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INTRODUCTION: Human Rights Of Autistic Children In India

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1.1. Background

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise a wide range of symptoms and underlying causes. They struggle with interpersonal communication and developing relationships with others. In addition, individuals with ASD frequently demonstrate peculiar behavioural patterns, such as an obsession with the smallest details, difficulty to switch gears between tasks, and an abnormal response to sensory stimuli. According to Tiwari et al. (2021), an early diagnosis and treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are high on the global agenda for mental health because of its prevalence (1% worldwide). Autism affects 78 million people around the world, with devastating effects on both the affected and their loved ones.

SDI 2017 DALYs for autism spectrum disorders in Indian states

Figure 1.1: SDI 2017 DALYs for autism spectrum disorders in Indian states

Signs of autism spectrum disease include behaviours and interests that are repetitive and stereotypical. Autism spectrum disorder is a pervasive neurocognitive illness characterised by impaired social interaction and communication. The INCLEN study found that the incidence of autism spectrum disorders was as high as 1 in 125 children between the ages of 2 and 6, and as high as 1 in 80 children between the ages of 6 and 9 in five states located in northern and western India (Tiwari et al. 2021). The estimated prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in India as a whole was 1 in 89. As per the studies of Goyal et al. (2019), Autism was initially identified in 1943 among babies born in the 1930s, and its frequency has since been estimated to be on the rise globally. Morbidity can be greatly reduced with early intervention. The ubiquitous nature of Autism Spectrum Illness, a neurodevelopmental disorder, means that it presents a significant challenge to both people and societies of all ages.

CDC Report on Autism Prevalence

Figure 1.2: CDC Report on Autism Prevalence

The causes of autism spectrum disease are not well understood. It is believed that environmental factors and hereditary predispositions are both involved in the process of pathogenesis. Research conducted on humans and animals has shown that exposure to certain environmental agents can have neurotoxic effects, with symptoms ranging from severe intellectual dysfunction to more subtle changes in behaviour. One example of such an agent is heavy metals, which are found in the environment (Sanders et al. 2009). In the year 2020, a report from the CDC found that one in every 54 children suffered from an autistic spectrum condition (Autism Speaks Org, 2022). Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental illnesses have recently gained more attention in India as well as countless other countries. If a person has one of these conditions, it may be difficult for them to retain emotional stability, learning capacity, self-control, or memory for the rest of their lives.

Neurodevelopmental illnesses present their sufferers with a unique set of challenges throughout life; but, with the right support structure, these individuals have the potential to succeed. In India, the long-held stigma that individuals with neurodevelopmental problems can never amount to anything, are a burden on their family, and are still called mentally retarded is beginning to dissipate, but progress is slow. Films such as Taare Zameen Par and My Name Is Khan is helping to dispel this stigma, but it is a process that is taking time. In India, those who fall anywhere on the autism spectrum are afforded a number of legal protections that are given to them by the country's government. They see to it that everyone is given what is due to them and that everyone is treated in an equitable manner.

Children who have special requirements are required by law to receive their education in an environment that is tailored to meet their specific requirements. This is done in the interest of ensuring that all children are provided with the opportunity to receive an education that is both appropriate and free. According to Lindor et al. (2019), children diagnosed with ASD who exhibit severe symptoms are sent to specialised schools, whilst those whose symptoms are less severe or more moderate may be included in typically developing children's classrooms. Young people who have been diagnosed with learning challenges might receive academic enrichment and vocational training from specialised institutions. These institutes offer both types of training. People who are law-abiding citizens in India have the same rights under India's Constitution. Everyone, including those who practise different religions or who have physical impairments, is considered to be a part of this (physical or mental).

1.2. Problem Statement 

The major problem that the study is going to address is discrimination or human right violation in children having ASD. According to Leeuw et al. (2020), many parents of autistic children continue to try to keep their child's condition a secret from the public; they are reluctant to take their children to public places like parks for fear that strangers would stare at them or make fun of them. In India, there is a lot of misinformation floating around and having autism is seen as a social stigma. A significant example of discrimination is that autistic people face when schools turn them away on the grounds that they are unable to provide the necessary resources to suit their needs. People with cognitive levels above average are not permitted to attend conventional educational institutions. Additionally, they may have difficulty adhering to the norms and guidelines of conventional educational environments. Bullying between siblings is a significant issue for children who have autism, as well as for children who have other developmental difficulties (The Statesman, 2021).

As a result of society's notion that bringing up a crippled child is a tragedy on par with losing a child to death, many parents believe they have no choice but to keep their child's condition a secret from other people. As mentioned by Carruthers et al. (2018), when the general public has a negative image of those who have autism, it not only does not help such individuals integrate into society and be accepted, but it also presents roadblocks and difficulties. As a consequence of the stress placed on relationships, autistic persons have a greater propensity to become socially reclusive, struggle to keep their jobs or switch to a completely different line of work. This has demonstrated that discrimination has been severely affecting the lives of people suffering from ASD.  

In order to counteract prejudice and discrimination, as well as to debunk misunderstandings and increase understanding about autism, more needs to be done to welcome and assist people who have the disorder. To clear up any confusion, people need to define what this is and is not. How to alleviate suffering and elevate the standard of living for individuals on the margins of the society. Even though the primary cause of autism has not been identified, prevention strategies exist. There are, however, ways to lessen the likelihood of having a child who suffers from autism.

1.3 Research Rationale 

People who fall somewhere on the autism spectrum typically have unusual brain architecture and distinct approaches to the processing of information. The neurological condition is how the medical community describes the condition of the patient. Autism affects anywhere between 1% and 2% of people all over the world. It's possible for someone with autism to have abnormal sensory experiences in both natural and social surroundings (Iyall Smith, 2021). A person who falls somewhere on the autism spectrum could have exaggerated or understated responses to stimuli in the areas of sight, smell, touch, sound, and taste. People who fall somewhere on the autism spectrum might have trouble developing their language skills, struggle with communicating their thoughts or rely on assistive technologies. They might have difficulty functioning in groups, navigating transitions, and being okay with ambiguity. People with autism tend to find solace in repetitive behaviours and rituals because they are predictable. It's also possible that they'll start specialising in a select few areas of study. Autism is characterised by a tendency to take things at their literal, rather than their figurative or symbolic, meaning.

Autistic people are claimed to have "an incapacity to recognise social conventions" by the medical community, and the success of their "treatment" is measured by how much improvement they make in their ability to interact with others in ways that are considered "normal". As cited by O’Dell et al. (2016), it is possible for someone to be diagnosed with autism, but it is also possible for that person to have personal experience with the illness). Before shifting the attention to the autistic person's personal viewpoint on the world, the study intends to examine some of the ways in which autistic people's human rights are being infringed. 

This further is followed by a discussion of how autistic individuals view the world. The need of developing research on the human rights of autistic people is essential in the context of India. India is a diverse country, having a combination of different languages, cultures, religions, and other aspects of society. It is going to be interesting to understand whether the human rights of autistic people in India are violated or not. Besides, if it is violated, then it is important to understand what the causes behind the discrimination and prejudices in Indian society are. Moreover, the initiatives that need to be taken by the people as well as governments to address the issues, need to be discussed as well.

1.4. Research Aim and objectives 

The primary aim of this study is to lessen discrimination against children with ASD in areas including health care, education, and employment. The research aims to help families and communities with children who have autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by ensuring that they have the resources they need to deal with the disorder's negative financial effects. Treating children with ASD in India on par with children without the disorder and drawing parallels between the two is another goal. Findings from this study will illuminate how to best provide for the rights of autistic children in a way that meets their specific requirements.

The following are the research objectives that are going to be addressed in the study:

Objective 1: To learn about human rights and to learn through and about human rights.

Objective 2: To determine the necessary support for the ASD youngster to live a fulfilling life.

Objective 3: To assess the basic rights of ASD children in accordance with Indian legislation and to prevent prejudice against ASD children's fundamental rights in India.

Objective 4: To help in improving their ability to live freely.

1.5 Research Questions  

Question 1: To learn about human rights and to learn through and about human rights.

Question 2: To determine the necessary support for the ASD youngster to live a fulfilling life.

Question 3: To assess the basic rights of ASD children in accordance with Indian legislation and to prevent prejudice against ASD children's fundamental rights in India.

Question 4: To help in improving their ability to live freely.

1.6. Research Significance 

All these problems concerning the human rights of children with autism spectrum disorders are quite intriguing and significant. It's possible that some of these issues can be addressed through people's personal experiences or through the experiences of those who have worked with thousands of families whose children have autism. On the other hand, there are a great number of questions regarding autism in India that have yet to be answered due to a lack of empirical study. According to information that was made public by the CDC, the prevalence of autism in the United States is roughly 1 in every 54 children (Maenner et al. 2020). In the meanwhile, there is no data available from India to produce an estimate of the prevalence that is particular to India, and it is uncertain whether there are variances in this rate anywhere else in the world.

Even though autism is not an extremely uncommon condition, a significant number of individuals who suffer from it in India have still not been diagnosed and hence do not receive the necessary treatment. This issue arises in many countries, but it is more prevalent in India. In India, there is a significant lack of information and comprehension regarding autism among medical personnel, which increases the risk that the illness may be misdiagnosed or inadequately diagnosed (Geetha et al. 2019). In this regard, it is important to develop full-fledged research on the topic of human rights in India. Research in the topic area is going to be massively significant to address the issues that were not previously addressed in the context of India. 

The research is going to be necessary in order to address inequities in health, seeing as how the promotion of equality is necessary in order to contribute anything of value to society. This has the tendency to encourage and empower communities to execute programmes that focus on improving the human rights of children with ASD, and this, in turn, will enable the reduction of harassment and discrimination, and ultimately eradicate victimisation of the children with ASD. Children with autism spectrum disorder are unable to convey their wants and feelings, and they require appropriate support that provides them with justice against others who are unable to understand their condition.

1.7. Research Structure 

The study consists of five chapters namely "Introduction," "Literature Review," "Methodology," "Data Specification," "Findings and Results," and "Conclusion" chapter. The first section of a research paper, an introduction, often consists of a statement of the problem being investigated and some contextual information. It is in this section of the study that the research's justifications and goals become clear. The chapter also includes the formulation of the study's goals, objectives, and research questions. The second section of the research is a literature review that looks at the existing research on the difficulties of providing healthcare to the elderly with dementia. Before beginning a new study, it is important to undertake a thorough literature review to gain a firm grasp of the previous studies that have been conducted in the same area.

Research Outline

Figure 1.3: Research Outline

Researchers cannot learn what has already been studied or show what remains to be done in an area without first developing a literature review to show what has been done and what has not. The methodology chapter discusses the methods and procedures that were employed to complete the study. The credibility and verifiability of scientific findings in research are both bolstered by a well-developed research process. The research has been able to create a comprehensive strategy thanks to the approach, which will help them stay on track with their investigation. The present study's fourth chapter, Data Specification is dedicated to examining the obtained data to achieve the study's objectives. The fifth section will be written after the data analysis results have been interpreted. Conclusions, research question resolution, and writing the Conclusion chapter all rely heavily on the findings gleaned through data analysis. An essential aspect of every research project, the conclusion chapter serves to summarize the study's main points, concepts, goals, and results.

1.8 Summary 

Autism has emerged as one of the most difficult neurological diseases affecting children's development. The primary goal of the study is to focus on the human rights challenges that children with disorders confront. The study aims to investigate the causes of discrimination and inequities faced by autistic children and their parents. To minimise the effects of inequality in Indian society, it is critical to address the concerns and implement effective measures. It is critical to undertake the study in the context of India, where there is a significant gap in autism awareness. This is undoubtedly one of the primary causes of rising discrimination and human rights violations. The research will be critical in raising awareness of preventative and strategic recommendations for dealing with the situation.


2.1 Introduction

In this chapter, a literary discussion is going to be done based on the found literature on the human rights of autistic children in India. A thematic discussion has been done based on the systematic review of the literature. This literary discussion includes Autism and families in metropolitan India with retrospective perspectives of parents and professionals on autism spectrum disorder and studies of disability in India. Moreover, education of children with disabilities, universal health coverage for autistic children, and Indian school teachers' views on including students on the autism spectrum in general education settings have also been highlighted in this chapter. 

2.2 Conceptual framework

2.3. Theoretical paradigm

2.3.1 Inclusive learning theory

According to inclusive learning theory, "Inclusive education" is a word used in the field of education to describe the process of integrating students with special needs into regular classroom settings designed for students without such needs. In the field of education, "inclusive education" is used to describe a model that is flexible enough to accommodate pupils with a wide range of needs, including those with cognitive, emotional, linguistic, and other forms of impairment. As per the view of Taylor (2018), children who are nonverbal, especially those with ASD, should be part of the education systems of any nation since doing so would help them develop stronger social skills and increase their confidence in speaking in front of an audience. 

Students on the autism spectrum who attend regular classrooms do better academically than their peers who are segregated into special education programmes. The same holds true for intellectual achievement as well as social competence (Westwood, 2018). As part of the international agreement on the UN convention on the rights and the rights of children, it is proposed that children with disabilities take part in inclusive education.

2.3.2. Theory of Change (ToC) framework

The theory of Change framework informs the development of health policy and programming for autistic children in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). To cope with the demands of complicated projects advises utilising the ToC as a framework. The goal of a plan is to specify the steps to take in order to achieve a specific goal. The established ToC will serve as a guide for families on their journey from recognising their child's differences to receiving appropriate identification, diagnosis, and interventions supported by the health system and policy framework. As stated by Rhodes et al. (2019), it will begin with parents recognising their child is different and end with them having access to effective screening, diagnosis, and treatment. The goal of this analysis is to track, in one place, the factors crucial to carrying out this complex action.

2.3.3. Disability identity theory

From the standpoint of the social disability identity or cultural affiliation model, the disability community is seen as a group (perspective). As opined by Forber-Pratt et al. (2019), when people accept their disability as part of their identity and begin to identify with a particular group or culture, in this case, the deaf culture, they are more likely to participate in and value the activities connected with that culture. Inclusion in one's society is vital to sustaining an individual’s dignity as well as offering a sense of security and the prospect of having a more fulfilled life. It has been proven time and time again how crucial it is to assist folks in being emotionally close and valued within society and to overcome any form of social isolation that individuals encounter daily.

2.4. Systematic LR

Journal Title



1. Autism and families in metropolitan India with a retrospective

Vaidya, 2016

Parents of children with ASD have been found to experience heightened levels of anxiety, depression, and other mental health concerns.

2. Perspectives of parents and professionals on autism spectrum disorder

Joshi, 2020

Parents and professionals think artistic children are not able to perform normal work and they need special care 

3. Studies of disability in India: new directions comprised elements from several fields

Mehrotra, 2020

Activism, research, pedagogy, development policies, spatial and social access, representations of gender and class, and rights-based discourses are only some of the interconnected subjects to Autism.

4. Education of children with disabilities

Gowramma et al., 2018

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan and other policies ensured that students with disabilities have equal access to the secondary education system.

