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Understanding the main change mention to the cycle of advancement in the work environment and giving the various strategies for change in the working environment culture to improve the presentation of individual and group in the organization. There are 4 kinds of changes in the association, which is the key ground-breaking change, individuals driven association change, underlying change and therapeutic change in the association. Dealing with the improvement of the general interaction of advancement through the changes, it is fundamental for the organization to give an effect on tolerating the change in to expand execution.
Objectives of Tesco:
Objectives of M&S:
Marks and Spencer
To make the aspiration quality working for all and increasing the values of quality and services (Mission statement, 2021).
The mission statement of the Tesco is “What we make, we make better, together”.
The Vision of M&S is to work with the standards against the competitors to measure the benchmarking (M&S, 2021).
To be highly valued business in the retail industry from the customers we served and increase the loyalty and increasing in relation.
To reduce the pricing of the company products and increase the after-sale services to develop better business performance in workplace.
To develop more of company own product and develop new ways of market profits by selling more of own products.
Working on the use of technologies to develop their business with the fast process of making the payments and developing the business strategy of making the elimination of wating period for customers.
Tesco developed their necessary process of increasing the production capacity to prove a better working on business and develop a process of increased performance in workplace
Mention how change had an effect on Marks and Spencer
Change is critical, and firms are seeking to improve their overall business operations. The organisation is utilising the change in order to boost their work capacity and produce better results for the goals they are pursuing. Their need to comprehend the significance of change, since this can lead to improvements in performance and offer them with the necessary business development. The cut off of jobs in the business and the pandemic causing them less of sale and less of production to offer to the market which further impact on overall business. Working on development of online market but not every person like old age people is sound with technologies. So, they need to make it simple and effective to impact the business and increase the overall profit in the pandemic situation.
The changing character of the business is being impacted by the pandemic and other variables, and it is critical for the corporation to focus on strategies to establish a better business. It is vital for them to develop understanding since their current strategies are failing and the epidemic necessitates new approaches to make things work for the retail industry. The concept of doing more business online and temporarily abandoning the offline market. Developing the business while adhering to the appropriate business principles and creating a working environment that is safe for people to visit and purchase goods and services.
Mention how operations of M&S has also been impacted
Because of the change in working hours, employees were unable to operate at full capacity, and the organisation had to rely on other technologies to get back to work after the pandemic. It is critical that they apply their knowledge and follow the UK government's instructions.
Assess the different drivers for change in each of the given examples and the types of organisational change they have affected.
· The strength is the brand image in market.
· Technologies are very advanced.
· Developing better process of changing working.
· The pandemic effect on workplace
· Pricing strategy
· Production gets stopped
· The new online market
· Global market opportunity
· Market competition
· High prices in the pandemic
The impact of strength and weakness are that the company can use their strength in increasing the process of development in workplace and can provide better results in working. The strength provides a long-term impact as the company can work with the strength and can develop better productivity and profitability in market. The negative impact of the weakness is that if the Marks and Spencer are not understanding the criticality of the weakness and resolve them than it can impact on long run forbusiness and provide benefits to the competition in market.
When the company works on the different opportunity, they can develop new ways for the business and can increase productivity and profitability of business. This provides the chances of developing business for a longer run-in market. The threat needs to be eliminated and the strategies to be made for working no performance and achieve objectives.
Political influence is crucial and the government act in UK are impacting the working of M&S. they need to work with limited production and follow the procedures to maintain the pandemic rules.
Economy crises due to Brexit in the past and pandemic is also causing them economic crises as they are making it tough to survive in market with high competition and limited market access.
The market situation where people are not able to go out, the online market for the company need to be developed. Working with trends to survive in competitive market.
There are high numbers of people which are not sound with technologies and it can impact the organization working as they can’t just rely on Online platform in pandemic.
Change in legal rules and regulation to work in pandemic where the market is collapsing and they need to work with proper law.
Utilisation of PPE kits and the mask are on peak but on the other hand the plastic utilisation is rising which can impact the environment.
