transparency in overall methods (Taguchi, 2018). On the other hand, the systematic review helps in analysing existing research by discussing objectives, methods and findings. In this context, a critical review is considered throughout the study. The critical review helps with in-depth analysis as well as evaluation. The traditional review did not cater to mitigating the main purpose of this study. However, Systematic review prioritised time mostly (Linares-Espinós et al. 2018). Moreover, it can be stated that this review process helped generate vast details about the topic. In this study positivism research philosophy and interpretive philosophy is considered to generate productive outcomes. Besides selecting both the research philosophies, there are some reasons. Positivism philosophy is effective for understanding the concept of the social world through objectives (Ryan, 2018). On the other hand, interpretive helps in generating theories (Alharahsheh and Pius, 2020). Thus, it can be stated that both philosophies helped the researcher to understand blended learning in primary education more effectively.

Interpretive philosophy also considered that the researcher wanted to observe the importance of blended learning and identify the reason behind the issues. In order to mitigate the issues associated with the blended learning, this philosophy helped a lot. Moreover, quantitative and qualitative both methods have been considered to produce reliable data and prove authentication. The qualitative method is an effective way to deal with descriptive data sets while the quantitative method is effective for analysing numerical values. Thus, it can be stated as both these methods were utilised, the researcher got an ample amount of supporting data to prove authentication.

Search strategy and strings

The search strategy is important to collect credible data sources for the topic analysis. In order to answer research questions, a search strategy is one of the main requirements of a researcher during the conduction of studies. In terms of maintaining all-over consistency and avoiding any irrelevancy, search strategy is mostly considered. In this context, the researcher used Boolean logic to maintain accuracy in selecting the sources. This logic is considered "And", "Or", and "Not". As per the view of Xiao and Watson (2019), boolean operators are an effective way to select sources based on grouping keywords or individual keywords. For instance, "And" is used when two keywords at a time need to be considered while searching relevant sources while "Or" considers when there is a need for only one keyword among two. However, "Not" is used when a particular keyword is not required while searching the sources. From the British Educational Index, credible data sources were chosen. In order to produce valid data related to the topic, this method helped the researcher. Boolean operators include two criteria; inclusion and exclusion. The following section discussed the PIO research question for this study.


5 to 10 years of students 

Inclusion criteria

Recent data related to the topic, ensuring safe practices, technology implementation suggestions, valid ways for instructing suggestions, creating awareness among government and higher authorities of schools. 

Expected outcome 

Technology advancement, maintaining quality time among students and teachers, developing technical knowledge In the classroom, the instructor uses examples/anecdotes/best practices from their own experience to drive home points and engage learners.

Table 1: PIO

From the above table, it has been identified that inclusion criteria were some recent data, awareness of school authorities, and technical knowledge-related data. In terms of the expected outcome, the researcher wanted to analyse technical solutions for the education sector. The following section of this chapter described the inclusion and exclusion criteria vastly.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion and exclusion criteria help in research by identifying relevance with research objectives or questions and avoiding irrelevant in the study (Patino and Ferreira, 2018). This defined the main need of the researcher to answer the research questions. Inclusion criteria include some common factors such as characteristics and demographics. Hence, in this context also, understanding inclusion criteria was crucial for the researcher. In this study, the inclusion criteria were including population which was 5 to 10 years age of students, recent data related to the topic, education related data. As primary education was the main focus thus understanding issues lying within it is also required to highlight through this study. Following inclusion criteria shows a direction that the researcher is conducting the research in the proper way. While exclusion criteria in this study were characteristics factors and avoiding data that did not match the research questions answers. Best of these criteria, the research narrowed down.(Summary) Several sources were rejected when these criteria were considered. In this context, peer-reviewed sources are mainly chosen. The sources which were selected must be achieved their objectives. Thus, it can be highlighted that the researcher had to invest a lot of time in applying all the inclusion and exclusion criteria to meet the research question. As here PIO research question builds up, the inclusion and exclusion criteria must need to be matched with it. Hence, every article is selected based on boolean operators and inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Data extraction and synthesis

Data extraction is a process followed to collect data from vast sources to achieve the research objectives of a study. This process starts from the scratch level when unstructured data is identified. Data extraction helps a researcher to refine and consolidate different types of data and produce assumed outcomes. In the primary stage, the ETL framework is mainly followed which includes extraction, transformation and loading (Huls et al. 2018). In terms of this study, the researcher typed certain words and found relevant vast results. After the search result, some relevant sources were selected and downloaded with different folder names. Then abstract screening was done from the sources. Then the second round of screening also took place to narrow down the sources and make the study more reliable. In this process qualitative and quantitative both methods have been considered for selecting the sources.

