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Q1. UK legislation and environmental concepts that the contractor must follow

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The construction industry is an industry in which the constructor has to follow many laws and environmental rules. There is a significant proportion of legislation in the UK. In creating a construction there are many rules and regulations to follow by the constructor. It is very important to also follow the environmental concepts during construction (Li et al. 2019). By obeying many legislation, rules, and environmental concept. In UK construction law there are many changes after the act 2018. UK construction laws are very much affected by the EU. These laws are based on environmental law, including obligations. 

  • The constructor cannot reduce the construction area's climate protection or environment to establish the project.
  • During the construction period, the constructor has to maintain the carbon-reducing system, and also keep an eye on how much carbon is used in the construction. 
  • The constructor has to concentrate on biological diversity to measure the conserve biological diversity and also reduce the combat illegal logging.
  • Also using environmental protection is very important for the construction business. The constructor always has to be prepared for any circumstances. 
  • In the construction business, the law of the UK also says not to allow subsidies for renewable energy. It will interfere with the competitive market.

After 2018, in 2021 there are also many other laws included in UK construction and environmental law.

  • Every construction has a requirement for a long-term environmental improvement plan. 
  • For a construction business, their target is not only based on the build but also based on how to improve the environment (Raidén et al. 2019). 

After environmental development, moreover, there are also some laws that are very much related to construction. 

Criminal law: There are many criminal laws in the construction industry, in theory, but they are not very much applied during construction. However, construction companies could fall foul of criminal laws. 

Health and safety: In the act 1974 health and safety has the single most important piece of legislation. In this segment, there are many regulations to follow during construction (Badi et al. 2021). During construction, there are many health and safety rule has to be followed by the constructor. This is really a minimum requirement for temporary and mobile workers. 

Licenses and consents: The construction business is all about licenses and consents. From starting construction to the resale of the building, every procedure has to proceed through many consents and licenses. Buying a construction area and then creating a license and after that taking permission on the basis of that license and making a deed or consent is also an important thing to follow in the construction industry.

Infrastructure: Every development has a requirement to be arranged by the local authorities. Also, the constructor needs the utility suppliers in order to create appropriate infrastructure. This segment of law has not being changed for many years. This law remains the same after 2021.

Obligatory requirements: This is a board of area, which is basically related to terms and conditions. It is very general to make any specific comments.

The UK followed much legislation during the construction. It is very important to know about the laws and legislation for the constructor before starting a project. The Act 1974 of “Health and safety at Work” says that in a construction process all workers’ Health, Safety, and welfare are the entire responsibility of the constructor's head (Umeokaforet al. 2022). These types of many laws are there in the construction legislation. The legislation of UK construction is mainly divided into two part one is, general legislation and the other one is specific legislation.

General legislation: In general legislation, there is a basic point that is based on the health and safety of the worker. In this part, the employees are required to identify hazards and assess the likely impact. After knowing the risk the organization has to minimize the associated risks.

In health, safety, and welfare there are many laws to follow:

  • At work, the regulation says to create a management of health and safety. 
  • Uses of work equipment and provisions are also included in the law.
  • The worker has to carry their own personal protective equipment.
  • Lastly, the law talks about workplace health, safety, and welfare which is very important because in the construction industry the worker do their work taking a life risky situations in the head. 

After all the health and safety regulations there are also some principles to follow. 

  •  In construction, as a constructor avoid some situations that are not applicable or suitable for that position (Jobidon et al. 2018). For example, if a constructor starts a project but after a few weeks, the constructor came to know that the land is not so strong to give support to that building it will fall down after making it and it will harm many people and workers during the project. 
  • After seeing any kind of hazard in the project immediately takes a step to resolve the problem and evaluate the risks. 
  • After catching the hazard the constructor has to address it at the source and also adopt new working methods in which the hazard chances are very low.

Specific legislation: The construction industry has three main perspectives all three are based on specific legislation which is basically concerned about head protection. Among all the first specific legislation is based on health and safety in the workplace. This legislation also includes specific requirements during construction. Perhaps the most common construction legislation is CDM regulation. CDM means the “Con-Dam” regulation which says about the minimum safety of the worker who works in temporary or mobile construction areas. The second perspective is the “COVID-safe environment” after COVID situation the constructor has to follow some new rules which are followed after the Covid situation. Lastly, it is very important to know that the UK is departed its rules from the EU. UK legislation no longer follows the EU construction legislation. But in many parts of the UK construction legislation is originally based on the EU perspective. 