The long-term impact forms the external drivers are that the company need to develop the understanding according to the external environment factor to develop their business and provide them with necessary requirement to increase office. It is essential for them to provide them working with social factors and technological use to develop a long run-inbusiness market. Understanding the necessary external forces can impact on the business and it need to be developed so that the company can provide better results.
Define Organisational Change
Organizational change refers to the process of developing and implementing a change strategy in the workplace in order to improve the development process and provide a better working environment for the business.
Types of organisational changes:
M&S are changing their working in the decline economy due to pandemic and they are developing the process of online with limited offline market to increase their sale. Providing online facilities and home deliveries.
Increasing the training and development of Employee with the WFH to develop online services need strategy to control the infection and make the employee safe.
Increasing the empathy sand developing the company people centric which increase their loyalty and also provide them with reliability to the organization. People are most crucial factor for business and they need to develop this change in workplace.
The continues improvement in business to develop a better process so that they can increase working. This need to be adaptive for a longer period of time.
Impact of change on leadership behaviour
Working on the change in the office, there are different strategy used by the society where they increase an overall process of development and management in group. To utilise the best of the change management owner of the organization looks for the best of leadership in workplace. The change impact the behaviours of the leader’s and their responsibility gets raised. They need to learn new and different ways to provide the best of working to the people within the employee and support them to accept the changes by training and development. Bruke-litwin theory model clarified the segment part of the associations and the manners by which they are identified with one another when the hour of progress is occurring in the association. M&S are carrying out this hypothesis to improve the exhibition and tolerating the adjustment of the associations. It is very important to have a strong workflow and the forces in the organizations, so that the administrations can achieve the overall goals and the objectives and maximize the profit of the establishments with change and the leadership in the government’s management. the theory provides an understanding of the change and its impact as this help in finding the effective and efficient process at M&S.
Figure 1 Bruke-litwin Model
(Source: Burke Litwin Model of Organisational Change, 2021)
Impact of change behaviour on Team
Teams’ works different and it is essential for the company to manage the best of training and development in the office. This help in development and increased performance of the team. Different people working in the same team it is necessary for them to know the changes and work accordingly so that they can increase performance. System theory is one of the approaches to depict how to execute changes in associations. M&S is utilizing it to improve their presentation and come out better as an innovator in the organization.Organization works different and their working with team need to have a good understanding to develop better understanding of change. They need to accept the changes to increase the overall performance in workplace from the support of management.
Impact of change on individual
The change can impact on the working of the individual as they can get negative in their work performance due to the changes made by the companies. It is essential for the individual to get a proper training and development so that they can accept the changes and help in increasing in performance in workplace and help in getting better result to achieve objective of organization. Individual needs to know the ways the change is increasing the benefit for the business.
Resistance of Change
Resistance of Change: resistance of change refers to the process where the employee of the workplace is resisting the changes which are not briefed to them and it can cause an issue to their performance. They can resist to accept the changes and develop a communication with the management and leaders to discuss the change to make it acceptable.Forexample, if Marks and Spencer are making sudden change in the working hours and the employee are not aware for the same then the employee will resist to accept the change as they were not aware and they need to get information about the same in workplace.
The obstruction of progress can give an effect on the matter of the association as the conduct of the organization worker may change and it can prompt advancement of execution issues in the work environment. This can prompt improvement in working environment issues and furthermore give a contention between the representative and the executives as the conduct of the change can make the worker not fulfilled from business and can effect on work efficiency of organization.
To control the issues, it is fundamental for the organization to utilize the various approaches to control the issues which incorporate the interaction to arranging and no abrupt changes in useful as it can give a conduct sway on worker and they won't be versatile towards the change. Giving the vital preparing and improvement in work environment for the change which will on the way and giving the correspondence and making the worker mindful. The administration needs to foster an interaction where they are making the representative feels that they are significant for the business and ensure they know for the progression’s organization is taking.
There are different stages of grief model which explain the organizational behaviour on the workplace. There are 5 stages of the model are as:
Denial: Denial is the stage where the pain and loss are discussed. Denial is acceptance of something which is true and the person is rejecting. For the change it is essential to create a understanding of change.
Anger: When the employee is not accepting the changes but they need to then they show anger in the organizational behaviours which can impact on overall business of company
Bargaining: Bargaining refer to the process where the unusual feel to so desperate which will be willing to do almost anything to decrease the chances of accepting the change in behaviour.