Reliability, validity, ethics

Ethics plays a significant role for researchers in terms of proving the research validity. If any issues occur in the research, then it might impact on the researcher adversely. In terms of ethical aspects, the researchers always consider valid data sets which can easily impact on their efficacy level as well. While searching the data, the researcher only chose the data which were found from the "British Educational Index Database" only. As this critical review follows certain steps for data collection and analysis, thus it can be assumed that there is less chance of occurring any authentication issues. Boolean operators, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and data extraction helped in selecting appropriate data sources and produced detailed outcomes related to the topic. No data has been copy-pasted along with this referencing is done properly to avoid any academic integrity issues. All the criteria chosen in this study were also represented in table format. The research questions were also selected based on PIO format; hence it can be stated that no unethical practices have been followed which could produce serious consequences. Research ethics matter for scientific integrity, human rights and dignity, and collaboration between science and society. These principles make sure that participation in studies is voluntary, informed, and safe for research subjects.


This chapter described the whole methodology followed in this study to collect data and analyse as well. In this context, the researcher considered a secondary research approach along with positivism and interpretive research philosophies. On the other hand, boolean operators have been considered along with inclusion and exclusion criteria. This process helped the researcher to extract data more effectively and produce relevant outcomes. The research question was decided based on the PIO format. The data extraction process is also described. At the end, the ethical aspects of this research methodology are illustrated as well to prove ethics. Hence, it can be stated that this research methodology has a unique feature which reduces the chance of occurring any ethical issues and highlights every used method to maintain transparency.

Chapter 4: Data Analysis


This chapter of data analysis will be focusing on the evaluation of the data that has been discussed in the previous chapters of the study. This chapter will be considering the evaluation of the secondary data based on which the data collection process has been accessed and will help to shed light on the different themes associated with the selected subject matter of blended learning practices.

Data analysis

The scope of blender learning is an important aspect that has helped to transform the educational perspective. A hybrid approach that focuses on a blended version of integrating technical and digital learning methods is reliable for student development. According to Suartamaet al. in 2019, the purpose of blended learning is evaluated as one of the most flexible approaches that incorporate the teaching practices in experience to be more reliable and ensures the purpose of student learning and education is addressed accordingly. Therefore the consideration of flexibility helps to ensure that the blended learning method is incorporated with opportunities that focus on technical and traditional approaches to education and ensure that students specifically related to primary school are able to understand and perceive the purpose of blended learning accordingly (Suartamaet al. 2019). Blended learning is one of the most successful aspects that has enhanced the capability of web-based educational aspects and incorporated it in the primary school section that will remain effective in the long run. This is eventually one of the positive aspects that focus on student development.

It has often been observed that students belonging to the primary school section often lack engagement and comprehensive behaviour when it comes to academic development. According to Medina in 2018, when students are not well incorporated with engagement with academic perspective, the integration of blended learning approaches in the classroom can be an effective way of maintaining student engagement. The authors also specified that a constructive learning approach can be easily evaluated by using the blended learning that will help to focus on internal and external engagement This modern learning strategy can easily track the material accessed by a participant. It also shows at what time and for how long they reviewed the material. All of this, especially in a corporate setup, can easily be done digitally and this provides the track record for the students which is extremely required in terms of educational perspective (Medina, 2018). This is even more supportive as students concentrate on blended learning approaches that focus both on the traditional and digital ways of teaching. Even for the Teachers, the process remains extremely seamless and the scope of engagement with the students can be achieved accordingly. Therefore it has been analysed that the efficiency in terms of student engagement is more achievable when it comes to blended learning practices and the way it is incorporated into the primary school development that will focus on consistent development and growth.

During any kind of external critical situation, it easily track down the data in terms of participants’ eventual performance improvement. This learning strategy makes data tracking a lot more convenient and quick. It helps in eliminating the cookie cutter approach of grading exams is important to enhance the scope of learning specifications for both other students and teachers. According to Yustinaet al. in 2020, during the Covid-19 pandemic, there were several complications that teachers and learners had to come across to optimise the scope of education and learning practices. This is when the incorporation of blended learning practices became extremely prominent and influential in terms of ensuring that teachers are able to teach students and that all the desired educational perspectives are accessed easily. In addition to this, the pandemic was extremely impactful in terms of effectively managing the educational activities. This is when the integration of blended learning purposes followed by the web based activities became extremely influential in terms of manifesting educational activities (Yustinaet al. 2020). Additionally, blended learning during the pandemic became the primary framework based on which students and teachers will be able to integrate especially in the primary section where physical interaction or face-to-face interaction is highly required to ensure the purpose of academic evaluation.

