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Wider Professional Practice and Development in Education and Training Assignment Sample

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Wider Professional Practice and Development in Education and Training Assignment

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Wider Professional Practice and Development in Education and Training

Task 1

Define the concept of professionalism and dual professionalism in education and training

Professionalism in teaching

According to (Hagreaves, 2018) Professionalism in teaching means meeting certain standards in education and training, it is related to proficiency. Therefore, teachers have a huge number of professional standards, such as interacting with students, parents, colleague’s and other professionals in the organization.

Key behaviors’ of professionalism

Dress respectfully

Responsibility

Integrity

Respect

Teamwork

Dual professionalism

Teachers and student are dual professionals this means a teacher, should be a proactive practitioner of skills and knowledge. The teacher should be able to implement a range of teaching and learning methods to, encourage consideration of learner feedback. Moreover, the immense satisfaction of teaching comes from helping students to progress and develop, from overcoming barriers to learning, and seeing learners better equipped to make their way into the world (Wood, 2017).

Specialist Teaching:

Children and infants with a variety of special educational needs and disabilities are taught by specialist instructors who have additional degrees, knowledge and/or experience in these areas. When dealing with newborns, toddlers, or young children, the specialist teacher's job changes based on their requirements and the environments they are in. It's a huge duty to educate the future generation. Curriculum design, teacher training, textbook selection, and technology tool selection are all significant concerns that no school should take lightly. That is why a large number of institutions of higher learning employ educational experts. Specialists in education work with schools to ensure that students make the most progress possible. Students with learning challenges may be a priority, or they may focus on integrating technology into the classroom. Whatever the case may be, they are critical to schools' performance in the twenty-first century. Teachers and administrators work together with educational specialists to revise and construct lesson plans, assessments, and classroom management practices (Cooper, O.P. and Bray, M., 2011). They primarily work for public school systems, individual public and charter schools, and private schools. A team of curriculum experts assesses and makes recommendations to improve the planning of individual courses, as well as teaching methods across several grade levels. As a result of their efforts, teachers, guidance counsellors, and parents/guardians are better able to communicate expectations and progress. In addition, educational specialists may concentrate on a particular area of education. There are educational experts that work solely with students with special needs, while others are dedicated to working with students who are gifted and talented.

QTLS:

The QTLS (Qualified Teacher Learning and Skills) badge of professionalism for post-secondary education and training helps practitioners develop in their careers and demonstrate their competence and experience to colleagues, employers and students. Members of the SET who complete their professional formation satisfactorily will be granted QTLS accreditation. Quality Teaching and Learning Status (QTLS) is a professional status recognized in the education sector that is obtained after successfully completing an initial six-month period of Professional Formation and is maintained through membership in the Society for Education and Training. When considering a career as a teacher, the QTLS is an excellent and important license to have. One of the advantages is that there are no Internships involved (Keeley-Browne, L., 2013). It takes less time to complete the programme and begin working than previously thought. You will have a higher chance of success because you will be promised placement, which will lead to employment. More assistance throughout the programme, as well as assistance following your training. With the ability to teach anywhere (Primary, Secondary, or Sixth Form) and no other qualifications other than continuing professional development (CPDs). Teachers and trainers in England who work with students aged 14 and up are required to have the QTLS insignia on their clothing. Only the Society for Education and Training can bestow this honour (SET). Prior to 2010, instructors in post-compulsory education were required, but today they can opt out of getting their 'Licence to Practise,' which allows them to teach. It indicates your dedication to working as a professional English teacher in the country where you're applying for a job. As a "status" rather than a "qualification," you must meet specific requirements before applying. If they worked in an English maintained school, anyone with QTLS certification had to be employed as a qualified teacher. Qualified teachers with a teaching licence (QTLS) will be treated the same as QTS holders in these schools, and they will be exempt from having to serve an induction year.

1.2 Explain ways in which own professional values influence own practice in an area of professionalism.

Meeting organisational policies and procedures in education and training

In any professional organisation their organisational policies and procedures which are supposed to be met. When it comes to teaching, the role of a teacher is to help students acquire knowledge and learn effectively and assess them. For example, a teacher can conduct an initial assessment. They do this to know the student’s strength and weaknesses, this will help them to identify referral points against the student’s level with the national level. For a teacher to meet the organisational standard the teacher has to be very competent. Therefore, they have to give the learner information, advice to where there are being referred (Buharkova,2017).

On the other hand, if at any stage any other student requires support which is beyond the teacher’s competence, they must refer and ensure that the learner gets the right information. They should do this so as to meet the professional standards on teaching and training (Smith,2019.

On the contrary, teachers must follow the guidelines that the equality act 2010 states that all students must have equal access to learning regardless of their learning barriers, which sex, religion, disability and race. Teachers should follow organisational procedures and policies by always making sure students are treated equal (Smith,2019).

Audit of competence in teaching

Competence in teaching is having the knowledge, skills and values and of instruction, assessment and grading. Moreover, academic reporting shows competence that is based on students demonstrating that they have learned the skills and knowledge they are expected to learn as they progress through their learning.(Nessipi, 2017).

Qualities of a competent teacher

To perform complex pedagogical duties.

To be well spoken, be in good mental and physical health.

Have good communication and observational skills

Teachers lead in the classroom by positive management of student behaviour

Teachers demonstrate leadership to their students by engaging in collaborative learning activities.

Competent teachers have the ease to adjust to existing situations, they are open to feedback and new ideas and support changes when necessary (Taylor,2019)..

Levels of personal growth as a teacher

Pedagogical ability- characterized by detailed knowledge of the subject

Pedagogical skills- Perfect teaching skills

Pedagogical creativity-Implementation of new methods in educational activities (White, 2016).

 Competent teachers assess students by using multiple indicators both summative and formative to monitor and evaluate their progress. Avery competent teacher seizes every opportunity to encourage learning, believing all students can learn (Bennet, 2015).

Task 1

  • Analyse theories, principles and models of learning,

Theories being analysed are as follows:

  • Behaviourism (Pavlov)
  • Cognitivism (Piaget)
  • Declarative vs Procedural Knowledge (Anderson)
  • The Scaffolding of Learning (Bruner)

Behaviourism theory

This theory was originated from the results of Pavlov’s experiments, on dogs as it suggests that positive experiences in the environment influences the quality of learning in students (Malone,2015). This theory puts the teacher at the centre of the learning process, it is not student centred. For example, teacher may create a quiz or a game, on certain information knowledge. The teacher will also create a reward to create a sense of achievement as Pavlov did to his dogs by feeding them after the bell.

Cognitivism theory

This theory suggests students to learn through mental processing of knowledge as (Piaget,1964) states as a change to mental behaviours. For instance, teachers should create a strategy, to keep students focused and keep their attention at high level. For example, using presentations, mind maps, (Barrouillet,2015)

Moreover, according to (Anderson,2004) they are two different ways of learning known as declarative and procedural learning. For instance, a game can be played, following rules made by the teacher which would be the declarative way or the same game in a way the pupils will discover knowledge by talking along until they understand it, that is called procedural learning.

Declarative vs Procedural Knowledge

Most of human knowledge are declarative knowledge or procedural knowledge. There is a fine distinction between declarative and procedural knowledge. Most of us retain knowledge either in factual form or procedural form. Declarative knowledge is the knowledge about facts or things. On the other hand, procedural knowledge is the knowledge about how to perform a certain task or what steps to follow to complete a task. For example, our knowledge that machine gun is a weapon and can cause damage to any living being is declarative knowledge because we know this as a fact. On the other hand, if someone knows how to use a machine gun in order to cause harm to any living being that is procedural knowledge. According to Anderson (1976, 1983, 1993), human knowledge starts in declarative form. We get to know the factual information about something first. This declarative knowledge clears the way for procedural knowledge, meaning we get to know how we can make use of our declarative knowledge. Human beings use procedural knowledge mostly instinctively. People do not consciously think when they are using their procedural knowledge. For instance, our procedural knowledge makes us automatically move our legs forward when we decide to walk somewhere. We do not have to actively think about it. However, declarative knowledge often requires conscious effort to be recalled when it needs to be used. For example, we need to actively think when we try to remember the date of our marriage anniversary. It is also important to mention that procedural knowledge helps us obtain new declarative knowledge (Anderson, 1996).

The Scaffolding of Learning

In 1976, Jerome Bruner developed the theory of the scaffolding of learning. Bruner’s theory was inspired from Lev Vygotsky, the Russian psychologist. According to Vygotsky, human beings learn best when they are in such a social environment in which they can interact with others. Bruner modelled his theory based on Vygotsky’s theory of Zone of Proximal Development which stated that people can learn more when they are surrounded by other knowledgeable people. According to Bruner, children need the active support of their teachers or adults when they try to learn any new concept. Adults or teachers help children to learn new things and retain knowledge (Bruner, 1973). However, this need for support gradually reduces over time as children acquire new skills and knowledge and achieve the ability of thinking for themselves. Bruner named this theory as the theory of scaffolding of learning because this can be compared with the scaffolding used in building construction. When a building is being constructed, scaffolding is used in order to support the building from being collapsed. However, once the construction is complete and the building has become solid, the scaffolds are removed (Bruner, 1976).