After knowing all the legislation and environmental concepts of the construction industry it is clear that in the construction industry it is very much important to keep an eye on the health and safety of its worker.

Q2.Utilisation of project’s master programme 

A contractor's compliance can be identified properly by the client by addressing certain measures and taking note of certain parameters necessary for the evaluation of the contractor's capability to perform on this specific project. In this course, it can be done by utilization of the master program that allows the client to take note of experience in this specific field of work process and the financial capability of the contractor. On top of it, under this program, the client can also track the work process and the ethics of the contractor in dealing with the available resources at hand.

The course of evaluation is necessary for this line of business since it professes an aspect of transparency in the overall course of work process n and policies them with the detailed outlook regarding the project they have invested in. The helm of the project is regulated by the contractor and hence it is important for the client to ensure the project and the associated investment are in the right hands (Brydeet al. 2019). The master program involved in the project would help the client to have proper details regarding the professional background of the contractor. This aspect of consideration for data is necessary as a pre-qualification assessment. This will be highly beneficial to the client involved in the construction of the ERC, it will help the client and the contractor attain a synchronized manner of work and monitoring process This program will allow the contractor to have an organised framework enabling the contractor to report to the activities in a managed fashion. This will help in addressing any issues that might arise in the project, swiftly. 

Q3. Minimization of the project’s impact on the neighboring community

This particular project is already working on an associated land that has many disputes. Ti involves issues regarding petrochemical dumping and mining-oriented issues (case study). Hence it is necessary for the client and the contractor to work in an organised manner and follow necessary measures regarding the overall work process to mitigate the impact of the construction process in the neighbouring region. The construction of ERC is based around a residential area which has a history of vandalism. However, it is important to take important steps to ensure the safety of people around and all the workers involved in the projects. 

The coordinator can ensure a minimal amount of rework to ensure a strengthened structure and also it is the responsibility of the contractor to dispose of the waste materials from the site properly to minimize the course of pollution. Simultaneously, the client ought to coordinate with the contractor and facilitate them with the necessary pieces of equipment to maintain safety measures and a proper flow of the work process (PE et al. 2018). The provision of fuel-efficient pieces of equipment replacing the old products will not only mitigate the probability of accidents but will also reduce polluting factors. Proper coordination between the client and contractor of the project would minimize the impact of the construction in the surrounding regions.


Q1. Process of budget formation and components of a budgetary process 

In the construction industry, it is important for the organisation to come up with important strategies that would be essential in managing different resources that are available to the contractor. These resources include the construction materials and the financial aspect of the project, which is the budget which will determine the quality and the pace of the project that is to be followed in this specific project (Azi and Shah, 2021). Budget planning is an integral part when it comes to the completion of the project works for any given flow of work process. A strategic budget planning process is associated with the work process of creating a long-range budget plan that generally stretches over a year.

The principal contractor can utilise the aspect of budget planning efficiently that is necessary to be addressed in this particular situation.Effective budget planning is the determinant of the return on investment from the specific project. The course of budget planning can be started through an assessment of the available resources. It is the first and foremost step to calculate the flow of money. Secondly, the factor that comes forth is the assessment of the expenses associated with the project and additional costs to settle the disputes that are associated with the course of the work process (Alexander, 2018). Once a pattern of expenditure is assessed it will thereby be the goals are to be determined and divided based on long-term and short-term goals. 

Primarily at a construction site of such magnitude, the budgets are to be segregated into two district segments that would help in further consideration of the flow of the project of the construction of the Englemere Rehabilitation Centre (ERC). The two courses of the budget include:

  • Hard costs: These are the direct costs associated with the tangible materials associated with the construction project. These costs are directly associated with the project and include th labour costs, pieces of equipment and material costs that are involved in the process. It represents the cost of tangible aspects of buildings, sites landscapes. The direct costs include the labour costs; it is associated with various payments that are to be allocated to the human resources working on the site of ERC. Equipment costs involve the costings of different gadgets that are to be utilised in the course of this construction project and lastly the materials costs that are associated with the raw materials and the final products involved in the project.
  • Soft cost: These are the indirect costs involved in the project. These are the associated costs that are to be expended in the course of the business. This process includes the costing associated with legal fees and accounting and other temporary fees like insurance facility fees etc.

Assessment of these two components is important to determine the associated components. For example, the overall estimated revenue and the profit that can be generated after the completion of the project (Al Breik and Nobane, 2019). Consideration of these components of budgeting and allocating the substances will determine the project cash flow that is involved with this project and the financial allocation can then be reallocated in favour of the project. 