Depression: When the change is making negative impact on the employee performance than it led to depression and demotivation in the organizational behaviour
Acceptance: The acceptance is the stage where the employee feels the pain of change but does not have option to say no and accept the changes into the workplace.
Working in the development of increased performance as this can lead to new way of working as it can create a development in performance as the change can provide a better increase in performance and can also development in creating of new way or methods in development in organization result (Rattayapimol, 2017). When the employee gets into the stage of Denial it is hard for them to accept the changes and to provide a better output in the process of result. They are not in the stage to accept the changes. At the stage of Anger, it is hard for the leaders in the organization to make the people understand about development in accepting the change for better performance. Bargaining stage of the model reflect that the employee is responsible to accept the changes so that they can provide a better performance and they need to accept the changes. Working in the organization it is sometime essential for them to develop an understanding and make changes accordingly in workplace(Grother and Coventry, 2018). People get depressed when they are forced to make the changes and to accept the changes without even liking it. When the employee gets depressed, it is impossible for the leader or manager to get the best pout of the employee performance and create a impact on the overall performance of the organization (Hay, 2017). At the stage of acceptance in the understanding of leading change is need to be accepted by the employee as they are not having option and they need to accept the changes so that they can provide a better result weather it can impact on their working but they need to change according to company needs (Reeves, 2018).
Internal divers are very important as it help in development of the overall performance, the HR works as an internal factor of divers it creates an impact on the overall performance of workplace and create an impact in developing the business of company. It is essential for the business to develop the internal and external drivers in business to develop more of performance. The HR helps in providing the best of recruitment and develop a better process of increased performance which can lead the company in developing of overall results. External factors of the divers in workplaces include the leadership, stakeholders etc, it is very important for the business to have stakeholders which help them in creating a better decision making and investment activity to develop business. Working in the internal and external divers both are vital for the business and help in creating a different way to increase results to achieve business.
The impact of internal drivers is that the change in the performance form the employee can make negative performance and this can lead to lack of productivity and the company will not able to provide the best of customer services. The long-term impact of the external drivers is that it can cause the business in are the change in the economic of the country and the market, the change in the government polices and laws which can provide an impact on overall performance of Marks and Spencer. Both the factors affect the business in getting better performance and they need to develop a decision according to the market change to increase the performance
Changes are very importance and it is essential for the Marks and Spencer and the organizations to work with the acceptance of regular changes in workplace to develop a better understanding of situation as well it helps in understanding the Market knowledge better. Development in change and creating a better working help in understanding the importance of change and help the company for the same.
To recommend it is essential for the M&S to provide a better working in the workplace and develop a necessary process of change in regular note to increase the understanding in the employee and they work with the change without resisting.
To recommend it is essential forthem to provide a different working in development of necessary process of planning and development to make employee trust on company for the change.
Planned change: Planned change is referring to the process of developing the necessary change in workplace according to the ned and planning which include a process so that the employee does not resist in accepting the changes made by the organization.
Bohner and Arnold Change impact analysis:
Both the Bohner and Arnold provide the change impact theory and provide the information that there are two classes, one is traceability and the other one is dependency. Traceability includes the process of link between the specification, requirements, design elements and test which are capture in it. The other one includes a link between the parts, logic, variables, modules etc. both specified that the change need to be developed sand increase the understanding of change in process so that the employee accept the change and the organization can develop a better understanding of change and implement better.
The purpose of this theory is to provide an understand of the change and its impact on the workplace. They explained that working in the process need to develop a better working in business and it is essential for them to provide a better working. The change needs to be educated and understood to implement and develop better process.
The steps for impact analysis:
Step 1. Prepare:understanding of the change and making the employee gets prepare for the same to have a better understanding of the process. Understanding that the change can help in better results.
Step 2. Brainstorm: making them educated about the working in quality and make them know about the importance of change.
Step 3. Look deeper:provide them with the long run benefit and increase the process of change in workplace.
Step 4. Evaluate and identify the positive and negative impact:change provide the positive and negative but when the change is done properly it provide the most of positive impact and develop employee performance.