5. Disabled children's inclusion in regular classrooms is crucial

Kauffman et al., 2022

Children who are at an elevated risk of having a disability are considerably more likely to be rejected for the opportunity to attend school. 

6. Autism: A General Summary

Bargad, 2018

An individual's mental health, including mood, ability to self-regulate, cognitive functioning, and memory, may be permanently impaired by certain diseases.

7. Causes of autism spectrum disorders

Hodges et al. 2020

Genetic code alterations, the vulnerability of X syndrome, metabolic imbalance, thalidomide, and valproic drugs can cause Autism.

8. A Pandemic of Autism in India

Kadam et al. 2022

3 million people on the Indian Subcontinent have Autism

9. The Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Justice System

Helverschou et al. 2018

Articles 15, 17, 32, and the disability act 2016 confirmed the protection of the autistic child in the educational system

10. Universal health coverage for autistic children

Divan et al. 2021

Government expenditures were allocated for treating cardiovascular stroke, disease, and cancer altogether.

11. Prevalence of Autism in India

Katsnelson, 2018

About one in every one hundred Indian children under the age of 10 has Autism, and approximately one in every eight has some sort of neurological disorder.

12. Indian school teachers' views on including students on the autism spectrum in general education settings

Kunnath et al. 2018

Inclusive education would assist persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) more than those with any other disease, taking into consideration the increasing awareness of ASD as well as the confirmed cases of ASD.

13. Strategies to diagnose Autism

Mehdi, 2022

Standard symptomatic and behavioural screening, sensory, and verbal therapy are effective in diagnosing Autism 

14. Inclusive education for autistic children in India

Mukkiri et al., 2022

The government needs to ensure that children with ASD have access to inclusive education

Table 2.1: Systematic LR

2.5. Thematic arguments

2.5.1. Autism and Families in Metropolitan India with a Retrospective

Having a child with special needs is a journey into the unknown, as any parent can tell anyone. According to Vaidya (2016), people with Autism can experience a wide variety of symptoms and levels of disability, hence the term "spectrum disorder." In 2016, India became one of the countries to approve the "Rights of Persons with Disability Act," a bold move toward properly recognising the requirements of this group of individuals and ensuring their safety, development, and care. For this purpose, "The Rights of Persons with Disability Act'' was enacted into law. By doing this, India has ensured that public life will be more accessible to persons with disabilities, and it has also greatly widened the definition of impairment by raising the number of disability categories from 7 to 21. As per the view of Benevides et al. (2019), diseases of the blood, such as haemophilia, thalassemia, and sickle cell anaemia are now recognised as distinct categories of disability. While the CDC places the prevalence of AS (autism spectrum) condition at 1 in 68 people, studies in India put the number closer to 1 in 15 people. But the WHO reports that 1 in every 160 children has an autism spectrum condition (Who, 2020).

In addition to clinical therapy, the economic, social, and psychological challenges associated with ASD set it apart from other diseases. It is a good fit for medical anthropologists to investigate it because they take a more all-encompassing view of their studies than scientists from other disciplines. As stated by Khawash et al. (2021), parental involvement in the treatment of ASD is crucial, and the care and attention of a child's primary caretakers remain a top priority throughout the course of treatment. As a result, it is very necessary to conduct in-depth studies on social support networks, family dynamics, and parenting styles to effectively manage autism spectrum conditions (ASD). 

2.5.2. Perspectives of Parents and Professionals on Autism Spectrum Disorder

The child's expressions are those of someone who is lost and confused in a foreign environment to which they have no access to their parents (Joshi, 2020). Autism has been added to the category of the reference disabilities in "The Right of Persons with Disability Act 2016," which guarantees comprehensive services like health care, protection, education, training, institutional support, and employment to people with Autism. The government has also declared that 1% of all job openings will be reserved for people with disabilities, including cognitive and intellectual impairments (Economic times, 2021). It will be an invaluable resource for caregivers of children with ASD, both at home and in the medical community. Non-governmental companies have focused on exceptional children and government officials will find this information useful, especially in addition to students of sociology, medical anthropology, psychology, social work, public health, and education.

2.5.3. Studies of Disability in India: New Directions Comprised Elements from several Fields

This volume's goal is to inquire into the present condition of disability studies, with special attention paid to the Indian context and the situation. It offers an interdisciplinary analysis of the history, concept, practises, and difficulties of conducting disability studies research and instruction in a range of academic and non-academic contexts (Mehrotra, 2020). Activism, research, pedagogy, development policies, spatial and social access, representations of gender and class, and rights-based discourses are only some of the interconnected subjects.

In the above figure, it has been debited that children with special needs require medical, behavioural mental health, and developmental assistance. This book's wide range of topics makes it relevant to scholars and students in a variety of disciplines, including but not limited to sociology, disability studies, law, sociology education, political science development, social work, and political science (Gowramma et al. 2018).

2.5.4. Education of children with disabilities

The question of how to best accept the diverse cultural backgrounds of today's students is one of the most important problems facing the modern educational system. Concerns have been articulated. India has endorsed several important international documents, including the "World Declaration for Education for All (1990)", the "UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (2006)", the "Global Monitoring Report (2006), and the Millennium Development Goal (2006)". Children who have been diagnosed with a handicap are the primary focus of each of these papers and resources. As opined by Gowramma et al. (2018), students with exceptional needs continue to amaze us with their unique learning styles and individualised requirements. This makes people vulnerable to dropping out of school or getting kicked out of the school system. Disability affects an estimated 3-4% of the Indian population, or about 40 million people at the very low end of the spectrum (Who, 2022). The precise incidence and prevalence of various disabilities, as well as their placement in an educational setting like a special school, inclusive school, or home-based instruction, the proper utilisation of aids and equipment, their participation in higher education options, school activities, and the challenges faced by teachers, parents, and students themselves, are what really matter.

Most of India's published materials on inclusive education referred to disabled kids by another term: "children with special needs." Even the most recent revision of the "Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act" uses the term "disability," as do all other national and international laws. According to Hao et al. (2021), disabled persons in India often face discrimination and loneliness (People with Disability - PwD); variables like poverty, caste, gender, and community all have a role in exacerbating the issue. Being disabled is just as marginalising as being of a given race or sex.

Time is a critical factor in establishing the right of Indians with disabilities to participate fully in social and economic life. People must abandon the welfare model and begin investigating disability as a human right. There is an immediate requirement for action. Despite the fact that the first schools for PwD were established in the 1880s as a humanitarian cause supported by voluntary agencies, the realisation of the core principle of rights-based involvement of PwD has not yet been accomplished. 

As per the view of Bejarano-Martín et al. (2020), even though inclusive education for individuals with disabilities in India has a long and storied tradition, few such students currently enrol. A breakthrough occurred when the Sargent Report finally brought up the topic of special education in the context of the national education system. Thereafter, the Kothari Commission or Education Commission (1964) called for these kids to be integrated into mainstream education. Many policy and legislative changes have affected the previously ignored children with disabilities since the Integrated Education of the Disabled Children (IEDC), the National Policy on Education (NPE), and subsequent constitutional amendments that provided community participation at the elementary level. "The decade from 1990 to 2000 was significant because it saw the passage of laws like the "Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI) Act (1992)", the "Persons with Disabilities Act (1995)", the merging of IEDC with the "District Primary Education Programme (DPEP, 1997)", and the "National Trust Act (2000)". 

The International Education for All (EFA) (2000) movement was emulated in our country under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA, 2002). The Salamanca World Conference on Special Needs Education (UNESCO, 1994) provided further impetus for change by drawing attention to the fact that every student has different learning requirements and that educational systems must adapt to this diversity by adopting a student-centered pedagogy that is flexible enough to meet these requirements. As stated by Aguiar and Pondé (2020), it was hoped that incorporating a more welcoming ethos into the classroom not only could create a more welcoming society, but people might also realize the “Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE)" at a reduced cost. In 2005, the "Central Advisory Board on Education (CABE)" saw that all students would encounter specific needs at a certain point in their lives and that those requirements may not be the product of a handicap alone; therefore, the inclusion philosophy is advantageous to everyone. 

It also argued that the "Universal Secondary Education (USE) movement" would be more equitable and fairer if it included women and individuals with disabilities. As opined by Chauhan et al. (2019), after the primary phase of the SSA flagship program was completed, the inclusive education program for students with disabilities that is sponsored by the central government at the secondary level was merged under the Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan to ensure that students with disabilities have equal access to the secondary education system. The Rights of People with Disability Act (RPwD) is the culmination of efforts to implement the provisions of the UN "Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities," of which India is a signatory. This was yet another major development on the global stage. Both the "Sustainable Development Goals" and the Incheon Declaration recognize the need for inclusive education for people with disabilities.

There is some evidence in the programs and policies adopted in the first fifteen years of this millennium that the critical need to imagine positive rights for individuals with disabilities is being recognized. The RPwD Act (2016) is a landmark law that aims to alter the educational system for people with disabilities, with the hope that doing so will lead to better opportunities for those students in need of support in the form of early detection, intervention, and correction (Disability affairs, 2021). Current goals are complex, calling for policies and programs that include all relevant parties and extend their reach to those who have yet to be reached. Recommendations based on current scientific research are crucial when it comes to bolstering policy.

Researchers in India have historically shown little enthusiasm for studying the unique needs of children with disabilities. Between 1978 and 1983, the third review of studies in the field of education was conducted, and its three sections present the results of a total of twelve individual studies. According to Bargad (2018), a positive trend toward including children with disabilities was noticed from the perspectives of their classmates, teachers, and administrators, as reported by the results of the sixth survey, which covered the years 1993-2000 and was named "Inclusive Education." The poll covered a lot of ground, with a special emphasis on questions related to disability and giftedness. Parents, family members, and community members with children in special and inclusive education settings were among the many intended participants. Included studies only had to have the phrase "inclusive" somewhere in the title.

As stated by Singal (2019), teachers have low levels of knowledge about regulations and provisions for children with disabilities, and there are a number of factors that affect teachers' views on the feasibility of inclusive education. The sixth survey also uncovered an interesting fact: the great majority of research done on inclusive education is in the form of action studies. In the 1990s, scientists mostly conducted exploratory or awareness-raising studies. Comprehensive, precise, and scientific investigation was deemed necessary. New materials, such as multimedia packages that can be evaluated with diverse target groups, and the construction of new curricula are all topics that have been identified as needing further examination. Both the macro and micro levels of inclusive education administration and management have been identified as promising study topics.

2.5.5. Disabled children's inclusion in regular classrooms is crucial 

The topic of education has gained international attention. The Education for all (EFA) proclamation highlighting the unique needs of students with disabilities in the classroom demonstrates the long history of education for Children with Disability. In other words, this is proof that providing instruction to people with disabilities is nothing new. As opined by Kauffman et al. (2022), together with the International Disability Organization (IDO), UNICEF, the World Bank, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), UNESCO is spearheading a project called "The Right to Education for Persons with Disabilities: Towards Inclusion.

The History of Disability and the UN states that the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN Convention) was the first 21st-century human rights convention and the first legally binding instrument to protect the rights of people with disabilities. "The UN Convention" has this information. According to Linertová and Roeyers (2020), its principal goal was to guarantee that people with disabilities had the same access to basic civil liberties as everyone else. Its primary goals are to ensure that people with disabilities have equal access to, and participation in, international development programs; to promote collaboration in the pursuit of scientific and technological knowledge, and to supply technical and economic aid that is both need-based and proportionate. All these aims will be fulfilled through the provision of help. The initiative to include Children with disability in Education for all has been largely ineffective despite the existence of a flagship project to do so since 2001. Plan International found that the odds of a child with a disability not going to school were ten times higher than those of a child without a disability.

In a similar line, it has been reported that children who are at an elevated risk of having a disability are considerably more likely to be rejected for the opportunity to attend school.   Governments evaluate the project's financial sustainability based on the amount spent and the knowledge gained in return. As per the view of Conners et al. (2019), the current focus of neuroscience research is on the most effective techniques and therapies for developmental problems, as well as the underlying brain biology and environmental variables that contribute to them. There are major repercussions for special education programs because of this.

As a result of the successes of preventative science, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act places a premium on a holistic prevention paradigm. Education law in the states of the United States of America has also adopted this concept. Based on the research from Response to Intervention (RtI), this method employs a tiered system of support as the basis for providing services to all students across the board in a school setting. More and more schools are shifting their focus from a student's weaknesses to their potential for growth. The notion of universal learning design (UDL) envisioned that diverse learners would be the norm instead of the exception in institutional contexts like schools (Cast, 2022). When the curriculum is designed to meet the needs of a diverse student body, pedagogy must account for the fact that no two students will experience the same level of success. However, it is possible to point out that Western countries share more commonalities than differences.

2.5.6. Autism: A General Summary

The public has become aware of neurodevelopmental disorders, not just in India but also in a sizable portion of the rest of the world. Included in this group are a wide range of disorders and conditions, from ADD/ADHD to Down syndrome and Cerebral Palsy to ADD and Asperger's. As stated by Bargad (2018), an individual's mental health, including their mood, ability to self-regulate, cognitive functioning, and memory, may be permanently impaired by certain diseases. However, with the right education, psychiatric treatment, help, and social acceptance from peers, family, and the community, these people with neurodevelopmental problems have a chance at success. Movies like "Taare Zameen Par'' and "My Name is Khan'' have helped change people's minds about neurodevelopmental diseases in India, but this change has been gradual because of the persistent myth that those who suffer from these conditions are helpless and unable to contribute to society. But despite these films, public understanding of mental illness is evolving. According to the World Health Organization's published study, one in every 160 children worldwide has an autism spectrum disease (Who, 2022). This same body has voiced alarm over the mysterious reports coming from low- and middle-income nations. The prevalence of Autism is estimated to be 1 in 54 children in the United States alone, with boys being affected roughly 4.3 times more frequently than girls.

2.5.7. Causes of autism spectrum disorders and Autism's telltale symptoms

Having a close relative who also suffers from Autism may increase the risk that one will develop the disorder.

  • Alterations to the genetic code.
  • The vulnerability of X syndrome and other genetic disorders.
  • Problems with metabolic balance in the body.
  • Exposure can occur due to heavy metals and other environmental contaminants (Khamraev et al. 2021).
  • Drugs like thalidomide and valproic acid were freely available to the public and have been linked to serious health problems.

A youngster as young as 12 to 18 months old may show the first signs of Autism. According to Hodges et al. (2020), some of these symptoms include the child's inability to make eye contact, communicate through nonverbal means, reply to his or her own name, show interest in others, or tolerate disruptions to his or her schedule. In most cases, a diagnosis of Autism is not made until the kid is between the ages of two and three. Multiple occurrences of these other symptoms may also appear:

  • In polite company, people don't make eye contact.
  • A strong need for isolation.
  • Refusing to make or seeking to avoid making physical touch with the other person. For example, P dislikes hugs from other individuals.
  • They do not want to be comforted when they're sad.
  • They still don't know how to respond to their name after a year has passed.
  • Inability to empathize with one's sentiments as well as those of those around one (Singal, 2019). 
  • Both verbal and linguistic development lag schedule.

