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Factors Affecting The Job Satisfaction Of Employees In A Digital Marketing Firm

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Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Job Satisfaction is the thing that can improve a firm’s efficiency and productivity. If the employees are happy with the job and their role, then they immensely help the organisation to boost up and make direction to the success (Pang and Lu, 2018). In the case of a marketing firm, it’s an employee-based business, where each and every employee consists of a value to the organisation. Employees are the values of these organisations, if they work smoothly and efficiently it will be a competitive advantage for the organisation. Because workers spend so much time at work each week, it is critical that employers make every effort to make it as comfortable as possible for them. Providing open workspaces, proper lighting, and comfy workstations all contribute to a positive work environment. Increasing employee contentment at work may be accomplished in part by providing them with more efficient means of doing their responsibilities, such as newer, more powerful technology.

Over the last several decades, a great deal of attention has been on the issue of job satisfaction, independent of the industry in which one works or the job itself (Ioannou et al., 2015). When people are satisfied with their employment and how it is structured, they are said to be satisfied with their job. Increasingly, scholars and practitioners in organizational studies are focusing on why certain employees are more content with their professions than others (Long and Xuan, 2014). Personal business, interpersonal assistance, and loyal boosterism all significantly impact job contentment with growth prospects, which is linked to job-provided development opportunities (Kasemsap, 2017). Every company’s first aim is to keep its employees happy and productive inside the organization. High levels of job satisfaction in today’s settings have been linked to various positive outcomes, including increased output, less employee churn, and reduced stress. A more pleasant working environment and increased profits benefit a happy workforce. The best way to guarantee that employees are always happy in their jobs is for companies to use a set of standardized management and leadership approaches.

Dissatisfied employees are less likely to provide their best work than happy ones. To attract and keep skilled staff, one of the essential factors is employee happiness at work. Customers’ pleasure and the company’s success go hand in hand with job satisfaction among employees, according to research by Huang et al. (2015) and Symitsi, Stamolampros, and Daskalakis (2018). Higher levels of customer-provider interaction are necessary for high-contact service businesses; therefore, this connection is even more vital. That is because of the moderating influence of the relationship between the consumer and employee throughout the purchasing process (Stamolampros et al., 2019).

Employees are more content in their present position if they can see a way to advance in the organization, gain more responsibilities and earn more money in the process. There is a strong desire among many employers to help their staff gain new abilities that might lead to advancement (Purwanti, 2021). The expense of university tuition is typically covered by employers, such as in the case of workers. In the course of an employee’s yearly performance review, a manager should lay out a roadmap indicating what the employee has to do and what new abilities she needs to build to progress within the company.

Even the most devoted employee might get dissatisfied with their work if they have to deal with a high workload and unreasonable deadlines. The stress level in the workplace rises when workers and managers don’t meet deadlines. Ineffective administration and bad planning are often to blame for creating such conditions. There is a constant state of emergency at the workplace because bosses don’t give workers enough time to complete their assigned responsibilities or because staffing levels are too low (Stamolampros et al., 2019). Employees expect their co-workers to treat them with dignity and decency. Those who work in a hostile atmosphere are more likely to be dissatisfied with their jobs. To avoid more severe situations necessitating disciplinary action, managers must intervene and resolve confrontations. Reminding employees of what is and isn’t suitable conduct in the workplace is a good idea.

Loud Mouth Media, a Belfast-based digital marketing business, will begin testing a four-day workweek for its employees as part of a UK-wide study (Elliott, 2022). With offices in Belfast, Dublin, London, and Glasgow, Loud Mouth Media is a performance marketing business that has won several awards throughout the years (LoudMouth Media, 2022). Multi-award winner, this performance marketing firm has been providing a fully managed solution through search, display, SEO, and social advertising channel services. The digital advertising company has been approved for a six-month trial program to see whether productivity can be maintained at its present level by converting to a four-day workweek (Elliott, 2022). The organization continually looks for innovative methods to manage productivity while maintaining a healthy work-life balance. They are pleased to be the first digital marketing agency in Northern Ireland to be approved for a 4-Day Week experiment starting Monday, June 6th, for a six-month pilot as part of the larger UK initiative.

Along with this, the benefits of improved employee health, engagement, work-life balance, and enhanced weekend craic, all of which are extremely important to them, are included (LoudMouth Media, 2022). In addition, worldwide researchers believe that a four-day workweek may be a policy with actual triple dividends, benefiting the economy, society, and the environment simultaneously. Working with their brilliant staff and yet providing excellent service is an exciting challenge, and they are eager to know how all their experiment for employees’ work-life balance turns out. This approach taken by the company is dedicated to creating job satisfaction among the employees. However, it is a matter of investigation if, even after such approaches, there are other factors or organizational practices creating obstacles to complete job satisfaction in the workforce.

1.2 Problem Statement of the Research

Underpayment is the condition of receiving less money than you are worth. This is the most difficult problem to deal with since it may be motivated by an individual’s opinion or viewpoint. Even if a person’s salary is based on their position, they still believe themselves to be underpaid if they don’t think they’re getting paid enough. If they do their homework and discover that they are truly being underpaid for that position, they have every right to be dissatisfied (da Cruz Carvalho, Riana, and Soares, 2020). Because they may see someone performing the same work in a nicer automobile or a better home, they could think that person is earning more money than they are.