The scope of optimising student progress is important especially for primary school students to ensure that they are able to grow and develop themselves accordingly. There are different frameworks and theoretical practices that are relevant to education. According to Albiladi and Alshareef in 2019, blended learning is an important approach for students that helps them to progress themselves. The authors also specified that the current work that is associated with blended learning practices is an effective way that instructors can use digital technology and ensure that they are able to serve the purpose of teaching willingly allocated time that will help them to promote student engagement and progress collaboratively. This is even more relevant as the scope of blended learning intervention is useful for primary students in general and ensures that all the subjects of the students are evaluated and are taught in the most appropriate manner (Albiladi and Alshareef, 2019). It has been optimised that blended learning remains an important part that helps to maintain student consistency and allows the teachers to ensure that they are able to teach successfully without any boundaries. Therefore the digital framework that comes with blended learning remains one of the powerful assets that has helped to transform the traditional way of education.

The process of evaluating education activities is important and this is when the evaluation focuses on the blended learning practices that are more influential. Education is an important part of students therefore the practices that will be incorporated into it requires to be well stabilised. According to Prescott et al. in 2018, the incorporation of blended learning practices needs to be incorporated on a regular basis that will help to ensure that regular knowledge checks are incorporated within the function and framework of student guidelines. This is considered even more influential for the primary school students to ensure that they are able to grow and develop their academic specifications accordingly and access the opportunities by using the blended learning practices (Prescott et al. 2018). In the long run, blended learning practices help to offer high quality hybrid education and practices that focus on the learning resources by making them more relevant and aligned with the academic curriculum that will help the student to grow successfully. 

It has been observed that for primary school students the scope of growth and development is different and most of them learn things in a different manner. Therefore it is relevant to understand that the learning practices need to be different and this is when hybrid learning can be easily taken into consideration. According to Rafiolaet al. in 2020, blended learning is specific and the way it is addressed from the educational perspective is extremely innovative and influential in terms of maintaining the educational requirements. Moreover, blended learning is influential for instructing primary school students and at the same time, it focuses on the consistent scope of growth followed by the incorporation of academic specifications that are sufficient enough to enhance the process of learning (Rafiolaet al. 2020). The process of blended learning and utilising it accordingly will help to add a resourceful of in terms of educating primary school. In addition to this blended learning acts as a better approach in terms of a remote educational perspective that enhances the personal experience of the learners followed by the incorporation of successful engagement.

For the primary school students, blended learning remains one of the prominent aspects that help them to focus on the scope of effectiveness along with flexibility in the learning process. According to Serrano et al. in 2019, it is important to enhance the scope of educational effectiveness followed by the incorporation of flexibility that will help the students to engage and learn academic factors significantly. The authors also facilitated the fact that for primary education and higher education aspects blended learning practices has become one of the finest ways that help to measure effective and flexible learning practices for the learners and the teachers. Therefore the conceptual aspect of flexibility is extremely possible with the participation of blended learning practices that will help to approach remote learning factors followed by a cost effective educational attribute (Serrano et al. 2019). Blended learning incorporates both traditional and digital educational practices that in general make the process more reliable and flexible and help to enhance the scope of effectiveness that will remain effective in the long run on primary school pupils' development.

The utilisation of academic assessment is an important part of primary school student educational practices. Due to critical external situations at times Students and instructors who are not tech-savvy can face a great barrier in terms of smooth interactions. The participants will face difficulty in accessing the course material students at the primary school remain inconsistent in terms of coping with educational assessment. According to Fisher et al. in 2021, the hybrid learning practice that focuses on blended learning aspects has incorporated technical derivation that focuses on the access of remote educational practices. This has helped to increase the scope of educational reliability by incorporating real time digital practices that help to utilise education through the blended learning process (Fisher et al. 2021). The authors also evaluated the fact that most of the students are very integrated with satisfactory performances and engagement that has been made possible by the process of blended and flipped learning. In addition to this, the advantages of printed learning remain the primary scope of improving the traditional framework of education that helps to strategies education and teaching practices in a significant manner.


This chapter has helped to specify the internal aspects that are associated with blended learning practices. Based on this the collected data on the selected subject matter has been analysed accordingly. This has helped to perceive the minute aspects associated with the blended learning activities and the way it is influential on the primary school pupil and ensure the sufficient amount of growth and development that will enhance the educational activities accordingly.