A voice that is monotone, singsong, or robotic. In this case, the identical phrase is used twice. 

  • Lack of facial and hand expressions.
  • Lack of a sense, especially for sarcasm.
  • Talking too much without listening to what the other person is saying
  • Jumping, clapping, swaying, and twirling are all examples of behavior patterns that involve repeating an action or movement (Divan et al., 2021).
  • Lack of coordination and clumsiness describe the same trait.
  • In general, finicky eaters are just that way.
  • The lack of consideration in one's actions.
  • Sensationally sensitive in all directions. 

Treatment Options for Autistic Individuals even though there is no proven cure for Autism, there are several treatments that can assist in improving the condition of an autistic person, whether they are a child or an adult, although this improvement may take some time. During the preschool years, early intervention is one of the most crucial first stages in the treatment of a child or adult with Autism. This has the potential to enhance the person's capability and aid in learning. According to Divan et al. (2021), behavioral therapy is an alternative treatment option for those with Autism; its goals include the amelioration of the disorder's associated behaviors, the acquisition of new abilities, and the improvement of social interactions. Motivating people to act in this way could involve using a reward-based method. Therapeutic interventions in the form of educational programs that include professionals, and a wide range of activities may prove beneficial for a child with Autism's academic performance. As per the view of Zodpey and Farooqui (2019), to a greater extent, this is true if the preschool years are spent on intense, individualized behavioral training. Therapeutic education or educational therapy are also common terms. Family therapies often focus on instructing parents and others in the family on how to engage a kid with Autism in play and other activities. This helps the child learn how to interact with others, manage challenging behaviors, and communicate and perform daily tasks.

It's no secret that medical marijuana use is a hotly debated topic in the field of medicine today. Several parents have tried giving their autistic children low amounts of marijuana to improve their symptoms throughout the past decade. Patients' loved ones and their doctors agree that medicinal marijuana is effective in treating epilepsy, chronic pain, and insomnia. Only Epidiolex, a medication derived from cannabis, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) because of the complicated legal and political climate surrounding marijuana in the United States. As stated by Vaidya (2016), federal law in the United States classifies marijuana as a Schedule 1 drug, meaning it can't be used for therapeutic purposes and has a high potential for abuse. However, legislation vindicating its legitimacy makes medical marijuana usage lawful in several European countries and others, including Jamaica, Australia, Israel, and Canada. Additional treatments include speech therapy, occupational therapy to teach basic life skills, and foundational treatment to enhance mobility and balance in autistic patients.

2.5.8. A Pandemic of Autism in India

In 2018, Autism affected almost one in a hundred Indian children under the age of 10, and roughly one in eight children experienced some form of the neurodevelopmental disorder (The Print, 2022). Moreover, it is estimated that 3 million people on the Indian Subcontinent have Autism. Now, the Times of India reports that most Indians do not comprehend what Autism is, or they have a skewed understanding of it and mistake it for a medical ailment. One of these shows is called "Aap Ki Antara," and it's about a little girl with Autism and how the girl deals with the prejudice the girl encounters because of people's ignorance about the disorder. Discrimination against autistic people occurs most egregiously when schools refuse to accept them because they lack the means to accommodate them. Even the most intelligent people are not allowed to attend a traditional school (Balakrishnan et al. 2019). There is a chance they will also have trouble adjusting to the systemic pressures and routines of conventional education. Children on the spectrum are more likely to be bullied by both classmates and siblings. 

In the above figure, the prevalence of Autism from 19702 2016 has been depicted, and it is clearly showing that the frequency of this disorder increased year by year. As opined by Kadam et al. (2022), the general public's misunderstanding of this topic gives rise to the myth. People with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may have flashbacks and other symptoms even after hearing the phrase "Bacha pagal hai" (PTSD). This is comparable to someone from a lower caste hiding his caste because of the social stigma connected with it or to a suspected communist in the United States in the 1950s who is forced to hide because of the stigma caused by McCarthyism. Because of the negative stereotypes that exist about autistic persons, it is much more challenging to accept and integrate them into mainstream society (Taneja-Johansson et al., 2021). 

2.5.9. The Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Justice System

According to Article 21 of the Indian Constitution, those who have been diagnosed with Autism are entitled to several protections. It makes sure they can get justice if they need it and gives them a level playing field in society (Gupta et al., 2018). According to Article 14, they and all other Indian nationals enjoy equal protection under the law. According to Article 15(1), the Indian government may not discriminate against any citizen based on their religion, caste, gender, or disability, and this includes those with Autism (Indian Kanoon, 2021). No person, including those with disabilities, may be excluded from any public place based on any justification, as stated in Article 15(2).

According to Article 17, it is criminal to treat autistic people differently than anyone else.

Every person has the right to life and freedom, as guaranteed by Article 21. Children with Autism between the ages of 6 and 14 also have the right to attend school (Indian Kanoon, 2021). Article 23 explicitly outlaws the use of forced labor. According to Article 24, businesses cannot hire anyone younger than 14 years old. According to Article 32, anyone who has been discriminated against because of their Autism or another disability has the right to file a writ petition with the Supreme Court, where the court has the final say on the matter. According to Article 300A, nobody can be stripped of their property (Carruthers et al. 2018). Individuals with disabilities are guaranteed a tax break on their income as specified in Sections 80DD and 80U of the Income Tax Act of 1961. In addition to granting a plethora of protections to those with mental health issues, the Mental Health Act also extends these benefits to people with impairments.

The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act of 2016, which was enacted that same year, includes Autism among the 21 disabilities it recognizes (Disability Affairs, 2021). It ensures that autistic people are not discriminated against because of their condition and grants them access to certain benefits and protections that make it possible for them to live more satisfying lives. Under the law, up to 4% of people with disabilities can seek and get employment in public sector organizations. Moreover, a person with a disability of at least 40% is entitled to special benefits.

Those who are autistic are extended the following rights and modifications: 

According to Helverschou et al. (2018), in some countries, people with Autism are required by law to be housed in specialized facilities. The National Trust operates under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment as a statutory body. The National Trust was founded as a government organization by Act 44 of 1999, also known as the National Trust for the Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation, and Multiple Disabilities. Niramaya Health Insurance Policy, created by The National Trust, will provide one million rupees in health insurance coverage to those with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, and other impairments (Rs. 1,000,000).

The National Trust's GHARUNDA activities provide low-income, substandard housing and care for people with Autism (The National Trust, 2021). DISHA Centres provide early intervention and support programs in the classroom to help families with children who have been diagnosed with Autism. Benefits are available under the plan for children from birth to age 10. The kids need to be prepared for their new educational environment. The GYAN PRABHA of the National Trust has devised schemes to assist students with Autism in paying for college, post-graduate study, and vocational training. The Rights of People with Disabilities Act guarantees every kid in the United States between the ages of 6 and 18 a free public education.

2.5.10 Universal health coverage for autistic children

There is a worldwide prevalence of 2% for the neurological condition autism (Who, 2021). Autism spectrum disorder is another name for the condition (ASD). Prevalence estimates vary from 0.68 to 1.1%, based on research conducted in two different LAMIC communities. As per the view of Geetha et al. (2019), a developmental disorder, Autism is characterized by impaired social communication, restricted and repetitive activities and interests, and sensory processing difficulties. In most cases, intellectual disability coincides with Autism; however, this is seldom the case. There is widespread agreement that this is one of the most common causes of developmental delays in young kids. There are tremendous societal and economic costs and long-term effects on individual and family functioning. 

A lifetime societal cost of $2.4 million per individual in the USA and a total of £32 billion yearly in the United Kingdom has been calculated for people with Autism in high-income countries (Buescher et al. 2018). These expenditures exceed those for treating cardiovascular stroke, disease, and cancer altogether. Because of these factors, Autism is now considered a public health priority, a human right, and a necessary condition for achieving universal health care and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This change was implemented by resolution 67.8 of the World Health Assembly.

An autism diagnosis based on a child's increasingly worsening symptoms may usually be verified between the ages of 24 and 36 months, while early prodromal signs can sometimes be recognized as early as 12 months of age. As per the view of Divan et al. (2021), possible benefits of early diagnosis include better parental adjustment and psychoeducation, as well as the opportunity to start treatment sooner rather than later. Although there is a wide range in quality, the overall trend is upward, and the majority of the new research in autism intervention science is being produced in HIC. Some early-delivered psychosocial interventions have been suggested as having positive effects on the development of children with Autism, according to recent systematic and narrative reviews of this body of evidence. Interaction between the therapist and the child is common in early therapies, to foster positive patterns of behavior and skill acquisition. 

Some initiatives whose goal is to help kids become more socially adept work through encouraging parental participation in their kids' everyday learning at home. As stated by Pham et al. (2020), by bolstering skills essential for social communication and adaptation, these therapies hope to mitigate the impact of autism deficits and obstacles later in development. The viability of such ideas for Low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC), as well as the extent to which they have been effectively adjusted for effective application at scale, are two questions that need to be answered. LMIC have among the worst rates of detecting diseases, diagnosing them, and using treatments based on scientific evidence. Even less of a country's healthcare budget is allocated to children's mental health difficulties, with much of this money going to psychiatric hospitals. In low-income nations, the ratio of mental health professionals to the total population is often 2100 (Rathod et al. 2017). Most experts work in cities; therefore, people who live in the countryside have limited access to care. 

As opined by Geetha et al. (2019), the mainstays of treatment for children with Autism and other developmental abnormalities in settings with sufficient resources are not represented at all, including child development practitioners, child psychiatrists, or speech and occupational therapists. The care of autistic and disabled children relies heavily on the availability of childcare workers that specialise in Autism and other developmental issues. Unfortunately, only a small percentage of LAMIC region children diagnosed with Autism receive any form of treatment. 

According to Joshi (2020), because of the interaction between the "detection gap," the difficulty of identifying affected children in a society at a young age, and the "care gap," the absence of adequate treatment options. As a result, only a fraction of children having Autism get access to treatment. Knowing what proportion of children with Autism in a community is not diagnosed would be ideal for gauging the detection gap, but no such data is available for any LAMIC. Even if it is imperfect, the age of diagnosis in expert clinical enumeration as follows is the best possible proxy. Even while these studies would usually show a considerable selection bias, the average is high, varying from 45.5 months in Columbia to 58 months in Nepal.

2.5.11. Prevalence of Autism in India

About one in everyone hundred Indian children under the age of 10 has Autism, and approximately one in every eight has some sort of neurological disorder. The estimates came from the first national research of its kind. As per the view of Katsnelson (2018), neurodevelopmental disorders are believed to be about ten times more common in India than the 1.3% prevalence rate found in the country's 2011 census. Arora, executive director of "INCLEN (International Clinical Epidemiology Network) Trust International" and principal investigator of the current study1, claims that this remark is "a big understatement." In light of this, steps must be taken to improve public health.

To find children from all throughout India for the study, Arora and his colleagues went door to door in five diverse regions, each with its unique culture and economics. They engaged the involvement of twenty kids from each of the 25 to 50 towns and municipal wards in each area. They looked at 2,057 kids between the ages of 2 and 5 and 1,907 kids between the ages of 6 and 9 in total (Arora et al., 2018). Arora explains that this is the first-time neurodevelopmental problems in children have been measured using data from an entire population in India. As the authors put it, "this is the first assessment of its sort in the entire developing world."

The group revealed that intellectual disability and hearing loss were the most commonly occurring conditions. As stated by Deb (2022), when a child receives a diagnosis of one neurodevelopmental disorder, they are almost always given a second diagnosis of the same or a different disorder. Assistant professor of psychiatry at McGill University in Montreal, Mayada Elsabbagh, who was not involved in the work, has said that the work is unusually effective due to the breadth of the areas covered and the direct assessment of the children. "There are really limited prevalence numbers from the majority of the world's territory when it comes to neurological diseases, particularly autism," says Elsabbagh. Incredibly high marks for the methodology used. This is extremely rare, even in high-income countries.

Arora and his employees brought the kids to local hospitals to check for vision and hearing problems, epilepsy, neuromotor disorders such as cerebral palsy, speech and language impairments, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disabilities. Additional screens for attention deficit disorder (ADHD) and learning deficits were performed on children ages 6 to 9. Using a low-cost screening test developed for countries with poor resources, the team identified Autism in 44 children. They called their instrument the INDT-ASD. As opined by Mahajan and Sagar (2022), diseases of the nervous system have a widely varying incidence among geographic regions. For example, the prevalence of brain diseases is exceptionally low in a tribal area known as Dhenkanal. Autism prevalence estimates range from 0.4% in North Goa, which is a primarily urban coastal district, to 1.8% in Palwal, which is a rural area located in the center of India. PLOS Medicine released this study on July 24.

The overall prevalence estimate for Autism is roughly four times what was observed in research conducted in 2017 on over 11,000 pupils in one city in India (Spectrum News, 2022). It is hard to compare the results of the two studies since the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), a diagnostic examination that is standard in the United States and Europe, was used in that study rather than the INDT. The new numbers will likely be on the low side, no matter what the verdict is. Almost one-sixth of families with children elected not to participate, Arora found, possibly due to the stigma of these conditions. Moreover, compared to the national average, a smaller proportion of children in the research have nutritional deficiencies that have resulted in developmental delays. This is probably because the sample did not accurately represent the whole population.

The study highlighted risk factors for developmental issues that can be addressed by the government. According to Mehrotra (2020), some examples of such factors are giving birth at home, experiencing serious illness as a child, and being born at a low birth weight. Elsabbagh thinks a larger study will help researchers determine which of these risk factors is most closely linked to Autism.

2.5.12 Indian school teachers' views on including students on the autism spectrum in general education settings

Education that is accessible to all is not only essential in a rising nation like India but also difficult to implement. It is intended to increase an education program's capacity to reach out to all learners, ensuring that society will continue to make consistent advancements. As per the view of Kunnath et al. (2018), every child in a society who has reached a certain level of development ought to be able to receive an education, regardless of factors such as their native language, gender, race or culture, or physical capacity. This way of thinking is widely accepted in many different regions of the world, and India is one of the countries where this is the case. Although the initial steps toward an innovative educational system were taken in India over a century and a half ago, inclusive education did not become a priority in the country until the most recent few decades (Mukherjee and Halder, 2022). This is even though the initial steps toward a new schooling system were taken in India. 