As a result, they think they are being paid insufficiently once again. People can see, that the discontent that comes from feeling underpaid is solely dependent on perspective unless they know what others make or investigate the pay that is acceptable for a given job function. A significant and useful point of view from the firm’s point of view is that disgruntled employees are more likely to quit the company than those who are happy with their pay. Another factor contributing to job discontent is the absence of advancement opportunities (Kurdi, Alshurideh, and Alnaser, 2020). Understanding that not everyone aspires to climb the corporate ladder is critical in this regard. They will get jaded and disappointed if their employer does not provide them with the possibility for progress. This might imply that the employee is considering moving on to a new job with more possibilities for advancement.

1.3 Research Aims and Objectives

1.3.1 Research Aims

The research aims to effectively identify and analyze the factors that are affecting the job satisfaction of employees in the digital marketing firm. Moreover, the study also aims to provide specific and authentic information regarding the study topic by accessing the data from the company, Loud Mouth Media.

1.3.2 Research Objectives

  • To understand the importance of job satisfaction.
  • To realize the aspects of job satisfaction in the dynamic industrial context.
  • To identify the factors affecting job satisfaction in the company context of Loud Mouth Media.
  • To rationalize whether job satisfaction establishes relevancy in work performance enhancement.

1.4 Research Questions

  • What is the importance of job satisfaction?
  • How do job satisfaction and dissatisfaction impact organizational performance and productivity?
  • What are the factors that affect job satisfaction in Loud Mouth Media?
  • How does employee job satisfaction enhance organizational performance?

1.5 Research Significance

Employees at a digital marketing agency will be studied to get a better knowledge of work satisfaction and the variables that influence it. The belief is that if employees are not satisfied, their morale will drop and the general productivity of the company will decrease as a result (Zhang et al., 2019). The findings of this study will be particularly useful to digital marketing companies as they seek to preserve the variables that influence employee happiness at work. To keep their employees happy, these forms will benefit from the study.

Even more importantly, the findings of this research are expected to shed light on how employees’ job happiness and productivity are linked to the overall success of their workplaces. In addition, the researcher will be able to illustrate and supply readers with some unique facts and expertise by interpreting particular and real data from the source, Loud Mouth Media (Al-Ali et al., 2019). “Factors Affecting Employee Job Satisfaction in a Digital Marketing Firm” is a crucial and realistic study subject for future researchers and learners of this specific study topic.

1.6 Research Rationale

A digital marketing agency’s employees will be investigated to learn more about job happiness and the factors that affect it. According to this theory, a company’s production suffers if its workers are dissatisfied, which, in turn, lowers staff morale. As a digital marketing company, the researcher may utilize this study’s results to ensure that your employees are happy and productive. These forms will profit from the research to keep their staff satisfied. Even more crucially, the outcomes of this study are intended to shed light on how workers’ job satisfaction and productivity are connected to their businesses’ overall performance (Meng and Berger, 2019). It will also allow the researcher to provide readers with unique information and knowledge by evaluating data from the source, Loud Mouth Media, which provides specific and true data. Researchers and students in the field of digital marketing need to know about the “Factors Affecting Employee Job Satisfaction in a Digital Marketing Firm.”

1.7 Research Structure

A research or dissertation paper requires a step-by-step process that would direct the study to be documented professionally. For this, a dissertation paper is divided into several chapters. Following is the structure of the chapters in this dissertation:

  • The dissertation will begin with an Introduction chapter that provides background information and context for the whole research.
  • A Background Research chapter examines the literature review, consisting of the previous academic research on the concerned topic. It also assesses content. The researcher will study key books and other information on the subject. The researcher will consult scholarly articles, websites, and government materials.
  • The dissertation’s Method Justification and Explanation chapter covers research and activity methods. The researcher will show the scholar how to do their research and which method to apply. The scholar will discuss the approaches utilized and why they were selected.
  • The Results and Analysis chapter covers all the findings, facts, phrases, observations, and experimental data. In this section, the researcher will highlight all technique-related data. The researcher will avoid bias and interpretation here and organize the data. The analytical discussion here summarises the results. The researcher will explain the experiment’s findings and give context to the readers.
  • The researcher will provide a short conclusive remark for the recommendations on the issues identified in the research findings and implications of the research for the company and academics in the Recommendations and Implementation chapter.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Overview

Job satisfaction is essential for the current scenario of the world, job satisfaction is nothing but it’s the action for what employees retain in an organisation. In this study, there are some definitions of Job descriptions from different authors and those are different approaches. Though there is not any perfect or exact definition of job satisfaction it varies from person to person. There is also mentioned some impacts of job satisfaction on employee performance, which can be positive and negative. After that, there are some importances of employees’ job satisfaction in a digital marketing firm as well as some factors that can influence job satisfaction in a digital marketing firm.

2.2 Definitions of Job Satisfaction

There is no exact definition of Job Satisfaction, it is different for everyone, someone may be satisfied with a job and another one may not be satisfied with the same job. It depends from person to person. Different Authors have defined different definitions of Job Satisfaction.

According to Aziri (2011), Job Satisfaction is a combination of internal and external circumstances means it is a combination of psychological and environmental circumstances if both match for someone then the person will be satisfied if these circumstances do not match then the person will not be satisfied. As per this definition job satisfaction can be influenced by many external factors. The job can be done in the way that employees feel.

Another definition of Job Satisfaction is more focused on the role of employees in the office. Then job satisfaction can be an affective orientation on the individual’s part into the role of work that they are occupying (Liu, Aungsuroch and Yunibhand, 2016).

A job has to do as per the employees’ feelings, as they feel good to do the job and it has various aspects. For this only job satisfaction and dissatisfaction can appear in any situation. Job satisfaction is related to the individual’s behaviour in the workplace (Huang, 2019).