In order to achieve independent thinking ability, children need support and guidance from adults, parents, or teachers when they are young. For example, in elementary school, a teacher will read out loud the texts of a book for students. Moreover, the teacher will explain all the words and sentences in the book. This would help the students to develop their reading comprehension skill and eventually, the students would be able to read and understand texts themselves without the help or support of their teachers (Bruner, 1978).

1.2 Explain ways in which theories, principles and models of learning can be applied to teaching, learning and assessment

Scaffolding in teaching using individual Learning plans

According to (Vygotsky, 1934), scaffolding means the role of teachers in supporting the student development and providing support structures to get to the next stage. As students acquire more knowledge the scaffolding is progressively withdrawn until there are able to independently complete the task or master the concept. Moreover, Individual Learning Plans offer a greater range of investment of a student journey in learning. In contrary, it can support the development of a student’s sense of self, and an autonomy in their learning The Individual learning Plan not only provides support for teachers, but is a useful tool. When giving feedback with parents or guardians, it can act as evidence, of a student’s learning journey (Khare&Ciezki, 2015).

Scaffolding in learning using SMART goals

Teachers introduce students’ SMART goals because students themselves, they would feel a sense of value through their personal contributions to the class. They do this by working together, sharing learning goals, expanding their skills through collaborating with peers and feel individually supported to achieve the SMART goals. Therefore, the aim of the teacher is to explore the scaffolding of collective smart goals linked to learning.

Scaffolding in assessment using Individual learning Plans and SMART Targets

Teachers can create individual learning plans, an Individual learning Plans, records and provide evidence, of formal and informal tutorials and individual learning targets, their main function is to plan through the setting of appropriate targets, and achievement of relevant goals. The teacher will give a programme of instructions which are specific to the student and their needs. Secondly, targets offer different ways teachers can enable and evidence achievement of students. Furthermore, targets indicate a goal, that can provide a benchmark for measuring that desirable achievement. Moreover, the students and the lectures have to analyse S.M.A.R.T targets. This is the way, the theoretical and the practical approach is exposed (Ofsted,2020).

Constructivism

Is a philosophy of learning, that focuses on learning from experience, by reflection we have an opportunity to construct our own understanding of the world we live in the case of constructivism students make choices about what ideas to accept into their understanding.

Constructivism in learning

Constructivist focus on what students can do to integrate new knowledge with existing knowledge. In the classroom constructivism, takes the idea of combining what they already know with what they newly learn. Through this idea of learning and teaching students can do for example group work, reflection to create more knowledge. This learning is known as constructive learning(Ernest,1996).

Constructivism in Teaching

In 1996 Paul Ernest outlined some pedagogical implications of constructivism, in the classroom. He claimed that, the teacher must, use cognitive techniques to help as students challenge their own thinking. Teachers be aware or the importance of goals for the students. (Ernest,1996)

Constructivism in Assessment

There are two types of feedback in assessment which, formative and summative. Assessment occurs during learning and provides feedback to the student. The teacher will evaluate engaging portfolios and demonstrations of work in progress. Moreover, summative assessments occur through tests and essays at the end of a unit of study. Summative assessments provide little specific feedback, learning room. From a constructive perspective, formative assessment is more valuable to the learner (Smith,2019).

1.3 Analyse models of learning preferences

This tool is used by students to analyse their learning style. Students use V.A.R.K as a questionnaire, that will provide their preference (Clarke,2019)

Visual

Students who prefer this learning style, they learn by using PowerPoints, the internet etc. Therefore, visual learner learns by seeing. They prefer this learning style because they prefer seeing information written rather than in written form (Fleming&Mills,2017)

Aural learners

These learners learn by hearing information, those kinds of students tend to benefit, a great deal from listening through lectures, and they learn from information they are told by the lecturer. Students listen to podcast audio books, they find it very helpful, in their learning (Clarke,2019).

Reading writing learners

These students prefer to learn new information when presented in text format. Whether it is a PowerPoint presentation, or handing out reports. Therefore, these kinds of students find it easier to process information after reading or skimming it. These learners prefer taking notes when there are in a lecture, it helps them to understand the information being covered (Hausmann, 2018)

Kinaesthetic learners

Student who uses learning preference retain information through their senses, they simply put they’re through hands on experience tasks, that involve engaging with materials or objects. These students are natural discovery learners. Kinaesthetic learners engage more in experiments, sporting activities arts etc (Dunn,2019).

Critics of the V.A.R.K learning preference

According to Smith (2019) the VARK model of learning have been criticized some critics have come with their own view. They further, suggested that labelling students as having one specific learning style can be an interference to their learning.

Gardner’s multiple intelligence

According to Dr Howard Gardner. This theory suggests that the traditional grading for ones IQ, which was mostly based on linguistic and logical mathematical intelligence, was too limited .This definition Implies intelligence is a social construction as its definition lies upon the values of a society. Gardner’s theory suggests that there are 8 different intelligences and each person possesses on to a certain degree(Gardner,1983).

The intelligence types

Linguistic logic: mathematical, musical, spatial bodily kinaesthetic, interpersonal, interpersonal. Moreover, Gardner has proposed a ninth type of intelligence called existential (Christedoulu, 2017)

  • Linguistic

A person who possesses linguistic intelligence has the ability to understand and manipulate language

  • Logic mathematical

A person who possesses linguistic intelligence has the ability to understand and manipulate language

  • Logic mathematical intelligence

This kind of person has logical reasoning ability and can understand and manipulate numbers

  • Musical intelligence

A personal who possess this intelligence has the ability to understand and manipulate sound

  • Spatial intelligence

This can manipulate and understand visual or spatial images.

  • Bodily kinaesthetic

These people can move their bodies with skill

  • Naturalistic intelligence

Has the ability to understand and question the natural word

  • Interpersonal intelligence

Has the ability to understand and respond to the emotions and needs of clever people.

  • Intrapersonal intelligence

Has the ability to understand and respond to their own emotions and need.

To add on, the purpose of Gardner’s theory is to understand the intellectual capabilities of the whole student. This theory is to tell us everyone is capable of an intelligent thought or intelligent action of some level. Moreover, this theory is a helpful theory, it highlights that intelligence is not fixed (Christodoulu,2017) but dynamic through good teaching. It is a useful theory with many practical implications for the classroom. The purpose of this theory is to give an IQ score and possibly a diagnosis. In conclusion, the purpose of Gardner’s theory is to give teachers a plan for teaching student regardless of their score on a test or diagnosis on psychoeducational evaluation (Christodolou,2017).

1.4 Explain how identifying and taking account of learner’s individual, learning preferences enables inclusive teaching and assessment

According to Hockings, “Inclusive teaching, learning and assessment are the ways which pedagogy, curricula and assessment, are designed and delivered to engage students in learning what is meaningful, relevant, and accessible to all”. Moreover, in education everyone should be included in the learning process. There should be no borders such as ethnicity gender or disability (Tomilsonet al.,2015).

Inclusive teaching

Identifying and taking account of student’s learning preferences allow the teacher to create awareness, of different learning styles, and try to work with the student’. On the other hand, V.A.R.K is another example, of a multi-sensory approach, which takes account of differences in learning preferences of a student. This approach enables the four learning styles to be put together into the lesson plan and delivered accordingly. Therefore, teachers can support students to learn effectively, by incorporating different teaching and learning methods, strategies and activities (Tomlinson et al.,2015).

Inclusive Learning

One approach to inclusive learning is having a teaching assistant in the classroom, for learners with additional needs and learning difficulties, they are important for all students to learn inclusively. Moreover, differentiation is a planned and an ongoing process of intervention. In the classroom to maximise the potential of students according to their individual needs. In other words, differentiation is about teachers ensuring that the right students get the right tasks. Therefore, the purpose of education, is all students have same goals, to succeed in their learning, but the help that each individual student need in progressing will be different (Kau, et al,2016)

Inclusive Assessment

Assessment is essential to learning, as it allows teachers to see how the students are progressing, and will identify any areas which the students are progressing. Assessment is very essential when teaching an accredited course as there will be an assessment criteria to gain the qualification. This suggests that, by discussing the options with the students, the teacher will be making sure that the lesson is inclusive In the same way, it is important to find out how students prefer to be assessed, so the teacher try to accommodate, because every stude3nt has different needs, some students prefer presenting their work, some like writing etc. Lastly, the teacher involving all students when discussing assessments, it puts the student’s minds at rest. By doing so the teacher is providing a supportive and inclusive environment in assessment (Swansea University, 2019)

Task 2

2.1 Explain ways in which social, political and economic factors influence education policy

Education policy consists of principles and policies in the educational sphere, as well as the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of government systems.