Despite this, people have doubts as to whether the full importance of inclusive education was already grasped either by the general public or by teachers specifically. The paradigm shift from segregated education to inclusive education should be accomplished more efficiently in the minds of instructors as opposed to using paperwork. As stated by Kadam et al. (2022), inclusive education would assist persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) more than those with any other disease, taking into consideration the increasing awareness of ASD as well as the confirmed cases of ASD. This requires the educator to have a level of knowledge on their degree of readiness for the management of students in the classroom who have autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

2.5.13. Strategies to diagnose Autism

Autism spectrum disorder is often misunderstood, and there is a lot of prejudice and misinformation around it. As opined by Mehdi (2022), parents often blame themselves when their child is given an autism diagnosis. The time has come to clarify some common misconceptions about autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is no link between vaccines and Autism, and bad parenting is also not a cause of Autism, as has been demonstrated by several epidemiological studies. Even while researchers are making strides toward understanding the complex interplay between Autism's genetic component and its environmental triggers, the spectrum disorder is becoming increasingly common worldwide. Autism prevalence has increased by 178 percent during the past two decades (Centre for Disease Control, 2022). One in every 100 Indian youngsters under the age of ten suffers from Autism. A better understanding of the causes of ASD and the development of individualized approaches to its diagnosis, treatment, and management are urgently needed considering the current epidemic. 

According to Patra and Kar (2021), medical personnel who treat people with Autism should have access to cutting-edge diagnostic tools in addition to the standard symptomatic and behavioral screening to be prepared for the epidemic of undetected cases. Precision diagnosis considers not just the presence or absence of a disease but also the patient's lifestyle, food, and physical setting. The hope is that by tailoring care to each patient on an unprecedented level, people might get better results. It has been shown that a combination of behavioral, sensory, and verbal therapy administered early on has the most impact. As per the view of Kelley and Dubin (2022), those on the autism spectrum are at increased risk for dietary issues such as food allergies, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, protein metabolism disorders, and unusual eating habits. An autistic person's overall health and well-being may be greatly improved by adopting a diet that is more tailored to their specific genetic makeup.

Regardless of whether an individual has Autism, people are one step closer to solving the riddle of the human brain by determining the characteristics that increase the likelihood of developing the disorder and learning the role that genes play in the formation and function of neurons. As stated by Gomez-Mari et al. (2021), people need to retrain their brains and come to terms with the idea that there are numerous possible configurations of the human mind if they are to create a society that is more accepting of those on the autism spectrum. The need to prioritize cognitive flexibility spans the entire range of possible outcomes.

2.5.14. Inclusive education for autistic children in India

If CWSN is not incorporated into the academic program of India's schools, the Indian government's objective to provide universal primary education as part of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan initiative for all children up to the age of 14 will not be possible. The system must be equipped to provide educational interventions for children with disabilities so that they may learn to live with their impairments and reach their full potential as they grow into adulthood. As opined by Mukkiri et al. (2022), children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other special educational needs have the same right to an education as any other child. Many developed countries have implemented inclusive education systems, although their policies and attitudes toward children with ASD differ widely.

According to Divan et al. (2021), obligatory and free primary education is provided by the Indian government's Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan for all children in the country between the ages of 6 and 14, including CWSN (Children with special needs). Within the community, there is a paucity of information regarding the educational obstacles faced by children in our nation, as well as the solutions open to them. The purpose of this research was twofold: (1) to ascertain if children with ASD have accessibility to inclusive education in Puducherry's mainstream schools, and (2) to assess the difficulties faced by teachers in schools that enroll children with ASD. The study's secondary objective was to check into the availability of inclusive schooling for children with ASD in Puducherry.

2.6. Literature Review Gap

The main gap in this literature is a discussion of the available strategies to include autistic children in public education and how to treat them. Moreover, the human rights of autistic people in India in the workplace could also be assessed in the literature. The literature could also shed light on bringing constitutional changes to protect autistic children from bullying and disparities. Perception of other students in educational settings of India could also be found in the literature to understand the level of acceptability of autistic children. 

2.7. Summary 

Based on the above discussion, it can be concluded that there is a wide range of estimates for the prevalence of ASD as different groups look at different factors. It is a common misperception that having a child with a disability is as devastating as losing a child, which puts undue pressure on parents to keep their child's condition private. Autistic people are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of social stress, which can include the loss of friends, the likelihood of social isolation, and the loss of a career or a career shift. Since it is a neurodevelopmental disorder, Autism has been elevated to the forefront of international health concerns.


3.1 Introduction

Methodologies for conducting research have been dissected and studied at length. The section discussed the tactics used and the reasoning behind them. In addition to presenting the research objectives, this part focuses on the methodologies selected to meet those goals. The methods of data collecting, sampling, and analysis, as well as the overall research strategy and design, were discussed.

3.2 Research Onion

3.3 Research Strategy

The authors of this paper conducted extensive archival research to learn more about the human rights of autistic children in India. But Adhikari et al. (2021) found that when researchers aren't present during the research process, research biases are minimal. This is especially true for archival research. Sample bias in this study was significantly reduced by secondary data.

The above image emphasizes the archive approach, which had a role in the development of new hypotheses, theories, and concepts related to inclusive education. This research technique utilizes records such as journal papers, media reports, as well as statistics acquired from either the government or organizations. The completion of the research employing this research technique helped to save money and also trimmed time off of the data collection process. Furthermore, researchers were able to assess the important information regarding earlier studies on the efficacy of social care, reviewing a variety of historical sources. As per the view of Anderson and Burchell (2021), this method of research allowed us to learn about the hidden determinants that have an impact on children with special needs. The process of collecting data for this study was also simplified by the fact that consent from the participants was not required. Therefore, the challenge of influencing the participants' behavior was unnecessary to investigate in this study. With the use of this technique, the research acquires a deeper grasp of the distinctions between the historical and contemporary importance of a term associated with Autism in India. This study proved fruitful in illuminating the key problems that must be addressed in any autistic child management strategy for parents and teachers.

On the other hand, the primary data collection method was not followed as it may take a large amount of time and be extremely expensive (Assarroudi et al. 2018). Persons are involved in the collection of survey and interview data, which increases the likelihood of bias and manipulation.

3.4 Research Philosophy

The study benefited from employing the interpretive research philosophy since it allowed for more accurate and realistic data collection concerning the research subject. As stated by Barnes et al. (2018), this is crucial for researchers to properly explain and evaluate the data they have gathered. It is essential to have an interpretive research philosophy to comprehend the past knowledge associated with a subject. This interpretative research philosophy did an excellent job of explaining several facets of autism disorders. In this study philosophy, there is a low degree of prediction regarding the reduction of key problems, whereas there is a very high level of comprehension. 

The trustworthiness of this research is quite high since its philosophy is based on the collecting of all contextual and pertinent facts on Autism. As opined by Bloomfield and Fisher (2019), through the use of the research philosophy, appropriate and required information on Autism and the human rights of autistic children was gathered. Using this approach, it became able to interpret the cross-cultural distinctions that exist across several different organizations in this world. By adhering to this research philosophy, a comprehensive investigation of the subject matter of Autism and human rights was carried out. The research philosophy that was followed allowed for the generation of findings that were applicable in practice to Autism and human rights reinforcement (Harniss et al. 2021). As a result, these findings have the potential to be usefully applied in another line of investigation within this discipline.

Conducting this research was done to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the research subject at hand, as all conceivable distinct perspectives on the success of inclusive learning tactics were investigated from a variety of sources within this philosophy. According to Cai (2018), this research philosophy allowed for the efficient observation of each important component of this study. The unanticipated reality regarding the obstacles that prevent autistic children from gaining fair treatment in educational settings was discovered by drawing from a variety of literary sources. This interpretivism research philosophy tends to exhibit the popular views of Autism which provide a more meaningful and deeper understanding in comparison with scientific facts. This research was carried out ethically, free of any bias in the data that contributed to the enhancement of the value of this research.

Other research philosophies, like positivism and post-positivism, were not chosen for this study since the procedures behind these philosophies are based on scientific data collection methods that are far more impractical. In addition, shifting patterns of human behavior might have a detrimental effect on the results of this research. Instead of also taking into account people's subjective points of view, this study's findings will be based on objective perspectives instead (Castleberry and Nolen, 2018). Since this was not possible, in-depth information regarding the success criteria for the success of disabled children could not be gathered.

3.5 Research Approach

An inductive research strategy was employed for this study because it is both highly effective and useful for the researchers in paying close attention to the information and in facilitating the development of important ideas (Constantino et al. 2021). This is because the method of inductive investigation was created throughout the nineteenth century.

This strategy is advantageous since it allows for more flexibility in the collection of information (Etikan and Babtope, 2019). The research shows that inductive approaches are more likely to promote curiosity and curiosity-driven learning than those that begin with a hypothesis or a statement of fact. This study used a deductive approach to conclude the human rights of autistic children in India. This scientific method helped advance an effective understanding of Autism and concepts by analyzing the available facts. With the use of this method, researchers were able to provide a comprehensive account of the tangential relationships between the many components of this study, such as Autism perception and acceptability.

To draw a reasonable conclusion on the effect of harassment on autistic children, this study employed the research technique (Frechette et al. 2020). Because of its inability to produce reliable results, the inductive research technique depicted in the previous image was ruled out.

3.6 Research Design

Specifically, the descriptive Research Design has been used because it is one of the best options for doing a secondary study of this kind (Hopwood et al., 2022). This Research Design is useful for researchers because it provides them with more precise information about the topic under study, allowing for a deeper understanding of the issue at hand. Researchers in the field of design can use the findings of descriptive studies to create predictions about the causes and outcomes of phenomena. The study's research strategy centers on elucidating the issue at hand and developing potential solutions.

Descriptive research was chosen because it provides a quick and easy way to assess the research problem using the study's findings variables and determine the answers to the research questions (Iliyasu and Etikan, 2021). To properly pursue further research in this field, it was possible to appropriately identify the causes of issues that developed pursuing education by autistic children. The research strategy depicted in Fig. 3.5 was also used to investigate the unqualified complications and complications that arose from the use of ineffective learning methods in educational settings. The goal was to gain insight into the effects of. However, several human rights of autistic-related events were discovered in an unaltered and completely natural setting. The strength of this study's approach lies in its combination of quantitative and qualitative data in the secondary form, both of which were necessary for drawing firm conclusions on the effect of disparity with Autistic children that restrict their growth (Woiceshyn and Daellenbach, 2018). Finally, this research approach was selected because it permits a reliable conclusion to be formed about the approaches that should be taken to protect autistic children and their human rights. 

The exploratory research design was not used because it is reliant on qualitative searches of the academic literature alone (Nattrass, 2020). It is impossible to reach a satisfying result on research questions related to autistic children and their human rights. The exploratory research approach has advantages in terms of cost, open-ended research, and interactivity (Largan and Morris, 2019). In the researcher's view. Although this research strategy allowed for a thorough elaboration of the problem statement, study's objectives, and topic at hand, it was not suitable for arriving at a reliable result.

3.7 Research Choices

The term "mono method" refers to the practice of studying a topic from just one angle. In contrast, the use of both qualitative and quantitative research methods is what is meant by the phrase "mixed method," as depicted in the following graphic. Dual or multiple research methodologies are used in this approach to study a topic in depth (Martins et al. 2018). 

The study selected to use a qualitative approach to maximize the following benefits. In light of the difficulties that autistic children face, it adds information that can be used in practice (Miller et al. 2021). It helps get the research done faster because it uses a smaller sample size than other methods. There will be no room for error in the results either since bias is removed from the procedure. Qualitative research methodologies can be used to create a thorough analysis of how the government and educational set take easy tips to improve the condition of autistic children. 

3.8 Time Horizon

As per the view of Pearse (2019), because it just requires a single observation at one point in time, doing a cross-sectional study requires significantly less time and money than other types of research because it is based on a single point in time. On the other hand, cross-sectional research investigations allow for the collection of data from many subjects and the examination of differences between different lines of argument (Rabby et al., 2021). In addition to this, they are more cost-effective because they only need to go to the location once to arrange the research in a manner that is more effective than if they went there again. The purpose of the cross-sectional study, which is highlighted in the figure that follows, was to evaluate how well autistic children can be included in the society of India. The cross-sectional study was successful because it served this purpose, so it can be considered effective.

In addition, the longitudinal study was not chosen for this investigation because it would take an extremely long period to complete the investigation. For this research to be successful and credible, it will require significant participation from a large pool of interested participants. In the case of longitudinal studies, the number of points of contact with many arguments is significantly reduced (Singh, 2021). This research could produce a variety of outcomes since many factors can influence the capabilities of Autistic children to maximize their efficiencies.

3.9 Accessibility, Reliability, and Validity

The content was written in an exceptionally clear manner, the results were presented briefly, and the structure was appropriate. However, the research's credibility is bolstered by the use of only legitimate sources for the data and by the inclusion of proper citations for all data points. As stated by Stratton (2021), by properly identifying research variables, decreasing sample bias, and refining the method for measuring results, the validity of this study was maintained.

3.10 Ethical Consideration

The security and privacy of the data were not breached at any point during collection and processing. This research took great care to reference only reliable sources in the study to ensure its veracity. Public libraries, online resources, including Google Scholar and ProQuest, and official government websites provided access to the secondary sources used in this study, all of which were published within the past five years (Usami et al. 2019).

3.11 Summary

The fact that this study has yielded several results with potential practical applications justifies the use of the archival research method. Both qualitative and quantitative findings could be understood thanks to the interpretive research philosophy. The research variables were properly and thoroughly identified thanks to the descriptive research design. To better understand how Autism can be managed by parents, teachers, and society, this research adopted the Mono methodology. Time was saved due to an accelerated analysis process made possible by the collection of secondary data. The reasons, symptoms, and issues faced by autistic children were analyzed in depth due to the qualitative responses that were gathered. Descriptive methods of data analysis allowed for multiple aspects of the gathered information to be depicted.


4.1. Data sources

Data from secondary sources has been gathered using a protocol developed for this study. Because gathering secondary data is often easier and faster than gathering primary data, researchers often rely on it instead. Therefore, this study technique can significantly cut down on costs while simultaneously decreasing the number of time researchers spend on the project. Using secondary research methods, one can amass a huge amount of data and knowledge on any number of potential research topics. Because so many researchers have already analyzed this area, qualitative data is the most appropriate format.

Therefore, it was Highly Effective and advantageous for researchers to gather various data and information as well as use the findings of earlier researchers to boost the dependability and correctness of this research study. Consequently, it was useful for researchers to utilize the findings of past researchers. Secondary qualitative analysis was used to increase the study's efficacy and decrease its resource requirements (Usami et al. 2019. For this reason, I read a wide range of scholarly journals and magazines from authoritative databases like Google Scholar and ProQuest to build several distinct themes. These databases are reliable resources for finding credible academic publications. These databases helped organizations gather a significant amount of information from the studies of earlier scholars and researchers.

4.2. Variable descriptions

The variables of this research include Autism as the dependent variable, and the independent variables of this research will be parenting nature, genetic condition, and social acceptance. As per the view of Pham et al. (2020), when compared to typically developing children, those with ASD experience significant and long-lasting delays in the growth of social interaction. This can alter their attachment to their parents and their style of parenting. Children with autism spectrum disorder were judged to have a decreased sense of security compared to both clinical and normal comparison groups. More authoritative parenting was described by people whose families did not have clinical signs compared to those whose children did have ASD or overall clinical symptoms. Additionally, these parents were provided with a lower level of social assistance. Amazingly, parents of children with ASD managed to triumph over the challenges inherent in caring for a child with ASD. 