Step 5. Manage the consequences:understand and management to provide the trust when the consequences happen.
Barriers to the change
There are various changes that come in front `while adapting changes that are mentioned in following manner:
When the change is impacted in the workplace then it is essential for the company to provide the necessary training and development. If they do not do this the employee feel demotivated and provide a lack of commitment in the changes the company is providing in the operations(Lakerv and et.al., 2019). The company should work within the commitments and it is essential for them to provide the commitments to the people so that they can trust more on the Marks and Spencer, it is essential for them to increase the awareness in Market and provide an impact over the change.
Lack of effective communication;
The change tends to reduce the communication between the individual of the organization and the overall process as this need to have a better communication in workplaces. Communication can create a lot of impact on the organizational performance and the employee need to know about the information of change. They should be in communication of change so that they feel a part of workplace. Communication needs to be developed more as it can impact on overall process of working in better understanding for change.
The organizational complexity can be a huge barrier in the change and it can impact on the overall process of development of change in workplace. Their need to be developed performance in the workplaces which helps in increasing the overall result to get improved (Nelson, Brantley and Ford, 2017). The complexity of the changing structure and hierarchical working of the companies can impact on the work. Different working culture or structure can impact on the acceptance of change in workplace
The impact of barrier of change on leadership decision making:
When the company is facing the lack of barriers and change in the workplace, the leadership gets thought as they are the one who work as a relationship between the management and the employee in workplace. Developing the performance while taking decision is it essential for the leaders to make good relation with the help of increased communication between both the parties(Neumann, James and Vince, 2019). The decision making get change perspective as the company deal with the change and the barriers need to be understood by company leaders and provide the increase in commitments and development of performance from employee and provide the necessary helps from the management to increase working.
Schein’s Organization Culture Model
The model provides an understanding of the changing and the culture of workplace. This include the organization culture with assumptions which shape values and after that the values shape practices which are part of culture.
Figure 3 Schein's model
(Source: Models of organizational culture- Schein, 2021)
The driving and resisting force field can influence the decision-making process of the organization as it has different steps in making the best adaptation and implementation of the changes into the organization (Guo and et.al., 2019). The force field analysis help in understanding the changes in the best ways and it also help in making the best situations for the process. It makes plan and analyse all these changes which are necessary for the organization and help the organization in making good decision.
The force field analysis help in creating a development in the process of framework which provide the information of the factors which drive the company towards the goals and the resisting forces which are impacting the business objectives. The driving forces of Marks and Spencer are that the company is developing its technologies and working on the competition in market to develop better busies. The resisting forces are the commitments from the employee and need to develop better action from employee in productivity to reach targets.
While working on the forces the framework is helping the Marks and Spencer’s in developing the understanding of the better knowledge for the business factors which are helping the company and what are affecting in the objective’s way. This helps the leaders in development of strategy and create a process of training and development to increase employee performance so that they can provide a better working in their productivity towards the company and develop results.
These forces give biggest contribution to make the believe organization that emerging changes will help business to achieve desirable outcomes and inspires them to be ready all time for adapting change in its business, strategies and operations according to dynamic environment (Keller and et.al., 2017). M&S are using the drivers forces to increase their working and develop the overall result in competitive market. It is vital for the company to understand the use of driving forces such as technologies, competitors etc. which can help the company in driving towards the goal.
Resisting forces can be understood through its name such as those force which resist something. Inefficient knowledge and employee’s productivity in the organization are the resistant force which are considered unauthentic factors for the organization. This can cause in the overall performance and development or result (Pitard and et.al., 2018). M&S need to control the resisting forces to increase the performance and they need to eliminate this from business.
Both the forces help in making a better process of learning about the company as it helps the leader and manager to know what the company is going through and what necessary changes they need to make to work on improvement. The changes which are vital for them need to be developed and evaluate to increase performance.
Kurt lewin’s change model
Unfreezing, altering, and refreezing are the three steps in the change model. The model is a very basic and incomplete model for analysing the organization's change process.