Social factors

Responding to impact of migration and migration and immigration

Several changes have been made to the immigration policy, over the last years. Their attempt was to cut a large number of immigrants to a small number. For example, several international students who overstay their student visas are counted as long term migrants. (George,17)

Immigration policies that impacted international students to work in the United Kingdom include the following:

Reducing the rights of students to work in the United Kingdom

Stricter criteria for education providers, for instance, requirements to secure a license from the home office, to implement immigration checks and monitoring of international students.

Inspection by an educational oversight body recommended by the home office'

Such policy changes have deterred some international students from coming to study in the United Kingdom. Moreover, current international students believe that government policies are re-sending the wrong messages to potential applicants. As a result of such perceptions, minority students are choosing to study in other countries.

Restrictions placed on minority students from abroad have made the situation harder for them to come and acquire education in the United Kingdom and get a decent job. Moreover, there is a big concern that students from abroad are classed as second-class citizens if the immigration always monitor them when there are in the country studying. (George,2017).

Addressing differences in performance between minority groups in education policy

Globally, the under-performance of minority students has attracted much attention across the education sector. Minority students score lower grades, obtain fewer credits more than their peers. A key factor in the improvement in language skills, and they are over-represented in vocational and unrepresented in higher education. (Anderson,2018).

 Nevertheless, the picture of everyday racism, for instance, minority teachers being held from promotion, their aim is a commitment to teaching, but struggle with endemic racism that pervades the British educational system. Furthermore, there is a difference between students from ethnic minorities in educational achievement so, the United Kingdom faces challenges to improve the education system, (Crozier, 2016)

Political Factors

Business and skills development

Employers prefer students with literacy and numeracy skills during recruitment. In a survey of employers in the United Kingdom on those who noticed shortfalls among their employees believed not having literacy and numeracy skills has led to more errors, this underpins funding of students and sustaining employment

In 2016 report Ofsted highlighted shortcomings in teaching English and Maths. One prominent issue was lack of skills and experience among teachers in supporting students. To. To understand the concepts, that lacks 'their skills in these areas. Therefore, as mentioned above not enough subject knowledge among the teachers may be transmitted to the students. (Ofsted ,2014)

When looking at policies remedies, are for example equity, or fairness. Many people with weak skills are disadvantaged often because, they have low salaries, insecure jobs or they are jobless. Furthermore, they are poor and excluded om the labour market. As a result, the government must improve its public finances to up-skill the unskilled, because the wider benefits of investing on education great return offers individuals and it additionally boosts earnings. (Trowler,2017)

Government legislations

Statutory guidance sets out what schools and local authorities must do to follow the law.

The equality act 2010

This law was set for any educational sector in United Kingdom to comply to, so this law states that it is unlawful for anyone who works in education to discriminate between students. (Equality act, 2010)

The three aims of the act are.

Eliminate discrimination

Promote equality

Foster good relationships

In legislation and guidance, they are seven protected characteristics

Disability

Pregnancy students

Gender reassignment

Sex

Pregnancy

Race

Sexual orientation (HM gorvenment,2010

Equally important, will explain more about learning disabilities and focusing on SEN students, the act also focuses on this. It is against the law to treat students with disabilities unfairly. Therefore, the governing body must prepare a written accessibility plan, after that have the required resources to implement the plan. (Andrew,2015)

This accessibility plan helps to:

To give students who are disabled to participate in the school’s curriculum

improve accessibility facilities for disabled students offered by the school or college,

In addition, schools should make it a priority to ensure disabled students receive the same type of education as their peers. Unlike wise, the responsible is liable for any breaches of the equality act, therefore by acting quickly to identify and put in place reasonable adjustments for SEN students they can minimize discrimination arising.

 Economic factors

Reflecting on local employment need

Schools and colleges work with different bodies, including qualified career professionals, employers, and training providers, so they get guidance on careers pathways available to students. Since 2015 the Job centre plus advisers have been working with students directly to advice on work experience, opportunity route, and apprenticeships. Moreover, careers guidance has high quality training opportunities to choose from. In addition, the education sector is making sure every student will be presented with two choices after the age of 18. For example, an academic route where they go to a levels and university, leading to graduate jobs. The second is the technical route for those seeking skills to get technical skills which are required to enter skilled employment.

It is essential for employers to inspire young people and give them the opportunity to learn about what work is like. For example, offering work-related activities, like shadowing workshops run by employers to develop skills needed to deal with business challenges. Moreover, every student need careers guidance and encounters that are dynamic in a fast-changing economy. It is better education and employment are connected., so, that students have the knowledge, skills to succeed in the world of work to build a better economy, Adams,2018)

Partnership and collaborations

A partnership is defined as a shared commitment, where all partners have a right ..and obligation to participate. Collaboration takes place when members of an inclusive learning community work together to assist students to succeed in school. In education teachers, teaching assistants, school administrators, local authorities, their common goal to work together is for students to learn and are interested in their curriculum which was designated especially for students. (Carson, 2010)

Schools and different organisations work together.

Network- It involves sharing ideas, sharing best practice, and exchanging information for mutual benefit

Co-operation-It is the highest level of working together, collaboration is a commitment, while also solving common problems. Examples are raising attainment improving teaching and learning

Teachers can share resources, lesson plans, it helps with the workload for other teachers. To add on, widening the curriculum by making use of facilities at colleges, schools, and universities such as science laboratories, offering mentoring support to students who need it, and lastly, working with local authorities to open up opportunities to vulnerable students. (Chapman, 2015)

 2.2 Analyse the impact of current educational policies on curriculum and practice in own area of specialism

 Promoting literacy and numeracy:

Primary Schools, or rather the individuals who work in them, have a significant impact on the lives of young people. Adult life is built on a foundation of fine motor, gross motor, and sensory development skills, as well as social and emotional learning abilities. It's possible to approach literacy and math with young children in numerous ways. Number one on our list is to listen to your children while also meeting the national curriculum target. Give your students the freedom to choose how they want to learn and help them recognize their own learning requirements by coaching them. Everything from purchasing to selling to supply chain management may be done by small persons. As you establish a team of people who will sell, earn and run profitable businesses, get them to write an application for the jobs they desire. Teach children the importance of applying ideas, commitment, and strategy execution to help them learn while having a good time and using their practical thinking abilities (Melhuish, E., Phan, M.B., Sylva, K., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I. and Taggart, B., 2008). To create a bench, bird seed table, or herb garden, children must use both fine and gross motor abilities. This is not only a bonding activity for peers and friends, but also an application of real-life skills like as correct measuring, counting, and twisting clockwise and anticlockwise. Getting your literacy and numeracy up to snuff may do wonders for your social life, education, and professional opportunities, to name a few. Your employability can be greatly impacted by your ability to communicate effectively through reading, writing, and understanding.

Promoting vocational education:

An educational programme that has as its major goal the preparation of students for work in a recognized occupation is referred to as vocational education. In order to work effectively in a certain occupation, you need the right skills, knowledge, and attitude. If we want to see sustainable national development, we need a strong emphasis on vocational and technical education, as well as skill acquisition. Sustainable national development is not a one-time occurrence, but a process that is ongoing and has a positive impact on the people who live in it. A vocational teacher has an average of 17 years' experience in the classroom, with 14 of those years spent in the same classroom as their primary student. Less than a year separated the number of vocational teachers with an average of 14 years of experience and 12 in their primary subject from those with an average of 17-year teaching experience and 14 years of their primary subject assignment, in vocational schools (Dehmel, A., 2005, May). The teaching experience of vocational education teachers matched that of academic subject teachers quite closely. In general, academic teachers had been in the classroom for 18 years, with an average of 15 years spent in their major job. Most academic instructors, like their counterparts in other fields, were employed full-time and taught in the subject area for which they had initially trained. Vocational education is mostly made up of hands-on training courses that help students develop practical skills and experience that they can apply to a future career. It aids students in developing their skills, which opens up more job prospects for them.

Inspection standards and targets:

Section 106 of the Education and Skills Act of 2008 authorizes the Independent Schools Inspectorate (ISI) to carry out inspections. This means that ISI provides information on whether or not schools adhere to legislative requirements to the Department for Education (DfE). The DfE has authorized ISI to inspect British schools overseas (BSO) under its procedures, while the Home Office has authorized ISI to inspect private further education establishments in England and Wales under its Educational Oversight arrangements. It is the responsibility of ISI to examine the schools that are members of the Independent Schools Council (ISC). It's not a group that represents a school, college, or other organization's members. ISI inspects all services provided by a school's Proprietor, including the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) and boarding facilities that are registered (Chapman, 2011). The purpose of ISI inspection is to improve the quality and effectiveness of education and care and welfare for students in the schools. As a result of the inspections, parents, government, educational institutions such as associations, and others have access to objective and dependable reports on the quality of schools. School leaders, faculty and administrators may better recognize and capitalize on their strengths, while also seeing and correcting any weaknesses they may have. The DfE can request an inspection of a school at any time, in addition to the routine inspections conducted under this Framework; for example, if it has particular concerns about a school. Private further education colleges and schools outside of England are inspected under separate regulations.