Among 40 and 80 percent of the risk for ASD is believed to be inherited. The cumulative risks associated with a person's gene variations and their exposure to environmental dangers, such as the ages of their parents and the challenges they had during childbirth, determine the likelihood that a person would acquire this complex disorder (Deb, 2022). The inability to connect with others is a characteristic of Autism. A person with Autism may seem unmotivated and unable to "read" their social surroundings. It's as if they have no idea that human connection is noisy, complicated, and full of high-stakes emotional give-and-take.

4.3. Sampling

Although PRISMA was developed to report reviews that assessed the efficacy of interventions, it can serve as a foundation for conducting systematic reviews that seek to accomplish other aims. The Prisma model was used to show that the review is of a high standard (Ryan, 2018). It allowed the reader to evaluate the pros and cons. It also allowed for the procedures of reviews to be replicated. PRISMA headings were used to provide the review with structure and format. 

By narrowing search results to those most relevant to the query and excluding those that are irrelevant or improper, Boolean operators are a time-saving tool that was used in this research. In this research, a total of 6 articles on the Human rights of Autistic children in India were selected for systematic review. 

4.4. Data Analysis Technique 

Because of their neutrality and objectivity, descriptive data analysis approaches were used in this study, helping researchers draw solid results.    In contrast, this study's findings about the interplay between so many variables provide light on which factors are most important for achieving human rights for autistic children (Siedlecki, 2020). Quantitative and qualitative information obtained from secondary sources aided in drawing accurate conclusions on the protection of autistic children through human rights reinforcement. It was decided to employ a thematic approach to data analysis because of the strength it has in conveying detailed and comprehensive facts. This kind of data analysis allowed for the presentation of multiple arguments concerning the study's topic. Additionally, through the utilization of this data analysis technique, unexpected realizations were achieved about the impact of protection of the human rights of Autistic children.

Above, people see a diagram that explains why this research opted to perform a descriptive thematic analysis of the collected data. 


5.1 Introduction 

In a paper based on empirical research, the results from the study's data analysis are reported in part entitled Results. Even if the findings disprove the assumption, the data that were gathered can be used to provide answers to the questions that were given in the introduction. In the context of the present study, a set of six articles based on the human rights of autistic people in India has been analyzed. The articles have a systematic review to obtain the gist of the findings of secondary sources. Based on those findings, themes have been formulated to address the research objectives and research questions. Considering existing evidence on the topic of the human rights of autistic people, the theme has been evaluated descriptively. Moreover, the results of the thematic analysis are explained in the discussion part of the study. 

5.2 Findings





D. Verma

Autism Awareness Day: How is autism perceived in India?


People of India are significantly ignorant about autism due to a lack of education and awareness. In the context of rising awareness about the disorder, India is far away from the Western countries. This is the major reason behind the discrimination against autistic people, which violates their human rights. People with autism face significant challenges in their daily lives, for example, bullying, lack of opportunities, and many others. Even their parents have to go through many challenges which are yet to be overcome in the country. 

H.B. Safavi

Behavioural characteristics and rights of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders 

Journal of Positive School Psychology

People with autism often have health problems like asthma, G.I. problems, repeated virus infections, and seizures. Autism used to be seen as a rare diagnosis, but now it is one of the most common on the developmental spectrum. Given that more parents are getting pregnant later in life and that preterm and high-risk babies are living longer, an actual rise in mass cannot be ruled out.

J. Shelar

Recognition by the law: a victory for people with autism

The Hindu

Autism was not considered a handicap before "Right of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016"; therefore, persons with it did not have the rights they do now. According to the article, parent advocacy groups and other organizations successfully lobbied for the new law. However, the analysis found many things that will need fixing soon. The enforcement of the act is merely the beginning of the process of defending the human rights of autistic people; there is still a very long way to go before people can declare this initiative a complete and resounding success.

Singh, P. and Kumar

Social Skill Enhancement of Children Having Autism Using Technological Interventions: A Review


Since there is a huge gap in providing effective therapies, support, and resources to people with ASD over their lifespans, many people around the globe consider ASD to be a public health emergency. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research, treatment, and a possible cure are all being dramatically impacted by technological advancements. As part of this study, the researcher investigated whether or not it would be possible to teach social skills to children with ASD using a combination of Microsoft Kinect and software interaction.

M. Barua, J.S. Kaushik, and S. Gulati

Legal Provisions, Educational Services and Health Care Across the Lifespan for Autism Spectrum Disorders in India 

The Indian Journal of Pediatric

India has seen an increase in autism awareness and diagnosis rates, as well as the establishment of new support structures and legislation, during the past decade. However, there is a significant difference between planned and actual results. In the realm of education, both the availability and quality of service offerings remain, at best, inconsistent. This article examines the legislation now in effect in India to safeguard autistic minors and adults. Also covered are deficiencies in health care and education, as well as government measures to fix the problem. Although there are bright spots and reasons for optimism, people with autism in India require substantial policy measures to complement community-level initiatives.

C. Lord

The future of autism: Global & local achievements & challenges

The Indian journal of medical research

The findings imply that instruments like INDT-ASD can serve as a crucial psychometric diagnostic tool, which can finally lead to an improvement in their treatment. In addition, initiatives such as PASS and DEALL have allowed Indian parents and educators to develop autistic individuals' coping skills. In addition, the creation of person-environment teaching methods based on real-life events can aid in preparing autistic youngsters to manage challenging situations. As a result, they are typically more confident in completing their objectives.

Table 5.1: Systematic analysis 

Journal/Article 1: “Autism Awareness Day: How is autism perceived in India?”

The main focus of the article is to find the major reason behind the ignorance towards autistic people and their violation. As per the report, the majority of India still considers autism taboo, and people have very little knowledge about the disorder. Hence, most people tend to consider this as a disease and avoid or shame the people having it. The issue is more prevalent in the villages of the country, where there is no awareness of the disorder. As per Verma (2017), the lack of awareness of autism has made people perceive it as a contagious disease, which makes people incompetent to live in society. People with autism have the same appearance as the general population. As a result, they are often labeled as disruptive, obnoxious, or even belligerent. Many people in society underestimate the challenges autistic people experience because they are less obvious than other disabilities. As a result of this, the human rights of autistic people are violated in various aspects of their lives. For example, they have to face bullying and harassment in schools. They tend to get fewer opportunities than others in the professional field. Even in certain cases, their parents also feel ashamed of the children due to social pressure and keep them locked in houses. To deal with this, it is important to raise awareness of the disorder, and government intervention is also required. 

Journal/Article 2: “Behavioural characteristics and rights of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders."

Throughout human history, people's understanding of autism spectrum conditions has evolved. Back in the 1950s, people with this ailment were lumped together with those who had intellectual disabilities since their symptoms were similar. Today, it is acknowledged as a substantial condition that has its roots in the nervous system, as well as an important problem in public health and a subject of investigation. As mentioned by Safavi (2022), researchers have spent years trying to determine what causes the illness, but they have had little success thus far. Despite the challenges, the lines of inquiry being pursued in research are becoming increasingly sophisticated. The study suggests that regardless of the severity of the deficits that children with autism spectrum conditions may have, numerous treatments have been created to aid them in maximizing their capacity to learn and become socially fluent. Children who have various disabilities will benefit tremendously from the passage of legislation such as this one. These Acts address a wide variety of concerns about the rights of handicapped children and adolescents. In addition to this, it instructs the government to do its responsibilities with zeal and to devise plans and programs for the advantage of children.

Journal/Article 3: "Recognition by the law: a victory for people with autism."

It has been revealed in the new article that the enforcement of the "Right of Persons with Disabilities Act" has turned out to be a big triumph for people who have autism. This finding comes from the new article. Autism was not recognized as a handicap before the passage of this act; as a result, those who struggled with this condition were not afforded the rights to which they are now entitled. According to Shelar (2017), the vigorous advocacy efforts of parent advocacy groups and other organizations paid off, as the new law was eventually signed into legislation. People who have autism will reap advantages as a result of this act in a variety of facets of life, including their academic and professional achievements, as well as their participation in the educational system. This has also made it possible to take advantage of the unique abilities and capabilities that children possess, as well as to grant them the rights that are rightfully theirs. Having said that, the findings of the study have also indicated that there are a great many things that will be required shortly and require rectification. The enforcement of the legislation is just the beginning of the process of safeguarding the human rights of autistic people; there is still a very long way to go before people can call this endeavor a complete and resounding success.

Journal/Article 4: Social Skill Enhancement of Children Having Autism Using Technological Interventions: A Review

According to the findings of the study, games that are based on activities that people do in their everyday lives might have significant effects on the development of social skills. To help children enhance their various social skills, it is simple to personalize games to specific requirements or in a manner that is relevant to a certain social skill. Children find it simple to relate to the content of these games since the games depict situations that are similar to what they experience daily and do not require them to adhere to a convoluted set of rules. As per Singh and Kumar (2019), there is no requirement for any kind of specialized expertise or education to participate in playing these games at the beginning levels; even parents, relatives, and teachers can do so. The primary objective of this game is to help autistic children improve their social skills. However, in addition to helping these children improve their social abilities, the game will also help them improve their motor skills and their sensory skills. Kinect-based games have been produced in the past for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the primary goal of these games was to improve the children's motor abilities. The development of children's social skills is essential to provide support for them in both their career and personal lives.

Journal/Article 5: “Legal Provisions, Educational Services and Health Care Across the Lifespan for Autism Spectrum Disorders in India”

The fact that India is both a populous and incredibly varied country presents a significant number of obstacles on the road to progress. However, within the past two decades, there have been numerous beneficial changes on a variety of fronts. There are examples of people with autism who have excelled in a variety of fields, including education, athletics, the arts, and even practicing their franchise rights. These are stories of achievement and hope. According to the findings of the study, for change to be brought about more quickly, effectively, and comprehensively, action needs to be taken both at the grassroots level and, more importantly, at the policy level by the government. People living in India who have autism have some hope of beginning to receive the entitlements and services that are their right as citizens of the country once the long-delayed RPWD Bill, which is to replace the PWD Act and has been pending for a long time, is finally passed in parliament and incorporated the way its drafters intended (Barua et al., 2017).

Journal/Article 6: "The future of autism: Global & local achievements & challenges."

According to the findings, instruments like the INDT-ASD have the potential to become an essential psychometric diagnosis, which may eventually lead to improvements in the treatment for those affected by the disorder. In addition to this, programs such as PASS and DEALL have allowed Indian parents and teachers to improve the coping abilities of autistic persons by teaching them new skills. These new skills can help autistic people better deal with the challenges that they face. Furthermore, the development of a person-environment education technique that is based on real-life events can also be useful in the process of making autistic children better able to deal with challenging situations that arise in their lives. As a consequence of this, people tend to have a more positive attitude toward accomplishing their objectives (Lord, 2020). It has been reported that people with autism can take part in a variety of home and community-based activities if they receive enough support from their families and communities. Even though these worries may have an impact on family life by increasing stress and generating a mismatch between work and personal commitments, they must be addressed.

5.3 Data Analysis 

5.3.1 Theme 1: Perception towards autistic people and their challenges in terms of rights in India

Autism Perception in India

Autism is not an uncommon condition; rather, it is regarded as the third most prevalent kind of developmental disability. According to research carried out on a continental scale all over the world, the incidence of autism spectrum disorder is approximately 1 in 68 people (Verma, 2017). According to these numbers, the number of people living in India who have autism is greater than 18 million. 

The likelihood of a diagnosis occurring in males is four times higher than in females. Several countries in Western Europe offer comprehensively funded autism programs, as well as incentives for occupational and developmental disabilities, special schools, and organizations that focus on interpersonal skills (Zeidan et al., 2022). As per the studies of Verma (2017), over 200 million dollars are invested in research and various services in the United States. Despite this, India has a long way to go before it can be classified as a developed nation. In India, the responsibility for anything and everything falls mostly on the shoulders of private organizations and non-governmental organizations. There is some financing made available by the National Trust, but it is in no way adequate for the task at hand. The majority of the government's assistance comes in the form of monetary 'grants' (Angothu et al., 2022). The amount of grants available is limited, and the process for applying for grants is convoluted and time-consuming.

Taboo regarding autism in India

Neurological and mental health issues are largely avoided topics of conversation in India. The majority of the population lives in rural areas, which have a significantly lower autism awareness rate than urban areas. Because its symptoms are similar to those of a variety of other conditions, it is frequently misdiagnosed. As per the studies of Ahmad et al. (2022), the diagnosis rate for autism is low, especially in more remote locations. On the one hand, residents are often involved in day-to-day tasks that are common in the community, such as farming and household work. In conclusion, people require not only a correct diagnosis but also therapeutic choices that are not difficult to obtain. The sickness is shrouded in mystery, and several common misunderstandings continue to circulate about it. Those who are fluent in English and have access to the World Wide Web are in a position to examine a vast amount of content, some of which is associated with the subject of autism and some of which is not. However, this does not necessarily point to an improvement in either the awareness of the condition or the quality of the care that is being provided.

Challenges faced by autistic people

People with autism have the same appearance as everyone else. As a result, people tend to view them as being disorderly, disruptive, or hostile. People who have autism do not receive the same level of sympathy from society for the challenges they face as people who have other types of disabilities that are more evident. Autism is a developmental disorder that affects a person's ability to communicate and interact socially. According to Patra and Kar (2021), people with autism face widespread prejudice and are typically barred from participating in civic and recreational activities. Schools, for the most part, are not enthusiastic about accepting them, and employment opportunities are limited for them. Because of them, passengers on public vehicles like buses and trains are frequently asked to exit.

In India, the majority of students' grade is based on their academic performance, and parents have very high expectations for their children. In light of these expectations, it might be difficult for parents to acknowledge the fact that the situation is as it is. The children are bullied at school because the children cannot appreciate the sincerity of the difficulties that an autistic child faces. According to the findings of the study, there is an urgent requirement to expand access to educational opportunities. On the other hand, the policies and processes that are implemented in schools are extremely exclusive, and this trend is expected to continue. High scores are honored, but younger students who could "drag down the rank of the school" are not permitted to attend the institution (Cooper and Mujtaba, 2022). They make it clear that they want the parents to remove their children from the activity on purpose. The problem of bullying is a big one. Children are not inherently cruel; rather, this trait is cultivated in them by their social surroundings. They pick up bullying by watching and learning from their parents and educators who behave in a bullying manner and then modeling it themselves. When a teacher maintains an open mind toward their students, there is less of a chance that bullying will occur in the classroom.