Chapter 5: Summary


Blended learning can be considered as a strategy of eLearning which combines online training and traditional classroom for the maximisation of engagement among the employees. It can also be explained as a cost-effective way of providing the learners with the relevant instructions and content in a particular place more effectively as compared to the conventional methods. There are many advantages of blended learning such as increased engagement, increased productivity, lowering of costs, and increased engagement. Various learners also have various types of needs and expectations as well from students along with different modern learning approaches (Rasheed et al. 2020). This focus also has shifted from the traditional teacher-centric approaches towards the learning of Centered Education. Addressing the needs and expectations of the students as well is instrumental in terms of transforming various learning landscapes. Blended learning can also be considered to be an approach that includes various personalised experiences of learning and technology is also quite transformational for the learning landscapes. Blended learning is also an approach that is innovative along with being more advantageous. It is also quite popular and continuously being more effective in terms of the learning methods in current times. It has been observed that the incorporation of the blended learning approaches has become one of the major trends in the educational perspective that eventually helps to support the scope of growth and development for primary school pupils. More specifically in the current situation, the incorporation of blended learning is a combination of both online and offline educational and learning experiences that enhances the scope of teaching for the students and makes them more reliable by incorporating technology-driven teaching practices.

Recommendations and findings

The main findings include the discussion of the perspective of blended learning in childhood studies. This also includes the discussion of the implementation of this Blended learning in terms of corporate training explaining its importance. Digital transformations are also being taken over like storms whereas the methods of traditional learning are also quite outdated as there is less engagement in the workforce (Smith and Hill 2019). There is also a discussion of the implementation of Blended learning in terms of corporate learning as this acts as an instructional strategy combining the use of this digital content with various traditional methods of learning. This includes various field trips along with team activities and workshops as well. These findings can also be helpful both for the organisation and employees as well and this Blended learning is also quite helpful in terms of understanding weaknesses along with knowing the strength of the efficient workers for that organisation. This is also about the introduction before its arrival as companies are waiting usually on the first day of office along with assigning information to every individual. The critical part of designing the model of blended learning is the scope of acceptance in the regional communities where transforming the education system is a huge challenge and cannot be done as an overnight project. This would require extensive research, legal compliance, participation of external entities, and approval of various educational boards and interested investors. These elements are very difficult to conjugately assess due to the scale of effort required for the part of convincing them is humongous. The community as a whole is a rigid block of obstruction which resists the transformation of the education system into a model of blended learning.

There are various recommendations related to this Blended learning process and these include:

  • Use of a proper modular Design: The blended courses which are composed of discrete chunks or modules is quite easier to be updated because the instructor finds some ways as well as gains some experience for making incremental improvements.
  • Integration of two different modes: When the content is appropriately integrated, there is an interdependence between what happens in the classroom and what happens online. It is also about the higher stalks which are working within that particular class and it is also quite lesser in terms of transmission model during that the instructor will be provided with required lectures for the students who are just listening.
  • Getting Proper help: In this phase, it has been recommended to take advantage of the support within the institution even if an individual is not required to do (Hockly 2018). Under better circumstances, an individual will be provided with compensation, pedagogical and technical support, and time to help in designing the blended courses. Along with that, seeking a tutor had also been recommended within the discipline for addressing the issues which are specific to the content of the courses.


The above research is mainly focused on the process of Blended learning along with the discussion of its importance to every student. The research predominantly concentrates on the conceptual framework of blended learning and the way it can be influential in terms of supporting the scope of development and growth for primary school pupils. Blended learning has been implemented in many counties which have wider acceptability of modern tools and digital education. However, primary school education requires greater emphasis to optimise the learning experience without limiting the traditional education which has been provided for numerous generations. Blended learning models could be aligned with personalised subjects which would have a stimulating approach to education. This blended learning has helped to specify the internal factors which might be associated with mixed studying practices. Based on this, the accumulated data on the selected concern depend has been analysed for that reason. This has helped to perceive the minute factors related to the combined studying sports and the way it's miles influential on the primary school student and ensure the sufficient quantity of boom and development to beautify the instructional activities hence. There is also a requirement for extensive research, legal compliance, participation of external entities, and approval of various educational boards and interested investors. These elements are very difficult to conjugately assess due to the scale of effort required for the part of convincing them is humongous. The community as a whole is a rigid block of obstruction which resists the transformation of the education system into a model of blended learning. There are also various recommendations provided related to this Blended learning explaining various ways in which it will be helpful in today's days.

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