Assessment of learning through standardization of qualifications:

Using the term "standardization," we mean a method designed to make sure all candidates are treated equally and that each assessor consistently comes to valid conclusions; that all assessors base their findings on the same facts. Standardization has as one of its key goals the improvement of reliability. This allows people to work in groups rather than alone and aids them in providing equal service to all learners. However, the needs of each individual student must always be considered. The objective of standardization is to ensure industry-wide consistency in particular processes. With regard to product creation, company operations, technology and how specified mandatory processes are implemented or carried out, standardization emphasizes. Process, procedure, and visual work instructions are combined as part of standardization to help employees do their jobs better (Brown, 2005). It also requires following prescribed standards and certification requirements such as ISO standards when employing a standardized method. Some believe that standardization is required to improve communications, establish a common spelling, and provide school textbooks a uniform look. Using the term "standardization," we mean a method designed to make sure all candidates are treated equally and that each assessor consistently comes to valid conclusions; that all assessors base their findings on the same facts. Standardization has as one of its key goals the improvement of reliability. What does the term "standardization" refer to? It's a procedure that guarantees that all employees, such as teachers, trainers, assessors, and quality ensure, understand and adhere to the programme or qualification's standards in the same way.

2.1 Analyse theories, principles and models of communication

Piaget’s Theory of language and development

We communicate and speak every day of our lives; therefore, language expresses our emotions through speaking to different groups of people. Additionally, Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development suggests that a child’s cognitive development is not about gaining knowledge; the child has to develop a mental model of the world. Moreover, Piaget’s theory of cognitive development suggests that intelligence changes as children grow. Piaget observed his three children by writing a diary observing their development. Cognitive development occurs through the innate abilities meaning environments they belong to and are used to; therefore, children pass through various stages (Taylor, 2016).

Piaget’s stages of cognitive development;

Sensory motor stage – birth 18 to 24 months

The infant learns about the world through their senses and actions, e.g., moving around and exploring. At this stage, the child has acquired all the abilities in the two stages, which include object permanence. To, exemplify, children are able to figure out the objects that do not simple disappear if they could not see them anymore, the child is able to think in mental operations. For example, the child can sort coins by size. (Flavell,2017)

The operational stage age 2-7

Children use their new ability to represent objects in a variety of activities. At this stage, there are not organised and logical. One of the most prominent examples of this kind of cognition is dramatic play. Meta-cognition is a highly desirable skill; teachers highly recommend it.

Concrete operational stage age 7-11

At this stage children begin to think logically about concrete events. Therefore the ego-centrism of the previous step begins to disappear as children become better. at thinking about how other people might view a situation.

The formal operational stage ages 12 and up

At this stage children are reaching adolescent, they start to think abstractly, more about moral, ethical social and political issues that require theoretical reasoning. (Flavell,2017)

Lastly, Piaget suggested that there is a qualitative change in how children think as they gradually process these three stages. For example, a child at the age of 7 does not have more information about the world they live in, than they did where aged two, there is much difference in how they think about the world. (Piaget,1980)

Role of language in cognition development theory by (Vygotsky)

Vygotsky socio-cultural theory states that children learn through social interactions. In Vygotsky’s view the acquisition of language is a crucial part of cognitive development. After they have acquired knowledge, they do not go through a set of stages, instead, their cognitive development depends on interactions with adults, cultural norms, and environmental circumstances. (Akhtar, 2015).

Private Speech

According to Vygotsky, children use language to control their behaviour after they got language skills. Children learn their cultural rules they start engaging in private speech. Children start talking to themselves aloud and later as they grow, they silently give themselves instructions on how to behave.

Child learners had a zone of proximal development; therefore, a child alone cannot understand, they need guiding by some form of social interactions. This concept of proximal development explains that a child lacks knowledge, yet demonstrates the expected competence with prompting, especially in the classroom with a teacher. (Akhtar,2015).

Chat Room: Synchronous and Asynchronous Messaging

In today’s world, chat room-based messaging service can be of two types. These are synchronous and asynchronous messaging. These two have some clear distinctions. The main difference is that in synchronous messaging, both parties of the communication are available in the chat room at the same time, whereas, in asynchronous messaging, both parties of a communication are not available at the same time. The distinction between synchronous and asynchronous messaging can be explained using a business context. For example, in synchronous messaging, a customer can get instant replies to their queries from the business agents; however, customers need to wait in queue before they can start their conversation. Synchronous messaging has a clear start and end time; a conversation ends when the customer closes the chat room window (Branon & Essex, 2001). Moreover, synchronous messaging takes place on internet as both parties need to be available at the same time. Asynchronous messaging can take place without the internet, such as, via SMS. Asynchronous messaging can take place on the internet as well, such as, on WhatsApp, Messenger, etc. In asynchronous messaging, customers do not get automatic replies to their queries. Instead, they have to wait till the other party sees their messages and responds. This is a bit inconvenient for the customers as they often need to wait long hours. However, the good side of asynchronous messaging is that there is no risk for a conversation of being ended abruptly, which often happens in synchronous messaging due to internet issues. Moreover, in asynchronous messaging, messages are saved, so a customer can pause and restart a conversation as per their convenience (Watts, 2016).


Distance Learning Communication

Distance learning is the process of learning something academically or professionally by the learners without being physically present in front of the instructors. Since the start of COVID-19 pandemic, the world has seen a massive increase in the popularity of distance learning communication. Most of the educational institutions and training centres around the world were forced to take their operations online and offer their courses and trainings on the internet. Although this created a lot of challenges initially, distance learning was soon proved to be highly convenient for the learners. Distance learning removes the barriers for the learners of being physically present in front of their instructors. A learner can be in completely another part of the world from their instructor during distance learning communication. This creates a lot of opportunities for the learners as many of the previously inaccessible courses become accessible because of distance learning (Valentine, 2002). With the help of distance learning, now a student from India can even do courses from reputed US universities while being physically present from their own country. Thus, distance learning has made communication more accessible for people in general. Moreover, it saves a lot of time of both the learners and the instructors as they do not need to travel for distance learning. However, distance learning can have some shortcoming as well. For example, poor internet connection can cause a lot of trouble during distance learning. Moreover, distance learning tends to be less interactive compared to physical classroom learning and as a result, it is somewhat less effective than physical classroom learning (Sherry, 1995).

2.2 Explain ways in which theories, principles, and models of communication can be applied to teaching, learning, and assessment

Developing Learners’ Communication Skills and Expression

The theories, principles, and models of communication can be applied to teaching, learning, and assessment in order to develop learners’ communication skills and expression. For example, according to Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, human beings develop their cognitive abilities through biological maturity and the surrounding environment. So, lack of knowledge is not responsible for poor cognitive ability. This theory of Piaget can be applied in the context of teaching. Teachers should not focus on enhancing the knowledge of the students in order to develop the cognitive abilities of the students. Instead, students should be given the opportunities to experience certain things on their own. Thus, students can learn from their experiences and develop their cognitive abilities, such as, communication, expression, critical thinking skill, decision making skill, negotiation, etc. Once the students are matured and have experienced their surrounding world, they will automatically gain valuable knowledge about the world (Taylor, 2016). Piaget’s theory is widely applied in the Open Education concept. In order to make education accessible for all and give the students the opportunity to learn things or experience the world, Open Education allows people access to various online courses. These online courses can be done from anywhere in the world and the students do not need to take any admission test. Thus, in open education, the existing knowledge of a student is not judged and they are given the opportunity to learn their desired concepts even without having any basic understanding on them. As a result, students can develop their communication skills and expression. 

Group vs. 1x1 Interactions

Different theories and concepts of communication can be applied in the group and 1x1 interactions of a classroom. The concept of asynchronous messaging is widely used in online education or distance learning nowadays. In almost every online course, there is a discussion forum in which the students can discuss about different topics of the courses with each other. Students can also ask questions in the discussion forums and teachers, as well as other students, answer those questions. As in asynchronous messaging, the students and teachers are not available online at the same time. However, people took part in the discussion and respond to others’ questions when they are available. These discussions are saved in the forum so that other students who will take the course in future can see them and learn new things or clear any confusion. However, asynchronous messaging cannot be used in traditional classrooms as effectively as in online education. In traditional classrooms, students are allowed to ask questions during the class. Sometimes, students are allowed to ask questions to the teachers outside the classroom, but that is done 1x1 in a pre-scheduled time in the room of the teacher. Students also often send emails to the teachers. However, those email communication cannot be used by the future students. In distance learning or online education, the concept of synchronous messaging is also used. In some courses, students can take the online appointment of the teachers if they need to know something about the course. Then, communication between the students and teachers take place as per schedule and the teacher responds to the students’ queries. Thus, both synchronous and asynchronous messaging techniques can be used in distance learning or online education (Valentine, 2002).