Q2. Budget utilisation by the principal contractor 

A principal contractor is one that has the legislative responsibility to ensure the proper flow of the work process involved in the construction/the individual is responsible to ensure heal and safety of the individuals and the person is also responsible to keep an outlook for proper facilitation at the site. In the course of the construction of the ERC certain disputes have arisen regarding the land and location that can prove to cause some hindrance in the long run for the project in such a scenario it is the responsibility of the principal contractor to formulate effective budgeting and properly allocate resources that will be helpful in maintaining a proper cash flow through the events of the project. 

There are however certain factors to be taken into consideration while formulating a budget to generate s table cash flow and enable a proper cash flow forecast for future endeavours. Cash flow forecasting includes the estimating of future expenditure and it is important took shows whether the business will have enough allocation to perform well in the long run or not by providing a clear idea regarding the profit and loss associated with the course of the work process (Omopariolaet al. 2019). Cash flow is an important component to consider especially in th construction project that helps in determining the overall course of the work process involved in the flow of work. Certain components can be taken into consideration while formulating an effective budgeting strategy to assess the cash flow involved in the course of WorkIn this particular stage of the construction of ERC determination of the cash flow is crucial to assess the allocation of resources necessary for the effective flow of the project in association with people involved in the project and the resources available. Also, it will be helpful in determining the profitable aspect of the project in adherence to the safety concerns regarding the conditions of the people involved in the project. 

Certain components include in the course of cash flow forecasting in association with the budget that is available for this specific project. In the first stage, it is important to determine all the stages that are involved in the course of the cash flow involved in the course of the project (Sobolevaet al. 2018). Secondly, all the income sources and the inflow of the cash ought to be determined would contribute to the funding of the project, it includes the tax refunds, grants and investments incoming from the shareholders na the investors. Simultaneously the outgoing th capital is to be determined which includes the rent, salaries and raw materials available for the resources for the project. 

In this particular course of the project, it is necessary to lay down the flow of the work process to determine certain strategies involved in the course of work. Application of certain theoretical models in this course of work can be helpful in determining certain aspects necessary for the completion of the project and this can be done by prioritizing the resources at hand in the initial stage and strategising the course of the process for the project. It is important to identify the two main crucial types of a cash flow process for better utilisation of the monetary resources involved in the course of this project that is direct and indirect cash flow, the former helps in forecasting the short-term and midterm course of cash flow while the latter is involved more on the longer span. There are certain factors that are to be considered for the flow of the work process. It includes the determination of the factors like the payment terms of the clients and analysis of their relative frequency which helps in determining the inflow of cash (Lamzaoueket al. 2021). The project cost is to be evaluated by the principal contractor evaluating the fixed and the variable costs involved in the course of construction for ERC. These costs involve the rents, license fees and salaries na also the additional transaction, commissions and the allocation of the inventory. A bullwhip impact in the initial stage of cash flow can impart larger consequences in the later stages (Rafati, 2022) In short, proper budget planning involving both the internal and external factors of cash management can be helpful in determining the cash inflows and outflows involved in the project and would give a clear idea to determine the cash flow associated with the project. 

A free cash flow theoretical model into consideration will prove to be highly beneficial in determining the overall factors involved in the overall flow of the cash in this project. The budget involved in this project can be effectively utilised to improve the steps necessary for this project (Khuranaet al. 2018). In this scenario, a robust accounting system is necessary to analyse the finances involved in the project and that would help in outlining the anticipated and estimated cash associated with this specific course of the project. Construction of asylum around a disputed land that has been noted to have a history of substance-oriented illness and a residential place with a history of vandalism is known to cause certain issues from the external stakeholders and thus the budget and the resources at hand ought to be utilised and allocated by the contactor to ensure stable availability of the cash for the project all the while proving worker involved on-site to be provided with proper facilities and salaries on time. These situations are necessary to be taken into consideration while planning a proper budget that would aid in forecasting the cash flow for a specific course involved in the project. Some of the notable steps would include the conservation of the liquid cash at hand and monitoring of the accounting process (Laurila, 2022). This would not only help in having proper control over the cash involved in the project but would also project a positive forecast associated with the cash flow for this project.