2.3 Impact of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance

Job satisfaction is the most important part of any organisation because nowadays it is a variable area facing today’s managers. According to authors, they describe many impacts of job satisfaction on employee performance which is mentioned below. Positive and negative – there are both impacts job satisfaction has on employee performance (PANCASILA, HARYONO and SULISTYO, 2020).

If the company has more employees and they work together but some employee’s or person they cannot satisfied their job role, that time they are cannot better performing in an organisation that’s why this organisation facing some bad effects, But, if the managers focusing this area personally and understand employees’ problems, action, responses, attention so that employees are more satisfied in their workplace and response positively.

Employees’ positive responses, it is mean they are satisfied with their working area it measures that the organisation is a run better way and achieves their goals easily, side by side companies give some facilities to their employees, and this type of benefit helps employees satisfaction and affects their performance also. Additionally, well behaviour, friendly culture overall helps increase employee satisfaction and if the overall function is applied properly, after that the companies is well organised (Ndulue and Ekechukwu, 2016).

As well as, some negative effects are there. In this case if, the employees are cannot satisfied with their working role it means they cannot perform well in the organisation. Employees satisfaction is the most important factor in any organisation (Ramli, 2018). But sometimes organisations cannot focus on this site, which means managers cannot well behave with their employees, they cannot understand their problems and other areas, side by side managers never provided any facilities to their employees, all are the factors indicate employees’ satisfactions. It means employees are not satisfied in their workplace and these types of problems affect in organisation because employees are not well-performing it measures an organisation cannot perform in a better way and increases many problems and these types of problems affect in an organisation (Siengthai and Pila-Ngarm, 2016).Employees satisfaction is better for an organisation and it is also a negative response for any organisation but side by side employees not satisfying their working place means it is a negative response for any organisation.

2.4 Importance of Employees’ Job Satisfaction on Digital Marketing Firm Productivity

Employees’ job satisfaction is an essential objective of an organisation, it helps organisations to grow and reach their goals. Employees can make a firm productive and efficient, though employees are the main reason for the success of an organisation. In an organisation employees’ contribution is enough to touch the benchmark of success so their satisfaction is also important to take care of (Nemteanu and Dabija, 2021).

Job satisfaction is important because dissatisfaction with a job can result in a lack of loyalty, inefficiency in the workplace, unproductive, lack of engagement among employees, and it increased the number of accidents. Organisations should guide employees by the human values they need to be treated with respect. In that case employees, job satisfaction may be increased and it is a good indicator for the organisation as well as for the employees (Pang and Lu, 2018). High job satisfaction may be a sign of better sign for the organisation and for employees; it will also keep the good mental health of the employees.

The behaviour of the employees also depends on the job satisfaction level, though it can affect an organisation’s business processes and operational activity. So, job satisfaction can give a positive impact on the organisation as well as a negative, so employees’ job satisfaction is an important thing for the organisation (Ali and Anwar, 2021). Negative job satisfaction can affect employees’ behaviour and productivity though it can give a negative impact on organisations.

Job satisfaction is an indicator of an organisation’s business processes and activities, positive job satisfaction can result in a productive organisation and negative job satisfaction can result in an inefficient and unproductive organisation. Good job satisfaction can boost the organisation’s business process (Moro, Ramos and Rita, 2020).

An organisation’s managers and employees might appreciate, that an organisation need to keep employees satisfied because employees’ satisfaction can lead to business processes, by keeping them satisfied, employees can boost sales, minimise cost, and can make a strong bottom line for the organisation. It can be a good option for increasing the profit of the organisations by keeping employees satisfied. Irrespective of the job titles and salary the satisfied employees of the organisation, if they feel satisfied with the environment of the organisation, reward systems and recognition then they can produce more for the organisation and they do it more efficiently (Davidescu et al., 2020).

Employees when satisfied with their jobs they slightly think about leaving the job, because they are happy with their job. It affects when new employees join the organisation if they see no one wants to leave their job or all are working for more years, then new employees also feel positive about the company and that will be a good sign for the organisation. If employees feel satisfied with their job and if they see the way of growth by staying in the company, that also creates the company’s loyalty. In that case, employees also want to support the organisation’s mission and objectives (Davidescu et al., 2020). Employees also tell others about the nature of the company and that will create the company’s goodwill.

2.5 Positive and Negative Factors that influence Employees’ Job Satisfaction in Marketing Firms

Job satisfaction can give result in success, productivity and efficiency for the marketing firm. Positive and negative factors are there in job satisfaction, which are:

  1. Working Environment:

Employees needed well environment which is safe and comfortable; employees mostly needed personal comfort and better facilities, after the working facilities are good like outstanding surroundings so that the employees easy to stable their working roll (Sudiardhita et al., 2018). On the other hand, the employees are not managing their working roll and if the working conditions are not good like unbalancing area that’s why the employees will not adjust their working roll and finding more difficulties. Hence, if the environment is having a balancing and friendly it can help grow employees’ job satisfaction.

  1. Caring Organisation:

Caring organisations can assist in finding different types of ways, as well as career development is a most important part of the organisation because, if the organisation focusing employees’ problems, health, and any other function overall helps employees’ satisfaction and also can help increasing organisation growth (Judge, Zhang and Glerum, 2020).