Parenting challenges 

Even parenting is a major challenge that affects the rights of development and assurance of the rights of autistic children in India. A parent of an autistic child must have patience levels well above the norm. Even though raising an autistic child might be difficult, it is important to remember that each child is an individual and should be treated as such. As per the studies of Sengupta et al. (2020), parents will inevitably make some blunders along the way, but that's to be expected. Parents need to learn to lower their hopes for their children and accept them as they are. One must realize that one's uniqueness is not a basis for criminal prosecution. They have excellent behavior, especially considering how different they are wired. Getting assistance or talking to other parents in a similar position is helpful when coping with such issues. Assisting autistic children in being actively involved in their education not only improves their academic experience but also prepares them for a future in which they can realize their full potential and overcome new challenges.

5.3.2 Theme 2: Assistance that can be provided for ensuring the human rights of autistic people in India as per legal provision

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is recognized as a disability under the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (RPWD) Act of 2016, which was passed in India in 2016. The RPWD Act, which recognizes the equality of all persons, makes it illegal for anyone to discriminate against others based on their handicap, whether that discrimination is direct or indirect (Biswal, 2022). Guidelines have been set by the government of India for the assessment and certification of individuals with disabilities. After receiving a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a child is eligible to apply for specialized services and benefits, such as free use of state buses and trains, financial assistance for starting a business, grants, and scholarships to further their education, and subsidized educational opportunities. 

Article 7 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) of 2006, children who have disabilities, every State Party must do everything in its ability to guarantee that children with disabilities have the same access to all human rights and fundamental freedoms as children who do not have disabilities (Favalli, 2018). This access must be on par with children who do not have disabilities. Second, the best interests of the child must always take precedence over any activities that involve children who have disabilities. Last but not least, state parties must ensure that all children with disabilities have the same right to freely express their opinions on all issues that are relevant to them and that their opinions are accorded appropriate weight by their ages and levels of development, and that they are offered assistance that is suitable for both their disabilities and their ages when doing so.

Article 24 of the United Nations Charter reaffirms the right of individuals with disabilities to receive an education. The purpose of this provision is to ensure that this right is realized without discrimination and on an equal footing for all people (Duffy and Kelly, 2020). Every State Party is accountable for ensuring that its inhabitants have access to high-quality education at every level, beginning with pre-kindergarten and continuing through college. This is required for each person to realize their greatest potential, as well as experience a sense of worth and pride in oneself. In countries that have ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Article 29 of the United Nations Charter guarantees that all people, regardless of handicap, have the right to primary and secondary education (ROC) (Sherry and Walker, 2019). 

The obligation to ensure that children with disabilities have equal access to a primary or secondary education that is inclusive, of high quality, and accessible rests on the shoulders of the states that are parties to the Convention. This is done to ensure that no child, regardless of whether or not they have a disability, is left behind. People who have impairments should have the same opportunities as everyone else when it comes to education and being accepted into their communities. According to Safavi (2022), this indicates that States Parties have a responsibility to ensure that appropriate accommodations are made for them to acquire essential life and social skills. To accomplish this objective, the Parties shall take whatever reasonable steps are necessary, such as ensuring that individuals have access to education and training programs in Braille, alternative script, augmentative and alternative modes, means, and formats of communication, orientation, and mobility skills, and providing peer support and mentoring. Increasing access to classes teaching sign language and strengthening the notion that members of the deaf community share a common language (Safavi, 2022). Providing for the academic and social requirements of individuals who are blind, deaf, or both deaf and blind, in particular children, through the utilization of the languages, modes, and ways of communication that are most beneficial for each learner. 

To ensure that this right is respected in its entirety, the States Parties are obligated to take any steps that are deemed to be reasonable to recruit and keep qualified sign language and Braille instructors, including teachers who themselves have disabilities, as well as to provide training to professionals and employees at all educational levels. Important elements of this training include awareness of people with disabilities, the incorporation of augmentative and alternative communication and pedagogical tools and materials, and the use of pedagogical tools and materials. As per Selke (2020), the Charter of the United Nations needs to include a provision to ensure that people with disabilities have equal access to all aspects of society. Everyone else must have access to basic postsecondary education, which may include specialized training, education for adults, and ongoing education. Students with disabilities should have equitable access to education at all levels, including secondary and postsecondary, and state parties have a legal obligation to make sure this happens. The steps from the end of governments and local parties can help deal with the challenges of autistic people and ensure their rights (Kusum, 2022).

5.3.3 Theme 3: Legal recognition of autism tends to support ASD children in India

In December 2016, parliament passed the "Right of Persons with Disabilities Act," which is now in effect. Autism and twenty other illnesses are now legally recognized, and this act is being hailed as a game-changer for individuals affected by autism. It helps individuals with autism get access to basic rights and opportunities, such as higher education and productive employment. As per the views of Shelar (2017), Those who advocate for the rights of those who have impairments can see this as a significant victory. It took advocates a full decade to convince lawmakers that autism should be included in the definition of disabilities covered by the act. The passing of this new act was made possible by the diligent efforts of a large number of parent advocacy groups as well as other advocates for autistic people. Even while this is a significant step in the right direction, there is still a lot more work that has to be done to ensure that the rights of autistic children are protected. As cited by Math et al. (2019), the next front of the campaign is to ensure that autistic students attending universities receive the appropriate accommodations for their condition. For example, the Forum has been advocating for a considerable amount of time for the children to be given additional time to finish their examinations, to be granted the opportunity to use writers, and to be able to take written examinations from their mainstream schools instead of having to travel to a distant location.

In light of the concerns raised by parents and the increasing level of awareness among the general population regarding sickness, the majority of educational institutions now offer these conveniences. On the other hand, universities have not yet latched on to this concept. According to the research conducted by Balakrishnan et al. (2019), once the new act is in place, universities will also be compelled to offer these services. People who have autism will have an easier time participating in regular classroom activities as a result of this, which will ultimately lead to an increase in the employment prospects available to them. A significant number of autistic youngsters have above-average intelligence and do exceptionally well in artistic endeavors. If they employ the appropriate method, they will be able to get jobs in a range of industries.

By the Right of Persons with Disabilities Act, a quota of three percent of positions in both higher education and the public sector have been reserved for individuals with disabilities. The percentage which drew the line has been increased to 5% (Shelar, 2017). As a result of this newly acquired recognition, people who have autism are now eligible to apply for employment that is sponsored by the government and is set aside specifically for people who have disabilities. In addition, all of their fundamental legal rights are now protected by the law. The act appears to be by the original accords of the World Health Organization (WHO), and it places a significant emphasis on ensuring that there is less discrimination, more barrier-free accessibility, and more useful rights. As per Prasannan (2022), positive improvements include moving away from a purely scientific approach and toward a biopsychosocial one, as well as moving away from laws that are based on charity and toward laws that are based on rights. The act has been hailed for its improvements over the former act, which was enacted into law more than a decade ago, but it has also been criticized for not placing enough attention on mental disability. The preceding act was passed more than a decade ago.

5.3.4: Theme 4: Intervention of Government in ensuring the rights of autistic children in terms of education, healthcare and life

It is crucial to highlight that disability-related policy and practice in India extended back before any formal laws were enacted. The Persons with "Disabilities (PWD) Act (1995)", the "Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI) Act (1992)", and the "National Trust Act (1999)" are all significant pieces of disability-related Indian law [PWD ACT, 2016]. India signed the U.N. Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities in 2007. The U.N. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities requires all states that ratified it to update their laws to better safeguard the rights of people with disabilities. Thus, the Government of India replaced the old PWD Act with the "Rights of Persons with Disabilities (RPWD)" Act (2016). According to Barua et al. (2017), the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has released guidelines for autism evaluation and assessment and outlined the certification process as required by this statute. Care for people with disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder, is coordinated across multiple Indian government departments.

School Admission Provision

According to the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009, a child who has a disability is regarded as a member of a "disadvantaged group." This law was passed in 2009. Children who have disabilities like autism are regarded as a "disadvantaged category," and as such, they are eligible for admission across the country. They have a right to receive free education up to the elementary level. According to RTE, children who have been labeled as having "many disabilities" or "severe disabilities" have the right to select home-based education [Ministry of Human Resource Development, 2016].

Punarbhava Portal

Punarbhava is an online resource for the education, training, and empowerment of people with disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder. It offers students with disabilities and rehabilitative professionals access to all information and resource material about disabilities, as well as chances for job training and advancement (Tiwari et al. 2021). In addition to this, it offers a list of recognized non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and special schools that cater to people with disabilities organized by the state.

Insurance for Autistic people

The National Trust created the health insurance program Nirmaya. The goal of the Niramaya Health Insurance program is to make health care coverage available to those with impairments such as autism at an affordable price. The Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities within the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment is responsible for the administration of this health insurance program for people with autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and multiple disabilities. As per Kaushik et al. (2019), Niramaya Health Card provides maximum coverage of Rs.1 lakh to people who have been diagnosed with such disabilities. Jeevan Aadhar and Jeevan Vishwas are two more plans available from LIC India that give maturity advantages.

Tax Exemptions

Expenses that were incurred on the medical treatment of a dependent child who has a disability or on investments made in LIC, India, for the benefit of the child are exempt from income tax under Section 80 DD of the Income Tax Act (Income Tax Department, 2016). A person is eligible for a deduction of Rs. 50,000/- under Section 80DD if they have autism, and they do not need to provide any further supporting documents in addition to the two that are specified above. It comprises the costs incurred for medical treatment, including nursing, training, and treatment of the dependent who has been recognized as needing such services by appropriate health authorities.

Banking Facilities

The Reserve Bank of India has released guidelines requiring banks to accept National Trust guardianship certificates from autistic people who are otherwise unable to prove their legal guardianship. The government must protect the rights of people with disabilities to own and inherit property (both movable and immovable), manage their finances, and obtain credit from traditional sources, as stated in Section 13 of the "Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016". In addition, banks have been told to help guardians of disabled people, particularly those with autism, through any challenges they may encounter (Reserve Bank of India, 2016).

Concussions in Travelling

The rules governing carriage by air that are administered by the Ministry of Civil Aviation have been updated to guarantee passengers' entitlement to the necessary accommodations during flights. The government has produced standard operating procedures that prescribe the standards for screening passengers who have special requirements. These procedures were issued in response to a request for clarification on the screening process. Apart from this, people with disabilities, including autistic people, are eligible for concession fares on the Indian Railways, which can be up to 75% lower than the standard fare in first and second class. Additionally, escorts who are accompanying mentally impaired passengers are eligible for a 75% discount on the base fee (Kumar and Raaj, 2019).

Employment Support

Disability Sector Skill Councils under the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship have begun to address the issue of autistic people finding gainful employment. The creation of institutes for persons on the autistic spectrum is only one of many recent efforts in this direction. As cited by Annamalai, S. and Niranjan (2022), Action for Autism's Aadhaar Vocational Centre is one of the first of its kind to assist autistic persons in finding meaningful and respectable employment. Software testing activities are an excellent fit for autistic adults with excellent cognitive abilities due to some of the attributes of autistic individuals, such as being meticulous, determined, focused, and keeping engaged despite the homogeneity of a task. Specialisterne is a nonprofit with a mission to help autistic people find employment in the software testing field. Healthcare Services

In metropolitan India, there are few government-run developmental institutions for autistic children and a comparable number of private clinics. A tiny number of experts have asserted that India's public hospitals lack the essential resources and trained personnel to care for impaired children (Wong and Singhal, 2014). Typically, government agencies employ only a small percentage of the therapists required to satisfy the requirements of their population. Private therapy sessions with licensed psychologists and therapists are prohibitively expensive, rendering them inaccessible to those who cannot afford them. The work of parents of autistic children is appreciable, who have created charitable organizations to address their children's rising demand for accessible, high-quality treatment.

5.3.5 Theme 5: Importance of social skills enhancement via technological interventions for assisting autistic people in India

Due to the sheer high levels of motivation, flexibility, and low cost of the programs, parents of children with ASD have reported favorable results from adopting technology-based interventions. This is in comparison to traditional medical and therapy procedures, which have a much higher cost. According to the studies of Singh and Kumar (2019), the ability to "perform those actions which are needed to make a child able to achieve social pleasure and success" is how social skills are defined. This ability enables a child to "perform those actions which are needed to make a child able to achieve social happiness and success. The intensity of the challenges faced by children who have autism spectrum disorder (ASD) varies from kid to child and is also dependent on the children's I.Q. as well as their age. However, the majority of these children struggle with social skills and relationships with others.

Despite the quick pace at which technological developments are transforming the human experience in ways that no one could have foreseen, the world of autism has not stayed exceptional in any significant sense. As per the views of Sharma et al. (2016), there is no denying that the application of creative mediation in the case of children diagnosed with ASD is not a novel idea. The past four decades have seen significant technical breakthroughs in the field of computer-aided instruction, which have been utilized in the classrooms of students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Innovative therapies are excellent for preparing children with ASD because they can be quickly adapted, need less time to structure, and minimize the requirement for an expert as well as concern of taking early arranging. These children are one of a kind, and as a result, they require one-of-a-kind educational systems, in addition to having access to mechanical mediations that provide supplemental ways of creating connections. 

This enlarged center includes mediations and administrations along with mechanical enhancements that redefine how support and counsel may be provided. Youngsters with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been demonstrated to benefit from the use of a variety of innovative technology tools, such as collaborative virtual environments, virtual environments,  rehabilitative robots, assistive technologies,  mixed media handheld devices, language devices,  electronic screen media, computer assistive technologies, portable applications,  floor projectors, and rehabilitative robots (Luhach and Kumar, 2016). The usage of mechanical technology may prove beneficial for children diagnosed with ASD. Robots will likely one day be employed to figure out when specific social cues should be communicated. These can be updated comparably and make it possible for children to collaborate consistently in a specialized environment. 

Children who fall somewhere on the autistic spectrum frequently have difficulty communicating because they lack social skills. Having enhanced language abilities will likely result in increased independence, a larger social circle, and a better ability to integrate into the academic environment. Instead of spending money and time on language school tutors, people can receive immediate and effective results from using language-learning software (Srikar et al., 2022). Because they are not constrained by either time or location, these language tools are useful both in the home and in learning centers. Kids who have autism spectrum disorder are getting help from a variety of directions thanks to the ongoing development of more powerful and adaptable equipment as well as portable apps. The use of such devices can lead to a variety of beneficial results, including, but not limited to, enhancements in group cooperation, fluency in discourse, and creative problem-solving. 

The portability, diminutive size, and ability to be used whenever and wherever are three qualities that contribute to the appeal of mobile devices such as smartphones, iPads, and Android tablets (Srinivasan et al., 2022). Different applications that are aimed at enhancing correspondence, reading and writing improvement, turn-taking, sequencing, and other similar activities are giving promising outcomes across intercessions. The multitouch tabletop is a relatively new technology in human-PC interaction that provides a standardized user interface to make communication among consumers of the same company easier. The portable projector that people can set up on the table is compatible with common connections and takes into account a range of motor abilities as well as sporadic commands. It is also possible to use floor projections to give the impression that the ground itself is alive. Additionally, a wide variety of games that can be played either alone or with a group of other people can be set up. 