Impact of Emotion or Ego States

Theories, concepts, and models of communications can be used to illustrate how emotion or ego states can impact teaching, learning, and assessment. The socio-cultural theory of cognitive development by Vygotsky can be applied in the context of learning, teaching, and assessment. According to Vygotsky, language plays an important role in the cognitive development of a person. People learn to express their emotions or ego states through language. Moreover, people learn their problem-solving skills, cultural values, beliefs, etc. by interacting with more knowledgeable persons than them. Thus, the surrounding environment has an important influence in the learning of a person. This concept is already being widely used in all kinds of educational institutions where people get to learn from their teachers who are generally more knowledgeable than them in the concepts being taught. Teachers not only help their students to learn about different facts and gain knowledge but also assist them in becoming more matured with advanced problem-solving skill, cultural values, beliefs, etc. Another concept developed by Vygotsky can be applied in the context of teaching and learning. This concept is named Zone of Proximal Development. According to this concept, there is a space between what one can learn by themselves without any assistance from others and what one can learn with the assistance of teachers or other knowledgeable people (Davydov, 1995). This space is Zone of Proximal Development. In today’s world, anyone can learn anything with the help of internet. Self-learning has become very popular these days. However, self-learning is often inadequate to provide quality education to students as it lacks structure, guidance, interaction, etc. For this reason, structured, formal, and guided learning can still be considered to provide a student with best quality education. A student can learn more things when they are guided by a teacher than when they learn by themselves (Hogan &Tudge, 1999).

Positive Written Feedback

The impact of positive written feedback on learning, teaching, and assessment can be shown using various theories, models, and concepts of communications. A model developed by Wilbur Schramm can be used in the context of teaching and learning. According to this model of Wilbur, encoding and decoding are two important parts of communication and both senders and receivers play the roles of encoders, decoders, and interpreters (Schramm, 1954). In an interactive classroom where both the teacher and the students actively interact with each other, the teacher plays the role of encoder when they teach something. The students decode the message given by the teacher and interpret its meaning. When a student asks the teacher something, then the student becomes the encoder and when the teacher receives the question, they become the decoder. Positive written feedback of students can help teachers in improving their teaching styles and positive written feedback of teachers can aid students to improve their learning.

Newcomb’s model of communication is another popular model which is being used in education. According to Newcomb’s model of communication, the role of communication is sustaining equilibriums among the different social relationships. This equilibrium is only achieved when the message given by the sender is properly understood by the receiver (McQuail&Windahl, 2015). So, in the context of classroom teaching, equilibrium is achieved when the students properly understand what is being taught by the teacher. If equilibrium is not achieved, then the objective of communication is not fulfilled and it leaves an impact on the social relationships between the students and the teacher. So, teachers and students both need to understand the positive written feedback written for them.

Task 3

Stakeholders can be defined as persons or groups who have an interest in the decision making, functioning and working of any organization or institution. In the education context, there are many internal and external; stakeholders which indirectly or directly influence the decision-making and operation of education and training organisations. Internal stakeholders in education and training are students, teachers and education faculties and external stakeholders are communities, local businesses, statutory and governmental agencies, and government and tax bodies. All these stakeholders must be involved in partnership working with one another to share their feedback, decision and take innovative and creative decisions regarding academic improvement. Additionally, accountability towards the stakeholder's needs to be maintained in education and training, to support activities and decisions of stakeholders in terms of meeting the academic goals.

Roles of stakeholders

In educational and training contexts, stakeholders play crucial roles in improving the academic standard of educational institutions and meeting the academic needs of learners. Stakeholders are the individuals or groups who influence the overall work process and the decision making of educational and training organizations (Small et al. 2018). This report will first demonstrate the roles that different stakeholders play in educational and training contexts. In this segment this report will use evidence-based information to present a comprehensive discussion on the definition and types and roles of each stakeholder on educational and training, then this report will discuss the importance of partnership working in education and training in conducting a sustainable and consistent development in education. Then this report will demonstrate the influence of accountability towards the stakeholders and external bodies in the education and training context. In this segment, this report will analyse how the behaviour of being accountable to the stakeholders of education and training impacts the growth of education and training. 

3.1 Explain the roles of external bodies and stakeholders in education and training:

Stakeholders can be defined as persons or groups who have an interest in the decision making, functioning and working of any organization or institution (Aly et al. 2021). In the education context, there are many internal and external; stakeholders which indirectly or directly influence the decision-making and operation of education and training organisations. Internal stakeholders in education and training are students, teachers and education faculties and external stakeholders are communities, local businesses, statutory and governmental agencies, and government and tax bodies (Bobrytska et al. 2020). Different stakeholders play their role in contributing to effective learning and education in organizations.

 Roles of stakeholders:

Learners/ students:

Students or learners are the most important internal stakeholders of educational and training organizations. The educational institute applies the relevant curriculum for learners to gain clear knowledge on different subjects (Wettstein et al. 2017). The academic efficiency of any education institute is determined by the educational score anal grade of its students. Therefore the interest, hard work and discipline of students enables any educational and training organisation to maintain a good academic reputation. The manner or way in which students respond to the curriculum set by the educational organizations for students is permanent to analyse whether the education and training conducted for these students are appropriate to the education needs (Pizzolato and Dierickx, 2021). 

Teachers:

Teachers are also the most important internal stakeholders in education and training organizations. The success of students and the educational institute is dependent on the skills and abilities it’s the teaching staff (Setiawan et al 2021). Teachers must know the modern curriculum, effective teaching and learning techniques and clear subjective knowledge. An education and training institute can never attain a good academic reputation unless it has highly skilled and professional teaching staff. Teachers are the pillars of any educating system, who uses the more relevant and modernized education and training procedures for students to improve subjective knowledge, professional skill and academic skills of learners (Mtshali and Zwane, 2019). In the UK, teachers who work at the preschools and elementary schools for children must have a clear understanding of the curriculum set under the EYFS framework. On the other hand, teachers who work at the secondary school must have skills and knowledge regarding the curriculum, modern teaching process and subject-based training at the GCSE level. 

Curriculum managers:

Curriculum managers are also called the principles of any educational institution. Curriculum managers play crucial roles in inspecting and supervising whether the curriculum is implemented correctly in the education system (Nghia, 2018). They also check the progress of students by tracking their successive scores in exams. Principals are involved in working in partnership with teachers, students and parents to improve the overall educational system. Principles play crucial roles in making effective changes in the teaching process, learning styles teaching techniques and training and development facilities in relation to modernizing and improving the academic framework. 

Parents:

Parents are important internal stakeholders of educational and training organizations who check that whether their children gain the right education and carry out the right learning in schools and institutions (Pylväs et al. 2018). They work in partnership with teachers and curriculum managers to deter educational needs, strengths and awareness of children which is important to set et relevant teaching process and learning style to improve the knowledge and learning of students.

Working Educational Association (WEA):

This organization design and delivers more than 9000 courses to students in UK in each year. These courses are designed for proving community learning opportunities to more than 65,000 people each year (Yang et al. 2021). This organisation works in partnership with local charitable organisations and the UK government to provide modernized education to pupils thereby improving their knowledge in different subjects. It employs 2000 professional teachers which specialize in different subjects thereby assisting pupils to improve their learning.

OFSTED:

The office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills (Ofsted) play a supervisory and administrative role in checking the academic standard of schools in the UK (Pizzolato and Dierickx, 2021). OFSTED works in partnership with the UK government and WEA to administer and supervise whether the national education standard and the curriculum are implemented in the schools. This organisation also plays a crucial role in determining the strategies in the weakness of different educational institutions in meeting the minimum educational standard which helps these institutions to make the necessary improvement.

3.2 Explain how to become accountable to external bodies impacts on organisations in education and training

While it comes to becoming accountable to external bodies and stakeholders, it is important to maintain transparent communication (Lonbay et al. 2020). In educational accountability, transparent communication is highly crucial that enables to sharing right information regarding all educational aspects with external bodies’ and stakeholders. For example, while it comes improves the curriculum, the curriculum managers must maintain transparent information sharing with investors, statutory and non-governmental organizations and government. Teachers or educational organizational cannot make any changes to the curriculum unless they get governmental approval regarding this.