  • Pay:

Wages and salaries are recognised to be significant but cognitively complex and multidimensional factors in job satisfaction. Salaries and wages are paid right time which means employees are more satisfied, satisfied salaries are not only helped people with basic needs it also can help in provide higher-level needs satisfaction. Employees often see pay as a reflection of how management views their contribution to the organisation, Fringe benefits are also significant, but they are not as influential (Aburumman et al., 2020). Additionally, if the organisation cannot focus on these factors like they are cannot pay specific time periods and cannot give proper benefits to employees that’s why the employees do not work properly, their performance is poor all over the reason affecting an organisation increasing growth.

  1. Promotion:

Promotion opportunities have to affect different types of job satisfaction because promotion takes some different forms and has a variety of accompanying rewards. It also can help increase employees’ thinking opportunists and grow better-generating ideas, and the organisation develops day by day (Siengthai and Pila-Ngarm, 2016). Side by side if the organisation cannot provide some promotion which is mostly needed so the employees are continually depressed and they cannot work properly and, it also decreasing encouraging customer powers this is the reasons mostly bad impact for a marketing firm.

  1. Challenges:

Some the employees are who loves challenges in their workplace and are creating a new experiment, its man they also like challenging job and it is better for creativity for marketing firms because if the employees are creating new ideas the organisation finds new facilities and “associated with ability and capability” marketing firms always help this thing because it helps increasing marketing firms (Ali and Anwar, 2021). The employees cannot generate new challenges and they cannot face this area so the marketing firms cannot build day by day with specific time and periods.

  1. Feedback:

Feedback is the most important part of any organisation it measures where are the problems and how to solve this, employees’ feedback is also the most important factor, in this case, the organisation not receiving feedback on their “work can be quite discouraging for most people”. Authority also needs to know what kind of feedback the team members respond to the best. And research shows that learners seek and respond to positive feedback, while experts respond to negative feedback. On the other hand, negative feedback will be received, in this case, the marketing firms find the problems and try to how is it possible to overcome this problem and how to receive positive responses (Hee et al., 2018).

  • Flexibility:

Companies may offer flexibility in work to the employees, so it can be a positive factor that influences employees’ job satisfaction. By giving flexibility in the work employees may feel happy and that can increase the productivity of the organisation. If companies don’t give the option of flexibility in the work, then many employees feel dissatisfied which can be a bad impact on the organisation (Soomro, Breitenecker and Shah, 2018). So, flexibility in the workplace can improve the organisation’s sales, minimise costs and boost the performance of the organisation.

  • Work Nature:

The nature of work is another factor that can influence employees’ job satisfaction in the workplace. If a person willingly wants to do a certain task, then they would prefer these tasks. These tasks can give them satisfaction in the workplace. Nature of work is also important in the workplace for the employee’s satisfaction (Lan et al., 2021).

  1. Safety and Security:

Nowadays safety and security a major factor that can influence employees’ job satisfaction. Many organisations provide health and life insurance to employees and many other facilities. If employees do not feel secure in the organisation, then the job satisfaction of the employees fails. The aspect of security and safety plays a major role in terms of employees’ satisfaction (Scanlan and Still, 2019). Now companies also measure employee satisfaction by giving different types of facilities like health care and medical.

  1. Initiation:

If an employee gets the equal opportunity to show his/her talent, then organisations may give them initiation and that improves employees’ job satisfaction. If organisations asked employees to give their suggestions, then also employees’ satisfaction increase and that can help organisations to improve efficiency (Hee et al., 2018).

  1. Hobbies and Interests:

If an employee has pursued his/her hobby or the subject where they have the optimum level of interest then if they work in that type of job role then the job is not a job for them it is a way of getting into the hobby and making money. If they work like that then it’s more than a promotion for them. So, if employees do their own respective work where they have interests and hobbies then there will be a high amount of satisfaction (Jabeen, Friesen and Ghoudi, 2018). However, interest and hobbies are also vital factors that can influence job satisfaction. This amount of satisfaction can give more productivity to the organisation.

2.6 Theoretical Underpinnings that Relate to Job Satisfaction

Theories of job contentment and theories of human motivation have a lot in common. The Job Characteristics Model, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory, and the Dispositional Approach are some of the most widely used ideas in this field. The following are descriptions and explanations of these theories:

2.6.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

One of the first theories to examine the factors that contribute to job satisfaction, Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory is well-known in the human motivation literature. Emotional and psychological well-being are at the top of a five-tiered hierarchy of human needs according to the theory. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the most basic needs must be met before more complex ones can be met (such as physiological needs and safety) (such as, belonging and esteem) (Hale et al., 2019).

The hierarchy of needs proposed by Abraham Maslow aims to shed light on human motivation in general. Workplace satisfaction can be explained by some of the theory’s central tenets. Workers’ basic physiological needs are met in part by benefits provided by their employers, such as health insurance and monetary compensation (Cui et al., 2021). Having a safe work environment, job security, and/or appropriate organisational structures and policies can all be signs that employees have safety needs. When this goal is achieved, employees are better able to focus on developing a sense of belonging at work. Working with co-workers and managers, and whether or not they feel like a part of the team or organisation, can all contribute to a sense of belonging (Butler et al., 2017). Employees want to feel appreciated and valued by their co-workers and the company they work for.

To reach self-actualisation, the employee must continue to grow and develop in order to become all that they can be. Despite the fact that each phase may appear to be independent, they all play an important role in the journey toward self-actualisation. As a result, organisations trying to enhance employee job satisfaction should begin by addressing the most fundamental demands of their workers. It is becoming less common since it does not take into account the employee’s cognitive process and lacks actual data (Lussier, 2019). Some also take issue with the culmination of self-actualisation. In the absence of a precise definition of self-actualisation and intellectual knowledge, it is difficult to measure what the end aim is or when it has been reached.