When compared to traditional strategies, in which everything is planned manually, the primary selling points of such instruments are that they are automated, protected, and require less effort to use. As per the views of Jyoti and Lahiri (2019), the virtual environment that may be re-created with virtual reality (V.R.) software that was designed with VE has the potential to not only be intelligent but also to be kept up-to-date and safe. People can use this perspective to investigate a wide range of simulated social encounters, which paves the way for them to become aware of new social circumstances and acquire the skills necessary to react effectively to a variety of circumstances. Children who have autism spectrum disorder have been proven to benefit greatly by participating in virtual environments (V.E.s) that are geared toward the instruction of social skills (Singh et al. 2022).

ASD children require the same amount of social skills as their psychologically healthy peers. Children need to practice their social skills to build their self-confidence, make new friends, and get along with the people in their environment. This may in the long run be beneficial to them in both their personal and professional lives.

5.3.6 Theme 6: Future of ensuring rights of autistic people in India

In India, in 2016, autism was recognized as a disability within the Right for Persons with Disabilities Act. Among these requirements was the establishment of medical boards at the state level. These medical bodies worked diligently and swiftly to meet urgent demands in India. According to the studies of Vats et al. (2018), most importantly, instruments like INDT-ASD ("INCLEN Diagnostic Tool for Autism Spectrum Disorder") were created that were designed and verified in the local context. Multiple experiments have confirmed the high psychometric quality of these instruments. Therefore, another obstacle to caring for children with autism can be removed by adopting open-source tools and materials developed in India. To address the third 'pillar,' which consists of fostering development through skill-building and certification, parents still face implementation obstacles. 

The need to work with children to strengthen the abilities that underpin communication and language learning, and the need to support families in giving techniques and information about the best ways to connect with children, are both key outcomes of early identification. It is believed that addressing these two pressing demands simultaneously can have a long-term, favorable impact on children's development and their ability to learn from their interactions with others. It has been found from the studies of Lord (2020) that there is now abundant evidence that whilst learning languages continues progressively throughout development, the largest gains in children with autism occur early, typically before they enter formal education at six or seven years. Therefore, there is an incentive to continue looking for children as early as possible and starting them on treatment via parent-mediated initiatives and direct instruction.

Direct therapies such as Communication DEALL ("Developmental Eclectic Approach to Language Learning") and parent-mediated techniques like PASS ("Parent mediated intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders in South Asia") and PASS+ are used in India's effective early intervention programs (Divan et al. 2019). These studies duplicated the results of a manualized clinical trial conducted in the U.K. and gave novel Indian techniques for dealing with children and families. Such courses begin the initiatives people need to undertake to establish abilities in early childhood that must then be continued in education and by parents throughout childhood. Educators all over the world need more resources to help children on the autism spectrum, whose needs can range from modestly verbal and delayed indefinitely to very eloquent but with learning difficulties, difficulties with mental health (such as anxiousness or hyperactivity), and distinctive social needs.

Creating person-environment fits is the third pillar that is outlined by Lai et al. (2020). This pillar involves altering typical real-world contexts, such as businesses, schools, and community settings so that autistic persons can engage as fully as feasible. There have been reports of in-depth descriptions of adults in India who suffer from autism using multiple methods. The development of educational programs and the funding of conferences that provide learning opportunities were made possible via the generosity of private donors and cooperation with municipal governments (e.g. "Centre for Autism and other Disabilities Rehabilitation Research and Education in Thiruvananthapuram"). Experts from all across the world who study autism have acknowledged the significant role that non-governmental groups have had in bringing about change (e.g. "INSAR 2015 Advocate Award to Merry Barua"). Patel et al. (2018), a group that is regarded internationally as a frontrunner in the field of global mental health, has been at the forefront of a significant movement to advocate for public health programs for neurological conditions and autism. In a similar vein, India was the first country to recognize the unique set of ethical issues that are presented by conducting research on neurological conditions and autism in nations with lower and moderate incomes.

As a result, more information is available to others throughout the world who are interested in autism as a result of the leadership and dedication of Indian academics, advocates, parents, and authorities. Everyone is aware that getting involved early can have a positive influence. People have now discovered that children with autism may be recognized using indigenously established standard measures and that after being identified, these children can benefit from receiving an education that is appropriate for them. According to Cameron et al. (2022), adults who have autism can participate in a variety of activities both at home and in the neighborhood when their parents and communities provide the necessary support. Even though this can have an impact on families in the form of stress and an imbalance between work and personal responsibilities, these issues should be addressed. Everyone who works or studies the subject of autism is aware that there are still significant hurdles to overcome in order to ensure that persons with autism and their parents have the same possibilities for happiness, good health, and involvement in their communities. This must become a reality as a result of the combined efforts of many individuals in India and all over the world.

5.4 Discussion 

Challenges face Autism people and right in India.

Autism is a significant developmental disability it has been found that people have a mental disability from their birth. It doesn't observe that Autism disability has been observed in one person among 68 people and India it has been approximately observed that 80 million people suffer from Autism disability in India. As stated by Mukkiri et al. (2021), these types of disabilities have been found in males four times more as compared with females. The main reason for occurring in the male people is generic features of transportation from fathers to their people. It has also been observed that the government is required to forecast this category of people to increase their satisfaction as well as boost their rights and preference in society. This is also not a third significant prevalent kind of developmental disability in India; nevertheless, in different developed Nations like the USA. The U.S. government is also investing nearly 200 million for better treatment and support to this category of people by innovating and researching the latest medicines and support. The Indian medical system is also not too effective and in good condition to support and provide other different facilities for Autism developmental disabilities. As opined by Mathur and Koradia (2018), among different challenges, the main challenge of Autism people is not having proper transportation support for travel across India. Apart from this, the government has not provided any specific employment as well as support to Autism people. Parenting also has significant challenges in development and their rights in India. As opined by Shelar (2017), parents of Autism children also face different types of challenges in providing them support and rights in society. More often it has been noted that parents also do not have better knowledge and education of developmental children that face Autism disability challenges. Here challenges of children are increased as compared with other disabled children that do not have total disability challenges.

Steps and strategies for providing human rights to Autism people in India

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) men government bodies and authorities engaged in the development and providing rights of personal face disabilities challenges in India under the right of a Person with disability act 2016. As per ADS, there are three different categories of developmental disability while providing rights and support in their life and daily routines. Among different categories of disability persons, 40% or more have the right to free travel throughout India in the general section. However, they get concessions while traveling in the sleeper and other private vehicles. As opined by Divan et al. (2021), they also get financial support from government schemes under the Government Act. On the other hand, it has also been observed and found in article 7 that the United Nations Act 2006 stated that children who have a disability have the same access to all human rights and fundamental freedom as children who do not have disabilities and government bodies are also responsible for providing those fundamental rights to that mental disable Autism people. It doesn't observe that Article 24 of the United Nations chartered also states that the rights of individuals with a disability must have the right to have education by other method and process which is more suitable for developmental disability children. Article 29 of the United Nations Charter Guarantee also argues that each child who is suffering from mental disablement needs primary and secondary education support, which is more affordable and increases their basic development (World Health Organization, 2019). On the other hand, the government of India also provides different types of educational support under National disability school channels to increase their basic educational knowledge about specific topics and areas. Apart from this, governments are also continuously focused on innovating and developing basic support systems that may increase their access to different public and private facilities such as education, transportation, and human rights like freedom to space, freedom to live, and freedom to earn. 

Legal recognition of autistic children developed by ASD

UNDER THE ACT RPD 2016, children have disabilities, more than 40%, have rights to access different opportunities and rights such as higher education and productive employment under a different government and public entities. As opined by Wellman et al. (2020), employment is the main source of earning and livelihood and meets their basic requirements for living in India. It is quite necessary for any people who are facing Autism challenges in India, they need to consider governments' different schemes and plans, which are developed according to their challenges provide basic assistance, and assess all freedoms and rights around the world. The study also provided different types of financial support to people with disabilities and access to different employability sources according to their mental and physical health well-being to increase their ability to generate livelihood. As opined by Lord (2020), it has been often observed that male autistic children and people must have better access and employability services to increase their growth and financial strength in the future to achieve better employability. As argued by Allely et al. (2019), by the RPD act, a quarter of three percent of positions in both higher education and the public sector have been reserved for people with disability. The World Health organisation also discussed different regulations and support which may increase their dependency on their earnings as well as customize public transportation systems for better accessibility and support in future life. Cycle For to improvements is also observed while government and public health organisation provides less discrimination more barriers please accessibility and more useful rights to people with disabilities. As opined by Clark et al. (2019), this improvement is also scientifically approved in different research and service approaches conducted by those who. 

Interventions considered by the government to ensure better rights for Autism children

Under the Rehabilitation Council of India, act 1992 and National Trust Act 1999 are stated significant pieces of disability-related Indian laws under 5-7. The United Nation also conducts different types of meetings and conversation over the right sub-disabled children in their early stage of development, which not only increase their educational status nevertheless also ensures better employability. The government also stated some laws and acts for school admission and preserved a certain percentage of total seats in schools or colleges for autistic and disabled people. Here the seats are not preserved for mental developmental disabilities as they are not suitable to take admission in public schools. As suggested by (2022), children with disabilities have more than 40% have a ride to take education as primary or secondary in different disability schools, which are under the control of the central government. As opined by Divan et al. (2018), these types of initiatives are also developed by the government to boost educational development in disabled people. The government of India also launched an insurance program named “Nirmaya” for children and people who have disabilities to cover health coverage and provide health facilities to autistic and other disability category people at affordable prices in different private health institutions. The main objective of different types of LIC schemes and plans such as Jeevan Aadhar and Aadhar Viswas. Apart from this, the government is also creating different types of fonts for development and basic financial support for disabled people. People who don't have to contribute to these funds get a deduction of up to rupees 50,000 under section 80DD and section 80C. The main objective of the government to create this fund is to encourage people to contribute and donate to the disability development fund, which has been used to provide funds and financial support to different categories of disabled people, such as autism. As opined by Sydorenko (2020), the government has also provided concessions if two people have disabilities more than 50% or 40% based on the type of disability, such as autism, up to a discount of 75% of the total fare fee. This exemption has been developed by the administration and ministry of civil aviation for real and air travel. 

Importance of social skills in enhancement by latest innovative and technology

As people have disabilities, not proper situations and mental ability to achieve education as per children, they have basic knowledge and enhancement. Since then, the government has also developed flexible motivation and attractive skill development programs for people with disabilities like autism to improve their social skills. The main objective of increasing social access among children is to promote them in the current perspective as well as future employability chances. As stated by Bali and Liu (2018), in the current aspect, the I.Q. memory of children with a disability must be significant and measured by the skill development authorities while providing them with knowledge and skills in different skill development programs. As opined by Barua et al. (2017), virtual reality education mode is also a significant aspect that is used by different disability development institutions and authorities to boost thinking ability and mention development steps. In the USA, the owner of Neuralink developed a customized mental chip that is coordinated and connected with different latest digital devices and gadgets to perform the daily routine of disabled people just by their mental thinking or feelings. Nevertheless, these types of cheap products, such as Neuralink, are only recommended to people who are physically challenged or disabled, more than 40%. This cheap is avoided for developmentally disabled people as they do not have better mental ability and control over their feelings and thoughts. As opined by Gupta and Misra (2021), the main purpose of the development of these types of chips Elon Musk is to increase development and support to physically challenged persons in their regular and daily work without physical assistance. These paragraphs also consist of how many people face disability challenges among the 10000 population of a country. It doesn't observe that India has a better place with 40 cases per 10000 children, however, in the United States, nearly 66 cases have been recorded for 10,000 people. The government of India, as well as other different developed nations, are also performing different types of portable applications for projection and rehabilitative robots based on disabled persons' challenges and issues to increase their effectiveness and productivity. These rehabilitative reports are also maintained in friendly coordination with disabled people and also able to analyze and execute the emotional feelings of disabled persons and do according to their feelings and thoughts. 

Government steps about ensuring rights and opportunities for Autistic people in India

In the present time, the government has not had too much interest in the development of the latest tools and technology for autistic people and disability-challenged persons. Nevertheless, the government is continuously focused on research and developing new medicines and equipment which may play an important role in the current challenges faced by autistic people. As argued by Singh and Kumar (2019), the government has already declared different types of concession and human rights for autism and other physically challenged persons in India. However, the medical bodies and authorities are also continuously providing medicines and health facilities in different government hospitals and institutions without any charges. On the other hand, these medicine bodies continuously Focus on butterfly research programs with assistance and coordination with different private Medicare institutions to innovate and develop the latest disability tools and equipment that are customized and friendly to disabled people (Rasi and Ashifa, 2020). It has been analyzed and observed from the above six thematic analyses and findings from past research articles on autism and disability research that the global health institutions continuously researched innovations on innovations and development of better support men tools. However, some articles also cover social activities and development programs that have been operated and run by NGOs and social institutions to provide better support and facilities for physically challenged disabled persons. However, in the present time, physically challenged and disabled persons do not have better access and human rights in India due to government policies and effectiveness towards initiatives for improvement of facilities and support to physically challenged persons. 

5.5 Summary 

As a conclusion that can be drawn from the discussion that has taken place thus far, the human rights issue of autistic individuals is a significant challenge in India. People's lack of awareness and education is the primary factor that contributes to the problem's pervasiveness in society. Because of this, many people perceive autistic individuals to be social outcasts and are reluctant to integrate them into mainstream society. Nevertheless, the government of India has implemented several reforms in recent years to protect the rights of autistic individuals. Concessions, quotas, and other chances are made available to autistic persons in all facets of their lives, including but not limited to education, higher education, healthcare, insurance, professional opportunities, and even travel. This includes but is not limited to By classifying autism as a disability in its own right, the Right of Persons with Disabilities Act of 2016 has considerably expanded the scope of the protections afforded to autistic individuals legal protections. However, the findings have also shown that the goal has not yet been realized, and there are still a great many things that need to be done to make the country an ideal place for the human rights of autistic individuals.


6.1 Conclusion

Based on the above study, it can be concluded that Autism's difficult effects on children's brain development will become more widely acknowledged. The primary purpose of this research was to highlight the challenges of human rights for sick children. The goal of this research is to better understand the causes of the discrimination and stigma that autistic youth and their families face. Reducing the negative effects that inequality has on Indian society requires addressing the concerns and putting suitable measures in place. Because of the country's severe autism awareness gap, conducting research in India is crucial. Undoubtedly, this is one of the primary causes of the alarming increase in cases of discrimination and violations of human rights. The study's findings will be crucial in drawing focus to the preventative and strategic suggestions for resolving the problem.

The study's findings, which could have real-world applications, lend credence to the usefulness of the archival research approach used in the study. Understanding how parents, educators, and society at large may best deal with Autism was the primary goal of this study, which employed the Mono method to do so. Time was saved in the lengthy analysis process because of the utilisation of secondary data. Descriptive methods of data analysis allowed for the presentation of many features of the collected data.