The accountability towards external bodies and stakeholders can also be maintained by maintaining the shred decision making and partnership working with them (Webb et al., 2020). Partnership working allows all the external and internal stakeholders and external agencies to be involved in the working, decision making and operation of the educational organization. During this process, each stakeholder must respect the opinion, viewpoint and choice of others. They must think and take decisions synergistically to archive the com educational goals rather than working on their personalized goals (Milley et al. 2021). A high level of integrity and professional accountability would e maintained to external bodies and stakeholders by informing them about current performance, academic standards, requirements, fund needs and learners’ academic needs. 

3.3 Explain the importance of partnership working with employers and other stakeholders in education and training:

In the educational context, it is crucial to work in partnership with stakeholders and employers for a number of reasons which are as follows:

  • Partnership working with stakeholders and employers enable the educational and training professional to work synergistically towards the common educational goals (Campbell, 2021). Through working with teachers, principals, educators, student parents, educational professionals can discuss the educational needs of students, the academic standard of institutes, the drawbacks and strengths is the current education system and curriculum.
  • Partnership working enables stakeholders and employers to eliminate the barrier that restricts the improvement of educational standards of educational and training institutes (Msengezi and Mawire, 2020.). For example, partnership working enables teachers to improve their knowledge, understanding and abilities in dealing with any educational aspects. Additionally, partnership working would also teachers to work with high skills and experiences higher educational professionals which enable them to learn new techniques ad styles for teaching students.
  • Partnership working is crucial in educational and training content to provide comprehensive and consistent support to teachers, students and parents in terms of improving the learning and educational development of students and improving the academic standards of educational organizations (Campbell, 2021).
  • Through shared decision making in partnership working teachers and educators can ensure that there are enough educational resources and infrastructure to support the educational needs of learners. Also, the partnership working enables stakeholders to develop such an education system and curriculum that would be highly relevant to promote the professional and personal development of students.\
  • Working synergistically would assist stakeholders and employers to create innovative ad new ideas regarding improving the way for interacting with students, designing the modernized educational program for pupils and enhancing reading and writing skills for students (Lonbay et al. 2020.).
  • In partnership working in education and training, agencies can share their thoughts, gives feedback, obtain information on any education aspect and aloe receives a similar response from the other stakeholders.
  • Through working synergistically, stakeholders and agencies can maximize the educational resources thereby developing the optimal capacity of students and teachers thereby maintaining a good academic standard of educational institutes.

3.4 Analysing the impact of becoming accountable to external bodies and stakeholders on curriculum design, assessment and delivery in own areas of specialism:

The accountability towards external employees and stakeholders have a potential impact on the assessment, curriculum design and delivery (Lonbay et al. 2020.). Through analysing and evaluating learners' needs, educational organizational can shape their operation and working process. The individual requirement of each learner also shapes the design and implementation of the national curriculum. Assessment needs to be determined by the level or grade of the course (Nghia, 2018). Educational organizational needs to be enough accountable to the academic needs of learners in which the design of the demonstration and written documents would be highly relevant to the educational requirement of students and the grade in which students are enrolled. 

During practices as an educational trainer, you work with students for example on a healthcare assignment. During these practices, educators maintain accountability towards students in terms of implementing the curriculum and shaping the teaching process based on learners' requirements. The acceptability to stakeholders and employees enables organisation to use the educational and training program for achieving the goals for the healthcare assignments. In this program, the expected outcomes are outlines that enable stakeholders and external bodies to understand what resources need to be provided to an education institute to archive these outcomes. During maintaining accountability, a transparent information delivery system is developed which enable all of tutors to shape the curriculum and set the program based on required academic standards (Pylväs et al. 2018). The transparent information delivery system enables our educational organization to share all the information regarding resources, goals and the predefined outcomes of the biological assignment. On the other hand, e professional integrity and accountability towards the external stakeholders such as investors, government the statutory and governmental organization enables educational organization to grab the financial, social and physical support in improving the educational standards. By appointing more skilled teachers and providing proper funds these external stakeholders enable tutors to improve the overall teaching process, learning techniques and curriculum design.

Conclusion:

From the above-mentioned discussion, it can be concluded that stakeholders play crucial roles in education and training in terms of not only improving the academic standard of an educational organization but also promoting the knowledge development of students. Stakeholders can be referred to as the groups or individuals who have an interest in the decision making and operation of educational institutions. There are many stakeholders in the educational field such as learners or students, teachers, curriculum managers or principals, investors, government, statutory and non-governmental originations. All these stakeholders must be involved in partnership working with one another to share their feedback, decision and take innovative and creative decisions regarding academic improvement. Additionally, accountability towards the stakeholder’s needs to be maintained in education and training, to support activities and decisions of stakeholders in terms of meeting the academic goals. 

Task 4

4.1. The importance of curriculum in the education system cannot be ignored. The curriculum is prepared by the educational institutions. The theories based on curriculum development include:

The humanist theory of Roger and Maslow

The humanist theory of Rogers suggests that the human capacity is based on growth and choice. The humanistic curriculum depends on the intellectual learning or education. It allows making the common good for the society by creating a balance between the universal values and the pluralism of the society (Treve, 2021). Carl Roger and Maslow have depicted the humanistic theory of curriculum to be a curriculum which is based on the learning system in which the learner is kept as the center of the learning system. In this curriculum, the feelings, empathy of the students are valued. The trait of this curriculum depends on genuineness and the care for the students. The theory suggests that the development of the personal traits and skills of the students are the most important and significant part of the curriculum. The learner is the significant and key centered area of the curriculum (Treve, 2021).

The principles of the theory

The students will be provided the opportunities to learn what they want and need to learn.

The teachers try to develop the interests of the learners by motivating them to learn a subject of their interests.

The goal of the theory is to fostering the needs and desires of the students.

Carl and Maslow focus on the environment for the growth of the learners and the environment is integral for the self-fulfilment and personality development of the learners. As per this theory, the students can cooperate with one another when the curriculum and education system focuses on all the needs, requirements and interest of the learners. The students can evolve by the curriculum. The curriculum also suggests that the interests of the learners are ensured to be the prime factor as the self-assessment of the learners is ensured in this education system. Education is for the growth and development of the learners and by this the learners can grow and evolve. The main fundamental of the humanist theory is that the learners will learn for the goodness of their own and thus it will bring development in society. In this theory, self-actualization, self-understanding and learner’s emotions and well-being are valued and at the same time the intellectual knowledge and skills are also necessary for their potential to make independent judgements. The main goals and objectives of the humanist theory is the development and growth of the learner’s personally, their integrity and their autonomy (Treve, 2021).

Learner-centered theory

In this theory, the learners are the center of attraction as the name suggests, the learner-centered theory is based on the curriculum of the education system depends on the learner’s capability. The learners in this curriculum is the active part and agent. The learners or the students are the main center of interest in this type of curriculum. The knowledge and skills of the learners are developed by the fulfillment of the interests of the students. The theory suggest that the learners are needed to be provided with the freedom to grow and learn naturally. The teacher is the guide to direct the leaners towards the right direction. This curriculum focuses on the scientific study of the learner’s development and the interest of the learners here is the main source of all the activities (Darsih, 2018). The curriculum under this learner-centered theory also defines that the cooperation between the education system and the home of the learners need to meet the requirements, needs and interests of the learner.

The fundamentals of the curriculum theory

The theory has the following principles:

It is based on the interests of the learners

It focuses on the growth of the learners in a natural way.

The teacher is the guide only.

The development of the learners depend on the special activities provided to them.

The theory focuses on the development of the learners by the fulfilment of the interests of the learners. The interests of the learners are the most important factor for this type of curriculum. The teacher in this curriculum is the guide and does not plat the role of task-master. They provide the opportunities to the learners to grow naturally with growth of their psychology. The theory suggests that the learner-centered curriculum also aims at providing some special activities and tasks that can help the learners increase their skills and thus with the help for doing the activities in which they have interest can help the learners naturally develop. These activities are made as per the understanding and skills of the learners (Darsih, 2018). These special activities and courses boost the experiences of the learners. Using their knowledge and skill the learners complete the tasks. In this way, the learner-centered theory helps the learners accomplish their skills and thus their development happens. Apart from that, the theory also suggests that the curriculum is made for developing the skills of the students to increase their experiences which they can use in their further education system.

4.2. Curriculum theories and program design

The curriculum development can be applied to the educational system by using the program design. The educational program can be designed by implementing the curriculum theories to the program design. The program needs to be developed in such a way that can help the learners learn as per their needs. As the humanist theory suggests that the curriculum needs to be made depending on the skills and requirements. The teachers can design the program by engaging some activities in which the learners have interests and they want to learn those things. When the topics are as per the interests of the learners, it can naturally help the learners develop and grow. It also helps in self-regulated learning (Matsuyama, 2019).