2.6.2 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

Motivation and hygiene, according to Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory, are not two endpoints of the same continuum, but two distinct and sometimes unrelated ideas. Satisfaction with one’s job can only be achieved if the ‘motivating’ elements of one’s job are met. However, ‘hygiene’ elements (such as working environment, corporate regulations and structure, job security and contact with co-workers, and the quality of management) are linked to job dissatisfaction (Matei and Abrudan, 2016).

As a result, it is feasible that employees are neither content nor dissatisfied because both cleanliness and motivating aspects are considered separate. An employee is unsatisfied if his or her hygiene factors are low; if these variables are high, the employee is neither dissatisfied nor satisfied, according to this notion. The motivational elements determine whether or not a worker is content. Furthermore, it is assumed that when an employee’s motivations are met, he or she is content (Corlett, 2019). To better understand an employee’s sentiments, it may be helpful to separate their satisfaction and dissatisfaction from each other.

There has been minimal empirical evidence for the Motivator-Hygiene hypothesis, which was critical in defining job satisfaction from discontent in the first place; Herzberg’s original work was panned for using shoddy methods (Holmberg, Caro and Sobis, 2018). Herzberg has now corrected his mistakes. There have been inconsistent results in following studies, with some researchers supporting the idea, and others not.

2.6.3 Job Characteristics Model

As explained by the Job Characteristics Model (JCM), intrinsically motivating characteristics can lead to job satisfaction. Each of the following five work traits affects three distinct states of mind: interest, motivation, and self-actualisation. A variety of possible outcomes may be derived from the three psychological states, one of which is work satisfaction. It is hoped that by strengthening the five key job characteristics, organisations may create a better work environment and a higher level of employee happiness (Singh, Singh and Khan, 2016).

The JCM theory has gained greater empirical backing than Maslow or Herzberg’s views. While this approach is often used to examine the direct influence of fundamental job aspects on personal and professional results, it has also garnered criticism for neglecting crucial psychological states in many researches. Despite this, three studies have examined the influence of the JCM on work satisfaction and found it to be effective. A meta-analysis of 13 investigations focused on the significance of important psychological states, and found these psychological states to have a vital practical and theoretical role in the JCM (Park, 2017).

2.6.4 Dispositional Approach

This dispositional approach indicates that job happiness is intimately linked to one’s personal characteristics. An individual has an inherent tendency to be satisfied with their life, and these tendencies stay steady throughout time. Indirect research and direct studies can be used to support this strategy (McLarty and Whitman, 2016). These areas have been examined in greater detail by Judge and his colleagues.

Studies that don’t explicitly measure personality provide the evidence in the form of inferential evidence. The National Longitudinal Studies in the United States found that job satisfaction measures tend to remain stable over two, three, and five years. Even major alterations in employment, such as a switch in employers or professions, are covered. A twin-based study looked at 34 identical twins who were raised apart from one another (Holienkova, 2018). Job satisfaction in later life was found to be influenced by genetic factors to the tune of 30 percent.

Other unaccounted for factors may be influencing job satisfaction levels in indirect studies. Consequently, these studies are more susceptible to criticism. To put it another way, this shows the relevance of research that focus on the function of personality. Self-esteem, self-efficacy, emotional stability, and a sense of agency are all part of a larger personality construct that affects how someone views themselves. As self-esteem, self-efficacy, emotional stability, and locus of control (the four affective concepts) were examined in 169 correlations with job satisfaction, self-reported levels of these constructs increased, and so did job satisfaction (Hassard, Teoh and Cox, 2016). Neuroticism, conscientiousness, and extraversion all have a moderate effect on job contentment, according to research into the five-factor model of personality.

The lack of empirical evidence for the hierarchy of demands and motivator-hygiene methods is problematic. The empirical evidence for the dispositional approach, on the other hand, and for JCM is growing. Even if we accept that personality or the JCM do not entirely explain job satisfaction, we cannot deny that motivational factors affect the surrounding environment and on employee satisfaction as well. As a result, Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene method and personality were coupled to better understand the combined influence on job satisfaction. According to findings, factors such as demographics and scores on the five most often utilised personality characteristics (such as extraversion and agreeableness) accounted for a considerable share of the work satisfaction of employees.

Chapter 3: Method Justification and Explanation

3.1 Introduction

Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill’s (2007) research onion have led the study. Distinguishing the approach, beginning from the top level of philosophical concerns and moving in the direction down to the data gathering and analysis phases, is done following this framework. However, according to Melnikovas (2018), the field of research has advanced a lot since this research onion was established as a standard framework. For the research to be carried out and their methodologies to be explained nowadays, there has to be some additions made for the research to proceed in an accurate direction.

3.2 Research Philosophy

Pragmatism has been chosen as the philosophical approach for this research. According to ukauskas, Vveinhardt and Andriukaitien (2018), the pragmatism research philosophy focuses on the facts. It claims that the choice of research philosophy is determined mainly by the research problem. This school of thinking emphasises the need to acquire real-world applicability. According to Alghamdi and Li (2013), pragmatism is neither a philosophical ideology nor a phenomenon in the actual world. Ultimately, the researchers are responsible for determining their path. A wide range of options is available to them in terms of approaches, tactics, and procedures. Pragmatism’s ontological perspective of reality is ambiguous, but it is influenced by cultural, linguistic, and respect factors, pertinent to this study’s focus on work satisfaction as an organisational culture issue. According to pragmatism’s epistemological approach, knowledge is generated through experience, which guides this study to collect data from the experiences of individuals linked with the firm and the subject of concern.