People in India have very limited awareness of Autism as a result of a lack of education and information. Asthma, gastrointestinal problems, recurring viral infections, and seizure disorders are just a few of the many medical ailments that often co-occur with Autism. The lack of adequate therapies, support, and resources for people with ASD throughout their life has led many people to label this condition a public health emergency. New support institutions and rules have been established in India for those who have been diagnosed with Autism, and there has been an uptick in autism awareness and diagnosis over the past decade.

6.2 Objective Linking

Linking with Objective 1: To learn about the human rights of autistic children in India.

For the first time, in 2016, India joined the ranks of nations that have passed the "Rights of Persons with Disability Act," a groundbreaking step toward recognizing the unique needs of this population and guaranteeing their protection, growth, and care (Disability Affairs, 2021). Titled the "Rights of Persons with Disability Act," it was a significant step in addressing the needs of this underserved population. According to Article 21 of India's Constitution, people who have been diagnosed with Autism have several legal protections. They have an equal playing field in society thanks to the assurance of access to justice should they need it (Gupta et al. 2018). They, like all other citizens of India, get the same protection under the law thanks to Article 14. According to Article 15(1) of the Indian Constitution, the state may not discriminate based on a person's race, religion, caste, gender, or disability. 

In this case, autistic people are also afforded protection. Article 15 states that no person, including those with disabilities, may be denied access to a public space based on race, color, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, age, or disability (2). To treat an autistic person differently than people would treat any other person is illegal under Article 17. Article 21 establishes the universal human rights to life and liberty. Kids with Autism between the ages of 6 and 14 have the same entitlement to an education as any other kid. Article 23 of the Constitution outlaws the use of forced labor in any capacity. Businesses are prohibited from hiring anyone younger than 14 years old, per Article 24 of the Constitution. According to Article 32 of the Constitution, anyone who feels they have been treated unfairly because of their Autism or another disability has the right to file a writ petition with the Supreme Court, which has the final say in the matter (Indian kanoon, 2021). The right to one's property is guaranteed under all situations by Article 300A.

Linking with Objective 2: To determine the necessary support for the ASD youngster to live a fulfilling life.

Having Autism recognized as a reference disability under "The Right of Persons with Disability Act 2016" ensures that autistic people will have access to a full range of services, including medical treatment, education, institutional support, protection, training, and even employment. Disabled individuals should be treated as human rights, not handouts, and society needs to evolve past the welfare paradigm to recognize this. Right now, people need to take action. Schools for people with disabilities were first created in the 1880s as a humanitarian cause backed by voluntary agencies, but the realization of the key idea of rights-based participation of disabled individuals has not yet been completed (Gowramma et al. 2018). This is so even though the first schools for people with disabilities were founded in the 1880s. The Reducing Disparities in Education Act (RPwD Act) of 2016 is a watershed piece of legislation that aims to improve access to higher education for people with disabilities. 

The goal of taking these measures was to give kids who needed extra support a better shot at succeeding through early identification, intervention, and remediation. All children in need of special education services can benefit from this plan's tiered approach to support. Supporting evidence for the RtI approach (Response to Intervention) suggests it is beneficial. Helping youngsters develop social abilities will benefit them in their personal and professional lives as adults. Someone with Autism can deduct Rs. 50,000/- under Section 80DD without providing any additional proof of their condition (The National Trust, 2021). ASD is often regarded as a public health crisis due to the lack of effective treatments, enough levels of care, and adequate resources for persons with ASD throughout their life. New institutions and rules have been put in place in India to aid persons who have been diagnosed with Autism due to a rise in both awareness of the disorder and the number of diagnoses over the past decade.

Linking with Objective 3: To assess the basic rights of ASD children by Indian legislation and to prevent prejudice against ASD children's fundamental rights in India.

New support institutions and rules have been established in India for those who have been diagnosed with Autism, and there has been an uptick in autism awareness and diagnosis over the past decade. However, actual outcomes differed significantly from those anticipated. When it comes to academics, both the accessibility and quality of available resources are highly unpredictable. This research examined the laws that exist in India to safeguard autistic people of all ages. The article also discusses the government's efforts to improve education and healthcare, as well as the problems that exist in these areas (Indian Kanoon, 2021). 

People with Autism in India need substantial government measures to complement the work being done at the community level, despite the progress that has been made and the reasons for optimism. UNESCO, the International Disability Organization (IDO), UNICEF, the World Bank, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development are all working together on a project called "The Right to Education for Persons with Disabilities: Towards Inclusion" (OECD). The "Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act" has been hailed as a "game-changer" for people who are affected by Autism, as well as twenty other conditions that are now legally recognized (Disability Affairs, 2021). Help is made available to people with Autism so that they can exercise their basic human rights and pursue meaningful possibilities like employment and further education.

Linking with Objective 4: To assist in improving their ability to live freely. 300

The Indian government's Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan initiative provides all children in India, including CWSN, with a free and quality basic education from the ages of 6 to 14 (The National Trust, 2021). The Right of Persons with Disabilities Act requires that the public and private sectors set aside 3% of their total available positions for people with disabilities. Certain quotas were set up to guarantee that people with disabilities had equal opportunities in these professions. It is now necessary for a percentage of 5% before people start to worry. As a direct result of this newly acquired recognition, people who have been diagnosed with Autism are now eligible to apply for government-subsidized positions that are earmarked specifically for people with impairments. 

Additionally, the law now protects all of their most fundamental rights. The Act seems to agree with the original WHO accords, and it places a heavy emphasis on ensuring that there is less discrimination, greater barrier-free accessibility, and more practical rights. Furthermore, it appears that the WHO accords are consistent with the original World Health Organization accords (WHO). Some examples of beneficial developments that have helped to positive gains include the move away from a solely scientific approach in favor of a biopsychosocial one and the move away from laws that are based on charity in favor of laws that are based on rights (Balakrishnan et al. 2016). 

Direct therapies such as Communication DEALL (Developmental Eclectic Approach to Language Learning) and parent-mediated strategies such as PASS (Parent mediated intervention for autism spectrum disorders in South Asia) and PASS+ are used in India's effective early intervention programs (Gupta et al. 2018). These studies' results mirrored those of a randomized controlled trial conducted in the United Kingdom; they also offered novel strategies for assisting Indian youngsters and their families. These sorts of programs form the groundwork for the rest of the measures that need to be taken to develop children's skills, which should be sustained throughout their childhood by the children's schools and their parents. 

Children on the autism spectrum have a wide range of needs, from being modestly verbal and delayed indefinitely to being very eloquent but struggling with learning difficulties, mental health issues (such as anxiety or hyperactivity), and unique social needs, all of which necessitate more resources to meet (Geetha et al. 2019). Children with these needs can be mildly verbal and developmentally delayed, or they can be quite articulate despite having these needs.

6.3 Recommendations 

6.3.1. Providing privilege to autistic children

A person with Autism have the right to make their own decisions and choose from a range of options when it comes to meeting their most basic needs, and society has a responsibility to treat them with dignity and respect. As opined by Gosling et al. (2022), the formulation and application of laws and regulations, as well as other decision-making processes about persons with Autism, should include active participation from persons with Autism and their representative organizations. Legislation, regulations, and laws that defend the right to a life free from discrimination and actively encourage full social, economic, and cultural participation for people with Autism should be made available to them in their entirety. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder are guaranteed the same protections and benefits of the law as everyone else, particularly equal access to adequate legal protection, free from prejudice and discrimination. 

All children, including those with Autism, must have the liberty to express themselves on any matters concerning them and should be afforded the same time to experience the rights of all people and liberties as other kids, with the main focus becoming on what is in the children's best interests (autism-society, 2022). They have the right to have their voices heard and their ideas considered on par with that of other children, regardless of whether they have a handicap, and they should be given assistance that is appropriate for both their gender and their impairment. Individuals on the autistic spectrum should have the option to live autonomously and take part in all aspects of society without restriction. 

The freedom to settle in a neighborhood of one's choosing is an essential component of this right. According to Niles and Harkins Monaco (2019), taking the necessary steps will guarantee that people in both rural and urban areas have equal access to the same physical environment, transportation, communication, and information, including communication and information technology and systems, and other public or government-provided facilities and services. Autistic persons should not be forced to live in any specific living arrangement, and they should be given the same possibilities as everyone else to choose which one they live with. It's important to approach this fairly. People on the autism spectrum need a wide range of community-based services, including those provided in the home, in residential facilities, and elsewhere (Giwa Onaiwu, 2019). Torture, as well as other types of cruel, inhuman, or humiliating treatment or punishment, have no place in the lives of people who have Autism.

6.3.2. Focusing on the safety of an autistic child

People should broaden their safety net. As per the view of Dixon et al. (2020), if the person is at risk of going out alone, it is important to inform the neighbors of their specific needs. Ask them to keep an eye out for the child or adult and to get in contact with people immediately if they see them alone. Find out the person's favorite places to hang out and the route they usually use to get to their various locations like their house, school, or workplace. Make sure to keep this data handy.   

Instead of scrambling during a crisis to come up with solutions, it is better to have a list of potential sites at the ready. As stated by Martin and Dillenburger (2019), people may also want to print off a satellite map of the area around the person's home, school, and/or place of work if they have a strong connection to water and people are worried about them getting lost. Natural and artificial bodies of water, including lakes, storm drains, streams, and other similar features, should all be marked on this map.

Arrange the data, so it makes sense. No matter the severity of the situation, first responders need access to specific details as quickly as possible. This includes things like a photo of the patient, a detailed description of their condition, a list of their unique requirements, and a list of any drugs they may be taking. The police and the first rescuers must also make an effort to understand how to best communicate with the person they are trying to help. As opined by Katsanis and Moulianitis (2021), to speed up the process of gathering data about a person dear to a person who is tutoring, it is helpful to record and organize the most key facts about them. If police and other first responders have access to up-to-date information, they will be better equipped to handle any emergency.

People always double-check to see whether the person in question has any identification on them that specifies the help they need.   According to Martin and Dillenburger (2019), some people, both young and old, might benefit from tracking gadgets that make use of cutting-edge technology. To make others aware of their needs, some persons may find it helpful to carry a "self-disclosure card" and learn how to do so securely.

Facilitate the safe exchange of information between law enforcement and those with Autism, with an emphasis on teaching teenagers and adults. As shown by the data, people on the autism spectrum are statistically more likely to have contact with the police than their typically developing peers. Because of this, both the parents and the educators of children and adults with special needs ought to be worried about this matter. The converse is also true; people with ASD may lack the social awareness and/or communication skills needed to interact safely with law enforcement (autism-society, 2022).

As per the view of Martin and Dillenburger (2019), teenagers and adults with ASD need to be trained in the proper methods for communicating clearly and openly with law enforcement. The importance of this move cannot be overstated. This is something that young adults who want more freedom to explore their interests and participate fully in society and who are thinking about getting their driver's license should bear in mind. People with This disorder, on the other hand, nearly always must see for themselves and participate in repeated exercise to learn these crucial skills. For this, video modeling might be a terrific and valuable tool for the aim of teaching safety skills.

6.3.3. Promote inclusion and acceptance of autistic children

Instead of dismissing anything, people should investigate it. Most families have experienced the humiliation of having their child stare at another person in public because that person is different in appearance or behavior from what the child is used to seeing. As stated by Kapp (2018), it is understandable that people want to tell their kids to stop staring or shut up because of how awkward the situation makes them feel. Instead of dismissing your child's reaction, use it as an opportunity to teach him or her about the importance of variety and to promote understanding within the family. If a person sees a youngster with autism spectrum disorder participating in motor and/or verbal stereotypy, such as turning in circles while whistling repetitively, they could try explaining that people behave in a new way when they're experiencing different emotions. It looks like the girl is having a good time. 

Advocate on their behalf and lend a hand. While many schools offer special education services or Section 504 accommodations for students with autism spectrum disorder, the same services are not always available in the community, such as at extracurricular events or religious institutions. As opined by Benevides et al. (2020), people’s support will be greatly appreciated if they learn that some other parent is advocating on behalf of their autistic kid by, for example, requesting a more sensory-friendly religious service. Supporting someone means listening to them and learning from them, but it also means going to the people in power who can change their surroundings and asking for their help.

According to Underhill et al. (2019), people need to always address a person by name and modify their vocabulary accordingly. Many self-advocates in the ASD community use identity-first terminology (such as "autistic person") because they see ASD as part of their identity. Professionals and parents often use person-first language. Although there is much debate about the correct terminology, it is crucial to use the language that is most appropriate for a person with ASD to show acceptance of the unique identity that they hold. To do this, people may want to poll their friends and family on the topic of what words are most polite and appropriate in each context.

People must not simply focus on the challenges; remember the strengths of the person with Autism too. Although many children and adults with ASD have difficulties, it is crucial to identify and celebrate the qualities that also complement ASD. As per the view of Benevides et al. (2020), people on the autistic spectrum (ASD) may have narrow interests, such as a preoccupation with technology or animals, which can make it difficult for them to form and keep friendships. In contrast, if that individual joins a club or group devoted to that interest, they will be able to meet other people who share that enthusiasm, expanding their social circle and deepening their understanding of the subject. Also, that person could exercise autonomy by pursuing a career path that fits with their passions. Recognizing one's strengths can boost a person's confidence and pride in who they are as an individual.

Societal organizations can facilitate opportunities for people on the autistic spectrum to take part. One can contribute to the cause by advocating for and creating employment opportunities for young adults and adults on the autism spectrum. This is more than just including people with ASD in your social plans. As stated by Kapp (2018), the Department of Labor's new apprenticeship initiative can be designed to help people with ASD, and other developmental disabilities find meaningful employment in fields like information technology (IT) and healthcare. A workplace can do a better job of employing, supporting, and retaining employees with ASD as valued team members if employers talk about why it's important to hire people with different abilities.

6.4 Research Limitations

There were several major flaws in this investigation, the most glaring of which was a lack of sufficient time, resources, and statistical samples. The focus on the two variables may increase during the process of determining the study's goals and objectives. The results of this study cannot be fully applied to all Autistic Children because data are collected based on the Indian perspective. Therefore, it's possible that more reliable findings may be presented if primary data were used in the research. The primary datasets may reveal a wealth of information about how autistic children are gaining actual benefits from the schemes and policies of the Indian government. Researching the impact of the human rights of an autistic child in India is likely to be a vast topic that goes beyond the scope of the present investigation.

6.5 Future Scope

Significant insights into autistic children in India will be gained from the research study, as well as an in-depth analysis of Autism. Further, the results of this study will aid firms in reducing the frequency and severity of disruptions to the efficient functioning of Indian government schemes and policies. The result obtained from this investigation might have been a lot more thorough if more secondary sources had been available on the topic of the research study that was being undertaken. This opens up more opportunities for conducting further, more in-depth studies on the research problem. This study's conclusions could be examined by the studies conducted in other countries on autistic children and the protection of their human rights. Therefore, this study investigation may have been conducted more effectively if a greater number of reliable secondary sources had been available. Therefore, the results of this study expand the pool of researchers whose work can be pursued. This study provides solid evidence for how human rights protection influences the safety of autistic children, who are also an equal part of this society.


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