Figure 4 Kurt Lewin's theory
(Source: Lewin’s change model, 2018)
Unfreezing: It is critical to make organisational changes; yet, before those changes can be executed, it is critical to unfreeze the organisation. Because change necessitates awareness, employees will naturally reject it.
Changing: People can begin to work toward change once they have been unfrozen, as they see that the change in the process at company is the new stage of the great inning process.
Refreezing: It is the last step of the change model, and it describes how the organisation is ready to reinforce and stabilise for the new condition following the change.
It helps in increasing the understanding of change importance and manager use this in M&S to develop a process of proper working on change implementation in workforce.
Kotter’s 8-step change model
Figure 5 Kotter's 8 step Model
(Source:Kotter’s 8 step model of change, 2021)
Create urgency: While the update is being implemented, It is vital for the organisation to emphasise the importance of advancement in the organisations and to make everyone aware of the circumstances in which the organisation demands change.
Form a powerful coalition: This phase illustrates how crucial it is to persuade employees and management that change is essential for the organization's growth.
Communicate the vision: Make a dream for change is the interaction through which an association starts to consider change with a splendid thought and vision that will help the association's presentation.
Remove obstacle: Eliminate snag is a cycle in which organisations must identify individuals who are opposed to organisational change and understand why these changes are taking place
Short term wins: Enjoying the short-term win as they motivate in development and also increase confidence towards the change.
Build the change: It is acceptable to accept successes; however, it is critical to never surrender and never announce the breeze in the early stages because it takes some investment to successfully roll out the improvements over a longer period of time.
Anchor the change in culture: To secure the shift, businesses must implement long-term improvements and become a part of the core of organisations that support and improve corporate culture.
This helps them in increasing the work efficiency in the company. It gives the advantages of speeding the overall process of company performance. But on the other hand, the disadvantage it hurt the morale of the overall employee in the workplaces.Itin increasing the work efficiency in the company. It gives the advantages of speeding the overall process of company performance. But on the other hand, the disadvantage it hurt the morale of the overall employee in the workplaces. This helps them in increasing the work efficiency in the company. It gives the advantages of speeding the overall process of company performance. But on the other hand, the disadvantage it hurt the morale of the overall employee in the workplaces. This helps them in increasing the work efficiency in the company. It gives the advantages of speeding the overall process of company performance. But on the other hand, the disadvantage it hurt the morale of the overall employee in the workplaces.
Different leadership Styles
Authoritarian leadership:It is one of the styles in which the leader works on commands and have a control over their subordinates in workplace. This type of leadership style is also known as Autocratic leadership. This helps the leaders in taking in charge and work on the necessary decision for better working on workplace.
Participative leadership:this is known as the democratic leadership style and this can lead to better working in the workplace, as this allows in supportive leadership as where the leader include the employee and management for the decision and it help in better relationship in workplace.
Transactional Leadership:Transection leadership is the style in which the promotion of compliance within the workplace by the followers with rewards and punishments are done. This helps the employee and follower to keep motivated for a short-term goal.
Transformational Leadership:this is the leaders which help the company in working on the development of motivation and inspiring of the people within workplace to develop better performance. It is essential for the workplace as this lead in good results.
There are different ways of leadership which can be used to develop a better workplace at Marks and Spencer (Thompson, 2017). It is essential for them to work according to their marketing and management to develop a better working in the organization. Working in the leadership unit is crucial for them to manage the working of employee in organization accordingly to develop better performance. The leadership approach which is used by the Marks and Spencer is the democratic as they allow the manager and leader to discuss about the overall issues they can handle or solve. It is essential for the company to work with the changes as they need to increase an understanding in the workplace. Marks and Spencer are creating regular communication with the employee and help them in creating a better decision in the workplace. Which can be used further in understanding the development of the workplace as which can be help in development of better decision in the organization.
There are different approaches of leadership and style in the workplace and the company need to develop the democratic leadership style to develop a better process so that they can provide a better working in the workplace. This can help in making the employee feel a relation in the workplace and the leader work to improve the relation of workplace. Developing the process and increasing the overall performance by making the employee aware about the change and then help them in understanding the change by providing them leadership and lead from front.