Q1. Outline the specific hazards and related risks 

The report of the site investigation by “rock and soil geotechnical engineers limited”, depicts a detailed ground investigation where the rehabilitation centre will be defined. The conditions of the ground and possible impacts of it on the construction of the healthcare centre will be evaluated before starting the construction work. On the site, 2 invasive investigations of the borehole have been carried out to analyse the level of water and soil samples. The soil sample that has been collected for chemical analysis showed that the soil contains a greater amount of “petro-chemical contamination” (case study). The area is not that much fit building superstructures as it has a long history of coal mining. 

The specific hazards that have been found in the quality check report include there as a higher rate of domestic and industrial waste on this construction site that affected the land. Problems or risks that will arise due to this mismanagement of waste include air emissions, soil contamination, and pests (Ilankoonet al. 2018). Poor waste management can reduce the health of the land that has been selected for superstructure building construction. It generally contributes highly to air pollution, soil erosion and pollution and climate change. The direct effect is caused to many species and ecosystems. The major challenges or risks that can be present in a construction site due to this long disposal of industrial and domestic waste into the land are unsterilized sources of “C & D waste” for recycling. 

The major risks that can raise conflict in a construction site include improper use of equipment and resources, electrical hazards due to faulty earthling circuits, and improperly built structures of the pillars and base of the construction (Ortloff, 2020). The workers if get highly exposed to any chemicals during the construction work this can affects the entire work. These risks usually include spray paints, carbon monoxide, lead, silica, and asbestos. Chemicals in the soil can present in various forms that cause land pollution impacting building construction and its health. Dust, fibers or solids, and fumes can impact the health of the land as well as the building if constructed without proper soil quality checks. 

Risks in a construction site can be identified into several types including design risks in projects of construction, physical risks in the construction, economic or financial risks, and legal risks (Wang et al. 2022). Other major risks that can affect the construction site work progress include “acts of god risks or environmental risks and technical or design risks”. Logistic risks can also affect the work progress of the construction. These risks consist of the availability of construction equipment like “machinery, spare parts, labour, and fuel” and transportation facilities (Kumar Mishra et al. 2022). All these risks can also become a threat to workers' lives during construction and can cause several uncertain probabilities. This includes “damage, liabilities, loss of revenue, external or internal vulnerabilities, and chemical and physical injuries”. The main risks that can be caused due to identified hazards at the construction site are stated below.

  • “Slump of the sloped ground”
  • “Highwall Rock Falls”
  • “Leaks of oil, fuel or chemicals”
  • “Spillage from water supply pipeline”
  • “Excavation and trenching”

Q2. Management of the identified risks in the construction site 

The examination of the identified risks and specific measures for the management of these risks are discussed below.

“Excavation and trenching”: The works of excavation include the removal of soil or any mixture of rock and soil. This has various risks where some workers can get injured or buried under the soil due to sudden collapse if slides or by falling into the excavation. This usually happens when the condition of the land is not up to the mark or the land quality s below expectation for the contraction of superstructure buildings in the healthcare sector (Khan et al. 2019). Unsafe access and frequent flooding can also cause land pollution and disruption. It is very necessary for all workers present on the construction site to remain aware and take safety measures to avoid accidents. 

The safety measures for excavation must have one “ladder per 15 m of length” in the case of work that consists of a higher rate of hazards and a “ladder per 30 m of length” in the case of work that constants fewer hazards (Kellogg et al. 2020). All parts of the trench, in case of public areas, guards, fences, or barricades must be provided so that it can prevent or control severe accidents. The excavation area needs to be well-lighted for night work. 

Trenching in the construction sites creates a narrow excavation below the ground by utilising an “earthmoving machine” determined as a trencher. This is used in construction sites to dig deep trenches mainly for laying electrical cables or pipes and for installing drainage systems or preparing trench warfare. Risks in trenching can be well managed through several processes including sharing the trench’s perimeter in order to hold back the potential cave-ins (Masoumiet al. 2019). Other safety measures include shielding the construction workers with trench boxes and sloping the trench walls in order to reduce “dangerously steep walls”. 

“Slump of the sloped ground”: Slumping at a construction site can highly impact the construction work as well as the life of constructors or workers. Slumps are referred to as the mass of materials that are used in construction works and the mass of rock layers that move a short distance down a slope. This impacts vast amounts of “debris into the system of streams”. The debris generally changes the water chemistry and even decreases the health of the land where construction will be done (Baryannis et al. 2019). The slope failure can be controlled or managed at the construction site through several effective methods. The major methods that the contractors can use to mitigate or manage the slope failure include creating a proper drainage channel, “benching and terracing, retaining walls, geo-grid structure, sheet pilling, rock bolts, friction piles, and shotcrete”. 