3.3 Research Approach

There is much emphasis on deductive and inductive thinking. The deductive research approach might be used when a well-known theory or phenomenon is being investigated. Contrarily, the inductive technique begins with detecting patterns in data and then speculating about what those patterns could mean in the actual world (Woiceshyn and Daellenbach, 2018). Instead of two opposing and entirely contradictory aspects of objectivity and subjectivity, pragmatists see knowledge acquisition as a constant process (Goles and Hirschheim, 2000). It means that when it comes to methods of investigation, pragmatism sits midway between the extremes of each paradigm (Kaushik and Walsh, 2019). Since inductive reasoning may be used to answer research questions, it has been selected for this study. While there are many ways to arrive at conclusions, inductive reasoning focuses on the researcher’s data to draw conclusions regarding the facts in question.

3.4 Methodological Choice

There are a variety of rules, processes, tactics, and tools to choose from when it comes to making a methodological decision. The most critical methodological choice that researchers make is whether to use qualitative or quantitative data in their study. Qualitative data, in comparison to quantitative data, is portrayed via language or images. Numbers represent quantitative data. In order to take advantage of the new information gathered from the limited literature, research like this requires distinct data collection and conceptual underpinnings. Studies based on the pragmatist philosophy of research may include many research approaches, including qualitative, quantitative, and action research. As a result of this philosophy and the methodological flexibility it gives, along with the inductive reasoning method, a mixed technique, in which both quantitative and qualitative data are employed as needed, has been chosen to achieve the expected results for the research project.

3.5 Strategy and Design

Having a plan in place for conducting the study efficiently and delivering high-quality results is essential for a researcher. Interviews and surveys were used to collect qualitative and quantitative data, respectively since the study was to be done using a combination of methods and experience-based data. To further emphasise the exploratory nature of qualitative research, pragmatism favours the use of qualitative studies. According to Akhtar (2016), exploratory design is utilised when there is no previous data or just a few publications to pick from while doing a task as a source of reference. Document analysis is required if the study is exploratory and based on interpretivism. On the other hand, exploratory research does not have a predetermined subject matter. Greater knowledge of the present situation may be gained by doing this; however, it has not yielded any definitive results. For this kind of research, it is customary for researchers to begin with a broad hypothesis and then use that hypothesis to locate possible participants.

3.6 Time Horizon

The time horizon of the research is shown in the next layer of the research onion before the centre layer of techniques and procedures regarding data are reached. Longitudinal research involves collecting data over a long period to examine trends over time, whereas cross-sectional research takes place over a short period at a given moment (Sahay, 2016). When a question or a problem develops at a specific moment in time and has to be addressed or remedied, cross-sectional research is utilised. An experiment, survey, interview, case study, or grounded theory may all be employed in this context because of the tiny sample size. Researchers use longitudinal methods when they need to gather data over an extended period to answer a particular question or solve a particular issue in this way. Many scholars used a cross-sectional design in their research, such as in this research, which demands and needs the data to be collected once.

3.7 Techniques and Procedures

3.7.1 Sampling

Samples are collected from a wide range of people before being analysed. As previously indicated, a sample of current articles will be used in this investigation. Choosing a sample size reflective of the population to be examined is critical while doing research. Two of the most prevalent methods for selecting a sample are purposeful and non-purposeful sampling. “Purposive” and “subjective” sampling are two terms for non-probability sampling methods that rely on a researcher’s subjective judgement to choose items for a sample group, as described by Gentles et al. (2015). When selecting a sample, the researcher’s experience and knowledge of the situation are critical factors in the selection process. This study relies on data from a non-random purposive selection of data sources. While the reason behind selecting HR managers as the research population was to gain the managerial perspective on the job satisfaction approach in the organisation, employees have been selected because of an understanding of the effectiveness of the organisational approach towards satisfying employees.

3.7.2 Data Collection

The term “data collection” refers to the act of collection, measurement, and analysis of accurate data for research objectives using universally recognised and verified processes. As an example, primary data indicates data which is gathered directly by the researcher of the ongoing research. When we talk about “secondary data”, we are referring to information that has already been gathered by someone else. Primary data is mostly collected via questionnaires, surveys, experiments, and personal interviews. Governmental papers, journal articles, textbooks, websites, and internal records are examples of secondary data sources. To gain qualitative and quantitative data for the study, primary data collection using surveys and interviews will be beneficial, aligning with the demand of the data and methodology selected.

3.7.3 Data Analysis

Analysing qualitative and quantitative data using thematic analysis would be essential for the study’s goals to be achieved. As per Graue (2015), researchers seek themes, ideas, or concepts which may be present in the acquired data when doing analyses like this. In qualitative data analysis, thematic analysis can be performed to find terms or concepts that often emerge in the data. When analysing large amounts of verbal data acquired via interviews, such as in this research where the managers provide primarily required data, this kind of analysis is particularly useful since it allows for the quantification of data categories. Alongside, quantitative data collected from the employees through surveys would provide sufficient support to the qualitative data and demonstrate alignment or contrast between these two types of data.