They thus can increase their skills and knowledge by engaging with the tasks and activities in which they have interest. When the learning curriculum and the interest of the students match, it helps the learners strengthen their concepts and understanding of the areas of their interests (Salles, 2019). By implementing surveys, interviews and questionnaire, the teachers can identify the areas of the interests of the customers. And by identifying the needs and requirements of the learners, the teachers put those subjects in the curriculum and thus the teachers try to develop the skills and knowledge of the learner. Promoting the selection and choice of choosing in the learner-centered theory and humanist theory, the students are allowed to make decisions to choose their path as per their interests.

The curriculum needs to be developed by empowering the learners to propose and voice their own interests in which they want to learn. Learner-centered curriculum helps identify the most string and desirable areas of the learners. By understanding the strong areas of the students the educational mentors try to make those areas in the curriculum to help the learners boost their skills and interests (Millstetd, 2019). The curriculum is developed to meet the needs and requirements of the learners. The needs of the learners need to be followed in the curriculum and the educational process for developing the skills and knowledge of the students. The curriculum also needs to provide the learners with advantages to develop their skills by engaging different vocational skill based activities. The experience also maters in the curriculum as the experience of the learners in different educational areas can help them in problem-solving.

Promoting equality and diversity

The curriculum and educational institutions need to be fair and equal. All the learners need to be provided with equal opportunities and fairness. They also should be participate in all the activities and the fair and just participation and educational practices are important to be maintained. Diversity is also need to be implied in the educational programs. The teachers can encourage the students in participating in various activities and different skill based works which can help the learners improve their skills (Schachner, 2019). The students from various background and from different skills and talents are allowed in the educational sectors. Diverse talent and skilled based students help other student share their skills or learn some new skills from others. It thus helps in developing the skills and knowledge of the learners. Diversity can help the learners increase their skills and talents from different perspectives. The curriculum needs to be set in the way in which all the learners and students can be allowed to learn as per their interests and desires.

Setting rules and regulations are all the students need to maintain s very important as it presents fairness and equality in the educational system. It is also important that the students are provided with the opportunities to take part in the curriculum and their participation need not be based on the race, sex and other background. The teachers should not differentiate the students and also think every learner equal and their importance is also same for them (Frones, 2020). The teachers can also teach the learners about the importance of gender equality. The curriculum needs to develop the program in the way in which the learners are allowed to learn the activities that promote equality and fairness along with implementation of diverse educational environment. This is how the classroom can be made equal and fair by promoting diversity and equality for all.

  1. Explain key aspects of policies,codes of practice and guidelines of an organisation

Firstly, Health and safety regulations mandates that the school conduct risk assessments and implement appropriate controls. Additionally, the law mandates that it document risk assessments, the methods taken to decrease these risks, and the projected outcomes. The approach that relies on the school's needs. Work with health and safety consultants from the company and the elected school official to develop the policy. Schools are places where children and adults are exposed to a wide range of risks, and it is imperative that they are protected. It is critical that children learn how to recognise and manage the dangers they face in their daily lives, while also fostering their ability to learn and innovate. To ensure that everyone can carry out their tasks and functions without risk of injury or illness, this document sets out the minimum standards for health and safety in schools (Shearn, P., 2006). This includes, for example, state legislators, management teams, staff members, community members, students, partner organisations and the others who could be influenced by the school's work activities. As a result, head teachers & governing bodies must guarantee that these criteria are implemented. Employers of schools are required to take reasonable precautions to ensure that their employees and students are not exposed to major dangers to their health or safety, as mandated by the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974. This applies to both on and off-campus activities. The employer cannot delegate health and safety responsibilities; they must offer oversight and monitoring.

4.2 Analyse the impacr of organisational requirements and expectations on curriculum practice in own area of specialism.

Adressing Individual and collective responsibility in education

Individual teachers bear some responsibility to teach, to teach well, and to teach even more effectively. In order to assist it members in fulfilling their responsibilities as teachers, the collective must aid them in doing so. Collective responsibility implies that our instructors work together on a regular basis to guarantee that all students receive the best possible education in all classrooms. Teachers in our schools look forward to an opportunity to work together and solve problems. Individual education's major purpose is to help children become self-sufficient and productive members of society; to help them mature and become self-reliant. Individual Education opposes the infantilization of children. Instead, the child's self-determination is maximised through individual schooling (Choe, B.I. and Lee, G.H., 2014). Collective responsibility implies that our instructors work together on a regular basis to guarantee that all students receive the best possible education in all classrooms. Teachers in our schools hope to have the opportunity to work together and solve problems. Since education is aimed at helping students maximise their unique potential on all levels—physical, mental, social, psychological, moral, spiritual, and aesthetic—it serves this purpose. Students' participation in the educational process is critical and active. They engage and communicate with both students and professors, taking an active role in class debates and displaying an open mind. A large chunk of a student's life is spent at school, apart from what their parents teach them.

Personal & Professional Updating:

For all instructors, Professional Update (PU) entails a variety of activities, including maintaining and improving one's professional knowledge and skills, participating in professional development opportunities, and reflecting on one's own progress (PRD). Educators who participate in high-quality professional development are better able to meet the needs of their pupils. To put what they've learned into practice, educators must enroll in professional development programmes. For personal, formal and informal methods can be used to achieve this growth. Seminars and conferences, conferences, webinars, seminars, and symposiums to keep teachers up-to-date on the newest educational innovations is one of the more formal means of educating teachers. In addition to writing articles/books and producing materials, publishing research papers, and so on, these activities also play an important role (Merriam, S.B., 1996). Additionally, action research that concludes after a period of exploration and investigation can be beneficial. For professional, teachers have to keep up with the times in order to help students learn in the most effective methods possible. Teachers and students live in quite different environments. Teachers can only cross this gap if they connect with their students on a cerebral level. There has been a dramatic shift in the structure of our educational system throughout time. Teachers need to show that they are capable of adapting to the ever-changing educational landscape. They (teachers) are responsible for helping pupils develop their language skills, which in turn helps them maintain relationships with their peers and teachers. Students' academic performance is intimately associated with the quality of instruction delivered by their teachers.

Evaluation practices in education:

Students are the major participants in the professional development of teachers, so an appraisal of teaching is typically developed for them. However, soliciting outside feedback can be a huge asset. Incorporating input from a variety of sources, including coworkers and other members of the evaluation team as well as students themselves, improves the validity and reliability of the evaluation's findings. To gain understanding of the level of harmony or disharmony in the teaching-learning process, this correlation is useful. For example, the educational standards of both the educational programme can be evaluated by inviting both internal and external peers to part in the evaluation. Goal-based, process-based, and outcomes-based evaluations are the most common in education methods. It's important to know if a goal has been met while doing a goal-based evaluation (Crooks, T.J., 1988). Analyzing strengths and shortcomings is done through process evaluations. Outcomes-based assessments look at the overall impact of a programme or project and typically evaluate how the programme or project benefited the greater good. There are numerous advantages to evaluating instruction. Using summative evaluation, you can determine which teaching methods are most and least efficient, which classes an instructor is most equipped to deliver, and which sections of class students prefer. Administrators including faculty committees rely on assessment data to determine whether to award certain teachers, whether to retain and promote them, and how to grant merit-based pay increases. Teachers can benefit from using formative evaluation to pinpoint specific problems with their instruction, such as a lack of precision or conciseness.

Task 5

Quality improvement and quality assurance of the organization

Quality improvement plan

In an educational sector, it is very necessary to develop the quality of the sector and also needs to focus on the development measures that are important to improve immediately. To improve the quality of our organization it is very important to assess a better-quality improvement plan. The main focus of this quality improvement plan is to deliver better self-assessed performance to improve the quality of education and also the care for education in our organization (Bruno and Dell'Aversana, 2018). The future improvement of the organization is very much dependent on the quality improvement plan and that will include the attention of the management of this organization as well.

To develop the quality improvement plan for this organization it is very crucial to identify the improvement areas first. After that with the inclusion of a proper service philosophy all the employees of this organization can be engaged in a single aim and managed as well. Tio deliver a better quality improvement plan it is also necessary for this organization to inherit a better self-assessment tool that can identify the strengths as well as weaknesses of the employees and the services so far inside the organization (England, 2017). Areas of compliance need to be admitted through the self-assessment tool. Besides that, every quarter a new service needs to be promoted inside the organization to re-engage the teachers and other staff and let them stay out of the redder of boringness and in that way the quality of education will enrich.

Peer observation

Peer observation is a profitable plan for the development of the whole organization and especially its teaching process. Depending on the power observation process it can be possible for a newcomer like me to fit into the organization properly and also to provide a better teaching experience to the students. Depending on the peer observation process it can be possible to inherit better experience and strategies from the peer employees to process the particular service properly (Field et al. 2017). Depending on the peer observation process this educational organization and especially its teachers have the opportunity to observe the senior teachers and educators as well as the management to identify the glitches in their teaching process and in that way they can be effectively introduced to themselves to provide better service to the employees.