The methods that enhance the stability of the slopes and reduce slump formation include adding a surface cover to the slope, changing and excavating the geometry of the slope, and adding good support to reinforce the slope (Corrado et al. 2020). This reinforcement to the slope can be done through drainage control where the groundwater is controlled in slope material. The slope treatment is very necessary to prevent risks at the construction site and this can be done through various effective processes such as subsurface drainage blankets, steel reinforcement, wire netting, and excavation. 

“Spillage from water supply pipeline”: All construction site needs a proper drainage system for water waste. Water seals and traps are the most vital parts of this drainage system and proper utilization of these appliances will save the contractors or workers from several diseases and risks of accidents at the construction sites. The major types of water supply systems that can be used in construction work include “gridiron system, ring, radial, and dead-end system” (Wideman, 2022). Spillage and leakages from “water supply pipelines” can be caused by mistakes of workers, break down of construction tools or equipment, and natural disasters like earthquakes and hurricanes. As per industrial and governmental statistics, it has been found major causes of leakages and spillage of water lines at construction works are due to unauthorized or improper digging close to a pipeline of “water supply system”.The risks of this spillage in “water supply pipelines” can be managed well through several methods including ensuring adequate training for “operators of heavy-duty machinery like water pipelines”, and proper inspection of all equipment and tools that will be used in the construction site. 

“Leaks of oil, fuel or chemicals”: Leakages and spillages in pipelines of oils, gas, or chemicals at a construction site can cause several hazards to workers at the construction site. This can be prevented or managed by ensuring proper “pipelines excavation processes”, and replacing the worn or cracked fittings and hydraulic lines before they fail entirely (Harris et al. 2021). Leakages of oils, chemicals, or fuels can be prevented by creating a bilge sock out of absorbent fuel or oil pads. This process can also be effectively used in order to prevent the discharge of“oily water”. Leaks in chemical or fuel pipes can cause several hazards at the construction site including fires, releases of hazardous and toxic materials, and explosions that lead to worker illness, disabilities, natural damages, injury, and even death. 

“Highwall and rock fall”: Workers of constructors who work under high walls have a higher risk of getting buried and injured if the wall collapses suddenly during work. After the construction of the building, the collapse of the building can take away the lives of large numbers of people and cause a huge loss in business revenue and operation. The workers at the construction site can protect themselves from this sudden fall of high walls or rock materials by wearing hard hats in order to protect their heads (Corrado et al. 2020). Thick gumboots can be worn by the constructors in order to keep their feet protected from water and injuries caused due to rock falls. Google can also be used by workers to protect their eyes from dust and chemicals at construction work. 


Q1. Construction of the Core House by considering a suitable foundation system

Building construction in the healthcare sector is referred to as both a methodical and complex process. Several processes are there in order to approach the issues to get results that are based on certain factors. At the time of building the construction project structure, the approaches that can be considered by the project managers and the workers are stated below.

Framed structure: The structure that has a combination of structural components including “column, slab, and beams” remain connected all together. This connection helps resist gravity and several lateral loads that cause several high wall collapsing or material fall accidents during the construction work. The framed building structure is generally utilized in order to overcome large forces and is also determined as a “beam-column structure” (Deng et al. 2020). Depending on the condition of soil and building load piles, piers, and footings this framed building structure is made. Several advantages that the construction work and constructors can get from this framed building structure are stated below.

  • Partition flexibility is provided in the case of room, walls, and floor partitions of the building. 
  • The stability of the building structure is provided through this framed building structure.
  • Framed building structures can be done on low-bearing “capacity soil”.

The disadvantages of this framed building structure have been stated below.

  • This structure is not at all recommended for the 3-floor buildings and is highly recommended for superstructure building construction. 
  • The span length of this frame-building structure is generally restricted to “40 ft when normal reinforced concrete”.
  • The span length is increased by more than 40 ft then it can cause lateral deflections. 

Load-bearing building structure: The “load-bearing structure” is rarely utilized for construction purposes if compared to framed building structures. 

“Load-bearing buildings” are generally made up of heavy masonry walls of stones or bricks and these support the whole structure of the building. Another name for the “load-bearing structure” is the “wall-bearing structure” (Nouri et al. 2021). The load is usually transferred from the floor or slab to the walls and to “load-bearing footing”. The structure is commonly utilized in the case of random rubble construction work. The core house is the simple structure of a shelter that is actually built with a limited budget and further expanded “room by room” as per the economic growth of the organization to meet the need for space. The core house can be built by using a framed building structure instead of “load-bearing masonry” by considering a revised foundation system the appropriate foundation system that can be used in this case is RCC pad footings that have an isolated structure with “grade beams” (Khan et al. 2019). The system of RCC pad footings generally consists of RCC which is “reinforced cement concrete”. 