These leadership styles help the management in leading the change and this also allow the company in development of better results. From all the 4-leadership style above explained in the report, these help in development of better understanding of change by the leaders. It is essential for the leaders to increase the working on the change management do that they can create a better relationship within thew workplace to enhance the working and develop more increase in performance.
The above report concluded that it is essential for the organization in development of the performance they utilise the change methods in workplace to get better results. Development in the results is vital and for that the changes are implemented. The report further concludes that it is essential for the company to develop the methods and strategy of operation to increase the process of acceptance of change so that the negative impact can be minimise in the workplace.
Books and Journals
Dedaj, Z., 2017. The effect of transformational leadership approach in organizations. Journal of International Scientific Publications: Economy & Business. 11(1). pp.191-199.
Diener, F. and Špa?ek, M., 2021. Digital Transformation in Banking: A Managerial Perspective on Barriers to Change. Sustainability. 13(4). p.2032.
Grother, T.W. and Coventry, J., 2018. Leading change as a student in medical school-our reflection. The British Student Doctor Journal. 2(1). pp.30-31.
Guo and et.al., 2019. Vector-sum method for 2D slope stability analysis considering vector characteristics of force. International Journal of Geomechanics. 19(6). p.04019058.
Hay, D.A., 2017. From Communication to Coherence: Leading Change (Doctoral dissertation).
Keller and et.al., 2017. Experimental comparison of forces resisting viral DNA packaging and driving DNA ejection. Physical Review E. 95(5). p.052408.
Lakerv and et.al., 2019. The side effects of service changes: exploring the longitudinal impact of participation in a randomised controlled trial (DOORWAYS) on staff perceptions of barriers to change. BMC psychiatry. 19(1)., pp.1-12.
Lines, B.C. and Reddy Vardireddy, P.K., 2017. Drivers of organizational change within the AEC industry: Linking change management practices with successful change adoption. Journal of management in engineering. 33(6). p.04017031.
Nelson?Brantley, H.V. and Ford, D.J., 2017. Leading change: a concept analysis. Journal of advanced nursing. 73(4). pp.834-846.
Neumann, J.E., James, K.T. and Vince, R., 2019. Key tensions in purposive action by middle managers leading change. In Research in Organizational Change and Development. Emerald Publishing Limited.
Pitard and et.al., 2018. Mantle kinematics driving collisional subduction: Insights from analogue modeling. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 502. pp.96-103.
Prange, C. and Pinho, J.C., 2017. How personal and organizational drivers impact on SME international performance: The mediating role of organizational innovation. International Business Review. 26(6). pp.1114-1123.
Rattayapimol, S., 2017. Digital marketing towards the leading change in Thai manufacturing company.
Reeves, D., 2018. LEADING CHANGE: Moving on from the Ninth World Urban Forum. Planning Quarterly, (209).
Sroufe, R., 2017. Integration and organizational change towards sustainability. Journal of Cleaner Production. 162. pp.315-329.
Thompson, C.S., 2017. Teachers’ expectations of educational leaders’ leadership approach and perspectives on the principalship: Identifying critical leadership paradigms for the 21st century. Journal of Organizational & Educational Leadership. 2(2). p.4.
Models of organizational culture- Schein, 2021. [Online]. Available Through: < https://www.tutor2u.net/business/reference/models-of-organisational-culture-schein>.
Kotter’s 8 step model of change, 2021. [Online]. Available Through: <https://www.managementstudyguide.com/kotters-8-step-model-of-change.htm>.
Lewin’s change model, 2018. [Online]. Available Through: <https://9mconsulting.com/newsletter/lewins-change-model/>.
Understanding the Kubler-Ross change curve, 2021. [Online]. Available Through: < https://www.cleverism.com/understanding-kubler-ross-change-curve/ >.
Burke Litwin Model of Organisational Change, 2021. [Online]. Available Through: <https://www.toolshero.com/change-management/burke-litwin-model/>.
Burke Litwin Model of Organisational Change, 2021. [Online]. Available Through: <https://www.toolshero.com/change-management/burke-litwin-model/>.
Tesco Aim and Objective, 2021. [Online]. Available Through: <https://phdessay.com/tesco-aims-and-objectives/>.
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