An effective peer observation process be possible through a few activities and that also can ensure the quality of teaching in various ways-

  • Allowing peer teachers to review their teaching process, providing others the opportunity to assess something, and focussing on the key teaching abilities can directly introduce the peer observation process.
  • The peer observation process also can provide a better resolution to effective communication and understanding of the peers.
  • Through peer observation, our teachers also can grab the opportunity to develop the whole learning process of this organization.
  • The continual improvement of the teachers can engage the students (Griffiths and Kelly, 2018). Proper development of the teaching process by all the teachers of this organization can help to promote the student learning process.

Assessment prediction and tracking

Tracking the performance of the educator is a visible way to handle the whole learning process of the organization. To ensure quality improvement for our organization it is very necessary to take a few steps for quality assurance. The assessment prediction can only be possible through proper tracking of the assessments. There are various assessments available in our organization including teaching, training, management process of the various services, and assessment of managing the whole organization (Jensen and Konradsen, 2018). It can be said that each assessment of this educational organization is related to each other and largely highlights the things to develop the learning opportunities of the students. As an educational sector, it is our responsibility to provide a better teaching experience to the dedicated students so that a better learning environment can be created together.

Each assessment can be predicted through the tracking tools. Through the usage of proper tools, it can be possible to predict the way of each assessment and its development measures. After the prediction is done or assessed, it is very crucial to track those particular assessments further (Karsenty and Arcavi, 2017). Depending on the assessment tracking process it can be possible to reach one of the assessment procedures quickly and also it will be possible to determine the development measures depending on the predicted glitches.

Verification of assessment and documentation

After the prediction of assessments and their tracking process, it is time to verify the documents of each assessment that are being regulated inside the organization. The development of the verification process can be possible through a proper data gathering process and here comes the documentation process. Tracking is not enough for development, after the tracking process is done it is very crucial to document through tracking data for proper analysis of a particular assessment. Verifying the assessment is very crucial to develop assessments or activities inside the organization (McCann and Brown, 2018). Through the verification and documentation process of the teaching procedures of each educator, it can be possible to deliver a better teaching process and advice for the educators who are new to the organization.

The verification process is also necessary to ensure the standard of education in our organization (Mulà et al. 2017). By verifying the teaching process of our organization of various teachers and documenting them in the proper way the data stays safe and secure for future analysis. The management can analyze the whole assessment related to the organization and according to that analysis; it can be possible to deliver a better solution to the teaching group of individuals.

Self-assessment and quality cycle

Informal session and course evaluation

Rather than a formal session or evaluation process, I prefer to choose an informal session and course evaluation process. Most of the educational sectors use a formal assessment review process. In the formal assessment review process, the rubrics and standard criteria are known to the participants and it can be possible most of the time to deliver a better assessment review to the inspector. Informal sessions are more surprising and unnoticed and have the opportunity to grab the genuine stance of the educator as well as of other employees.

Through informal sessions, it can be possible for this organization to deliver a better evaluation process (Rowe and Zegwaard, 2017). The informal evaluation process for this organization can include the educators in particular as the focus is to develop the learning process of this organization. I will try to fix various discussions with the educators so that they cannot fit into a particular situation or a subject of discussion. In this unstable and informal session, it can be possible to deliver a better review of the ongoing teaching process. Depending on the particular procedure it can be possible to understand the various approaches of the educators and the feedback of peer educators on the particular teachers.

Using feedback from others to inform practice

After the informal evaluation sessions, it can be possible to understand or get a proper overview of the current scenario of the teaching process and the various feedback that the participants have given so far on each other. The usage of feedback here is very crucial. The feedback of the peers can help to determine the quality of teaching as well as the experience and ability of the educators so far (Sahin, 2018). After understanding the particular standard of the peer educators it can be possible to inform them of better practices. The information of dedicated practices can be assessed to the various educators in a meeting at a time or it can be delivered through individual meetings. Rather than providing feedback to the teachers in front of others, providing them better information practices through personal meetings can be more effective and comfortable as well. Feedback is a very crucial aspect of development for any kind of organization and this education sector can be highly motivated with the information of better practices. The delivery of the better practices to the individual educators in private meetings also can help to determine their insights on the particular practices and according to their skills and abilities, further, development can be managed for each individual.

Figure: Quality assessment cycle

(Source: https://www.researchgate.net)

Quality cycle

The quality cycle is also very crucial to develop various measures of the organization and especially the teaching activities. This quality cycle includes students in particular.

The quality cycle cannot be completed without the inclusion of the students and their feedback. The quality cycle first exposes and focuses on the feedback of the students in particular. Depending on the feedback of the students it can be possible to understand the current teaching and learning exponents of the organization. The students are here used as the participants to understand their point of view on their learning development process through our organization (Surr and Gates, 2017). Through the feedback of the students, it can be possible to understand the situations of the participants and the situations of the educational level as well. It suggests that our organization lacks the proficiency of delivering a particular approach towards a better inner environment of study through the usage of technology and tools. The feedback also suggests that there is a lack of teaching process with the few new teachers as they barely understand the subject matters with their thought process. They rated the experienced teachers on a high level to expose their preference of study and learning.

According to the feedback provided by the students, there are various opportunities for changes available in our organization. The focus needs to be shifted from the experienced teachers and their teaching process to the junior and new employees of the organization and their teaching process. Moreover, the organization has the opportunity to change the setup of the study rooms by including various materials and easy tools for the students as well as for the teachers.

The implementation process is the next step to the quality cycle and that includes significant attention to the change opportunities so far. After finding the opportunities to change inside the organization it is very essential to implement such changes into the organization and proceed with the change processes securely (Surr et al. 2017). Implementing better study tools in the classrooms and proving extra attention to change the whole set up for the study room and make it an audiovisual process will excite the students and increase their study attention and also the teachers who will get the opportunity to teach the students better with a better learning process. Moreover, providing training to the new educators and allowing them the time and space to understand our culture of learning and the various processes, will help to implement better solutions to the study problems.

After this implementation process, it is very crucial to measure the changes accordingly and routinely can help to determine the strength of the changes and can ensure their stability as well.

Evaluation of learning program through quality maintenance

To evaluate the learning program for the organization it is necessary to demonstrate and manage the quality of the organization. To understand and assess the evaluation of the learning program for this study, four stages can be inherited.

Reaction

The training process is dedicated to the new teachers and for the students to understand the educational process of the organization. After each training program, it is necessary to evaluate the reactions of the participants in particular (Watt et al. 2019). Depending on the reactions of the individual, it can be possible to determine the possible changes that are necessary to develop the learning programs. The reactions of the students as well as the new teachers on the learning programs can highlight necessary aspects of the ongoing learning program.

Learning

The learning programs are very crucial for the development of the employees inside the organization. The knowledge-gaining process can be assessed properly with the help of formal and informal assessments for each individual. Through these assessments, the learning skills of the individuals can be increased for the development purpose. The dependency of the individuals on each learning process is huge and that can be managed through the development of their skills and abilities in particular.

Behavior

Understanding the behavior of the educators and the students regarding their new skill development is very necessary. Depending on the development measures of the training process it can be possible to build up proper skill development for the participants. Focusing on the individual behaviors of how they react to the practical situations and how they perform their newly gained skills is the key to success for the evaluation of the learning program. 

Results

At the end of the day, results are important. After providing learning programs it is significant to demonstrate and seek the results and outcomes of the learning process from the participants. Observing the results can help to understand the evaluation process of the learning programs.

Areas for improvement through evaluation

Outcomes of the evaluation

Depending on the outcomes of the evaluation process it is very necessary to understand and develop the whole learning process of the individuals and also of the organization. Depending on the evaluation process the outcomes of the learning programs have been inherited so far. The outcomes of the learning activities related to the educational organization highlight the key process of teaching which has been seen to be improved by the few teachers. The outcomes also suggest that there is a significant need for the user experience of the study room materials by the teachers (WHO, 2018). Though there are efficient educational tools available in the classrooms, the lack of knowledge regarding the usage of such tools becomes an obstacle for the study decisions. The students are unable to fulfill their queries despite the presence of extensive tools in the classroom. This particular outcome suggests that there is a lack of training for the new teachers and educators to utilize the full advantage of the modern study room.

Area of improvement

According to the above discussion, it has been understood that the area of evaluation is fulfilled but the learning programs are not very particular to fulfill the areas of development for the organization. The improvement measures need to be focused more on the training programs to deliver a better understanding of the study process of the organization to the teachers and also allow them to understand the usage of various study tools. A modern classroom is an advantage to the students and to implement a better study room for the students the educators must understand the study procedures and the usage of a smart study room.

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