The major advantage of “load-bearing masonry” is mentioned below.

Economic benefits: The process usually performs well for low-rise buildings like core houses that have less than 3 floors and have “no space constraints”. The “load-bearing structure” is cheaper if compared to the framed building structure. The bricks or stones that are used here are of lower cost if compared to concrete that is used in columns and beams in the case of a framed structure. The depth of the foundation of this type of structure is nearly 1.2 m to 1.5 m. 

Several disadvantages of “load-bearing structure” are stated below.

Restriction in floors or walls partitions: The walls are generally thick as columns and beams in the cases of “Load-bearing structures”. External and internal walls sever as “major structural elements” and the purpose of the enclosure of protection against natural calamities including rain, heat, sound, and fire. “Large span areas” are not possible in the case of “Load-bearing structures”.

Instability of building structure: “Load-bearing structures” are usually constructed with some major masonry units including cheap “bricks and stones which are bonded together”. This is a major reason why they offer poor resistance to natural disasters like hurricanes and earthquakes (Kellogg et al. 2020). This structure mainly requires meticulous detailing and designs and cannot bear too much loading and can collapse at any time.  A “Wall-over-wall” design cannot be used in order to maintain the flexibility of this structure. Limited number of “storeys” can be built in this system and the most difficult task of this system includes the “Cantilever element”. The limitation of this “Load-bearing structure” allows a short time span. 

Q2) Strategies to enhance energy generation or conservation / reduce gas or electricity utilization

In today's time due to the rapid growth of global warming, it is necessary to take proper measures to ensure the neighboring environment is conserved. Especially in case of the construction projects, it is important to take proper measures to utilize the available resources properly to reduce the amount of pollution that can be liberated in nature and hence it is important to take proper measures. 

In this construction site, effective measures can be taken into consideration to utilize the energy at hand. One such measure would be to install solar panels at the site it will be highly effective in generating renewable energy at the site and would reduce the utilisation of gas and fuel and mitigate the pollution. This is a popular sustainable and eco-friendly approach to be taken into consideration for this project and it would also help in the conservation of electricity. The usage of hydrogen power cells is gaining momentum in recent times, these cells are portable and scalable making them highly optimum to be used at construction sites. These two methods are highly popular in current items to reduce the utilization of gas and electricity thus proving to be highly cost-effective in the long run.

The utilisation of renewable energy in the work process is necessary to be used properly for the course of the work process. At times energy utilisation at construction projects takes around 5.7% of the overall project budget (shipleyenergy.com, 2022). Thus alternate methods are highly sought after these days. A sustainable approach is important to take into consideration in the work process, it is not only profitable to the environment but it is also helpful as a cost-efficient measure.

A green construction process is a highly sought-after measure that can be taken into consideration to make the palace more energy efficient on its own and this construction site can also utilise bioenergy which is also a major source of renewable energy. All these aforementioned approaches can be taken into consideration to attain a healthy construction process. Globally the construction sites are responsible for liberating around 39% of greenhouse gases from the overall processing (theconstructor.org, 2022). Hence it is not only an alternative in current times but also a necessity to take a sustainable and eco-friendly approach in the course of the construction process of ERC. 

Q3. Processes of “off-site construction” to build a Core house within a short time span

The process of building a core house in a short span of time is a very simple job for professional masons. This is a job that requires RCC pad footings as they are mainly composed of concrete cement. These are the cement that is concrete by nature due to their efficiency as a padding instrument. 

The most important feature that is used to make a proper core structure is to have grade beams. These are the beams that are commonly found on structures that are standing in an isolated position (Wideman, 2022). There are three different variants of RCC pad footings that help to build different types of core structures. 

They are known as individual, strip and raft footings that are used for several mechanisms. These foundations come into the site as they are ready to be installed. Therefore, they do not require time to make a traditional foundation. These are the types of foundations that either have a shape of rectangular or circular pads. The main objective of these pads is to bear the local load of columns. 

The columns are like pillars that help to hold a structure which is commonly a roof. The foundation has to be deep enough to reduce the time to construct a core in an off-site location (Baryanniset al. 2019). The average depth has to be at least 600 mm to 2000 mm to be far more effective in supporting the pillars. This is the way a core house can be built in a short time span. 



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