3.8 Ethical Considerations

Ethical conduct in research exploration is defined as the practice of doing research in conformity with recognised principles and standards. As mentioned by Broesch et al. (2020), these problems must be addressed when doing research and are frequently referred to as a set of standards and methods that are preserved to achieve the study purpose. Indeed, the utilisation of secondary material becomes a moral act in and of itself. By making data collection more efficient, reducing the stress on participants, and making study findings more reproducible and verified, Sanjari et al. (2014) claim that the research process may be made more transparent while also improving academic integrity. Consent for future data usage and sharing is the most important part of informed consent when data is gathered via surveys and interviews. To minimise the dangers of re-identification and public exposure, datasets and public statistics agencies use specialised techniques, as per Broesch et al. (2020). Most often, “safe” release conditions or strong anonymity techniques are utilised to protect users’ privacy.

Chapter 4: Results and Analysis

The questionnaires are helpful to make a better idea about the factors of employee engagement in the “Loud Mouth Media” Company. These questions will help to find out the important scenario to make a better research project and help the researcher to understand the factors related to job satisfaction in the company.

4.1 Interview

Q 01: Why do you think job satisfaction in the company is important and how does it help the organisation?

Interviewee 01: Many theories are there that serve a better idea about the factors of “job satisfaction” and this makes a better idea about the importance of this. I have seen the employees getting lazy as they are not satisfied with the factors in the company and this is affecting the productivity of the company. I also have seen that the employees are losing communication and this is hampering the important jobs of the company. However, in my opinion, job satisfaction is important to make a better employee engagement in the company which will help the company to make a proper business.

Interviewee 02: Well, job satisfaction is helpful to make a better idea about the company functions and this is important for the company to make a better and proper organisational culture. This is so obvious that a better organisational culture is important to run the business handling the risks in the company. I faced some problems to lead my team with dissatisfied employees and this hampered the company to make a better outcome. The scenario will be changed if the employees are satisfied with the facilities and organisational culture of the company. And this will help the company to make a better business scenario.

Interviewee 03: Job satisfaction of the employees in the company is very much important to make a better organisational culture and this will help the company to run the business successfully. I can say that job satisfaction directly affects the business of the company positively and this must be encouraged by the company. A very important factor that I have faced in the company is that each and every employee of the company must be satisfied with the factors of the company. This helps to make a better organisational culture for the company and this will help the company to make a proper business. Apart from that, job satisfaction helps to make a better employee engagement in the company and this is important to help the company positively.

Q 02: Do you think the employees in “Loud Mouth Media” are not satisfied with the company, if not, why?

Interviewee 01: This Company has many employees who are working dedicatedly in the company. The important factors of the company are served with better performance and productivity and this is helping the company to run the business properly. I used to talk with the employees of the company sometimes and this brings me an idea that all of them are suffering some problems either in personal life or in the company. However, problems in their personal lives can affect their job satisfaction level sometimes. Nevertheless, the employees are satisfied up to their levels and they are supporting the company properly.

Interviewee 02: I cannot say they are. Every employee is fighting with their problems which are keeping them in uncertainty with the company. This is true that the company is serving the employees well and they are not complaining about it. The problem arises when the employees are not getting the opportunity to be more with their potential. The employees become dissatisfied when they lose interest in their respective jobs. Another factor that must be mentioned is that the employees always try to relate their problems with their difficulties in the job and this causes them to lose interest. This makes them suffer in their jobs and they lose satisfaction.

Interviewee 03: Well, the employees in this company usually do not complain about the factors, rules, and regulations of the company, though sometimes they have faced some challenges in their respective jobs. However, this is true that some of them at least are not satisfied with their jobs. I have seen some employees face difficulties to adjust with the organisational culture in the company and they are losing their satisfaction with this. Sometimes the employees are having a huge work pressure and this is causing them stress. Now, stressed employees will lose interest in the job and they get dissatisfied with their jobs.

Q 03: How will job satisfaction help the employees of “Loud Mouth Media”?

Interviewee 01: The employees of this company are working with proper productivity and efficiency and this makes a better business scenario in the company. The important factors of the company are served properly to the employees and this serves them a proper organisational culture for the employees to cope with. The problems I have faced with dissatisfied employees will be mitigated if the employees get satisfaction. This will help them to cope with the organisation and they can make a better result for their jobs increasing their productivity for the company. Another important factor that will help is that the employees can work with high productivity even with huge work pressure. This will directly help the organisation to run the business successfully. In short, job satisfaction will help the employees to manage a better business scenario for the company.

Interviewee 02: According to the theories, several benefits are there of job satisfaction. This will help to keep the employees interested in their job and work to their full potential. And this will help the company to manage all the business factors successfully. The important factors of the business body will be completed successfully and the employees will have a dedication to the company. Another very important factor is that this can help us, the managers to manage a better team with dedicated employees. I have faced the challenges of dissatisfied employees and employee disengagement several times. I can say these problems will be mitigated with job satisfaction and the managers will have a better team with dedicated employees. This will also help the employees to engage in the organisational culture of the company which will serve the company a proper organisational culture and this will help in business success.

Interviewee 03: I have seen the employees lose interest in the job as they are getting dissatisfied. This can be said that this scenario will change with a better satisfaction factor and the employees will get interested in their jobs. This will help us with better employee engagement and the employees will perform a better job. I also can say that proper job satisfaction will motivate the employees to perform more and this will serve the employees to have a greater business. The organisational culture will also improve with this and the company can run the business properly by handling the risk factors. Another important factor that I have seen is that most of the employees resigned from the company as they found the job dissatisfactory. This scenario will be changed if the employees will get satisfied with the company. In short, the company can have better employee retention with satisfactory factors.

Q 04: What can you do to make the employees satisfied with their job?

Interviewee 01: Company already has taken several steps to ensure job satisfaction for the employees. One very important factor that can be taken for this is to ensure flexibility in the working environment of the company. This will help the employees to have some free time in between their jobs and this will make them more interested in the job. One more important factor that the company can make is to serve the employees some independence in their job roles. This will be built confidence in the employees and they can make a better job within the company.

Interviewee 02: The important jobs of the employees must be served properly and the company must take initiatives to serve the employees with proper job satisfaction. I think ensuring a good and productive organisational culture is important to this factor. This will help the employees serve some flexibility in the workplace and this will increase their productivity. Another very important factor that the company must focus on is the physical and mental health of the company. This will help the employees with a better mental and physical state. The employees will feel less stress with this.

Interviewee 03: I found that the company is making and applying strategies to make a better employee satisfaction in the company and this can be said that this process will be fruitful. A very important and helpful initiative that is taken in this regard is to promote a proper communicative measure between the authorities and employees. The employees must have the chance to share their opinions and also with us. This will help the company to align the organisational factors and this will serve the employees proper job satisfaction.

4.2 Survey

The survey process with the employees of the company is helpful to make a better understanding of the scenario of job satisfaction in the company and this helps to make a better criterion to complete the research project. This is helpful to the researcher to understand the reactions of the employees towards the factors of job satisfaction.

Q 01: What is your age?

The finding of this question has revealed that most of the employees of the company, 50% of it are very young and they are working with the company with potential. The other age groups are of middle age, around 30% of the employees. A very few employees are 31 to 40 years old and nearly 14% of employees are aged.

Q 02: What is your gender?

This survey revealed that most of the employees are not agree to disclose their gender. Around 39.3% of the employees have not disclosed their gender identity and most of the other people are from both genders. Around 21.4% of employees are male and 25% of the employees are female in gender. Around 14.3% of employees of the company are transgender and all of them are important to the company.

Q 03: For how many times have you been working with “Loud Mouth Media”?

The answer reveals that most of the employees are working with the company for 6 to 10 years. A huge number of employees are working for 1 to 5 years and few are working for 11 to 15 years. A few employees are working for more than 15 years in the company.

Q 04: Do you think job satisfaction helps to solve organisational problems easily?

Most of the employees have a neutral response to this question. Around 30% of employees have said they are neutral on this. Some of them disagree with the statement, around 23.3%. 16.7% of the employees agreed with the fact and the same percentage strongly disagreed. 13.3% of the employees strongly agreed with the fact.

Q 05: To what extent do you think job satisfaction helps in performance boost?

Most of the employees have agreed to the fact. 31% of the employees have said that they are agreeing with it. 27.6% of employees strongly agreed and the same numbers of employees are neutral to this. 13.8% are disagreeing with this statement.

Q 06: Do you think less job satisfaction is hampering your performance?

Most of the employees are agreeing with this statement and some of them are having issues with it. A good number of employees disagreed with the statement and they have said this is not hampering productivity.

Q 07: Are you facing any difficulty with less job satisfaction?

Most of the employees have said they are not facing the challenge with job satisfaction. However, a huge number of employees have said they are having challenges with it.

Q 08: Do you think better organisational culture will help to enhance job satisfaction levels?

Most of the employees strongly agreed with this. However, some of the employees are disagreeing with the statement.

4.3 Analysis

The research analysis is based on the findings of the research project and this helps to make a better understanding of the research aim. The important interview sessions and the survey results helped to find the outcomes related to the topics and this makes a better idea about the research objectives. The thematic analysis of the research project will serve as the best idea about the factors of the chosen topic and this will discuss the outcomes of the research findings. The important discussion and analysis of the research project are as follows-

Theme 01: Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction affect job productivity

The interview process with the managers of the company has revealed that the employees are having some issues with less satisfaction in the company. This is making a challenging situation for the company to have a better and broader business and the important jobs of the company are not fulfilled. The interviewees have said that they have faced challenges from employee engagement factors and this is making the business of the company vulnerable. This supports the statement of Ramli, (2018) said that job satisfaction of the employees is a very important factor in any organisation. The important factors of the company serve a better idea about the organisational culture of the company. The interview process helps to understand the difficulties the managers are facing in the company with the poor job satisfaction of the employees. Some of the interviewees have revealed that they are facing poor employee engagement and this is hampering the important factors of the company. In short, the managers have revealed that the poor job satisfaction is causing them a challenging scenario that is hampering their important functions. This is similar to the opinion of Pang and Lu, (2018) that an employee’s satisfaction is important in any company.

The survey conducted with the employees in the company has revealed that the employees are facing a challenge in the company due to their dissatisfaction and they are having difficulties coping with the job. This serves the idea that the employees are not satisfied with the job and they are facing problems in the organisation. Most of the employees have said that the poor job satisfaction is causing the employees to work with less productivity and they are facing difficulties to make a better idea about their respective jobs. This is directly affecting the productivity of the company. This scenario is similar to the opinion of Ali and Anwar, (2021) that says the contribution of the employees is very important for business success.

However, the survey revealed that most of the employees are working with the company for not a very long time. They probably are having difficulties with the organisational culture of the company and this is causing them some dissatisfaction. One more important factor revealed from the survey is that the female employees of the company are mainly facing the challenge with less job satisfaction in the company.

Theme 02: The “Loud Mouth Media” Company is suffering from poor employee satisfaction factors

The interview process has said that the managers are having a challenging situation in the company with less satisfaction from the employees. Some of the managers have said that the employees are suffering from their own problems and this is causing the company to have poor job satisfaction. The important factors of the company are served as the basic factors of employee satisfaction in the company and this will help the employees to have better organisational culture. However, the managers have revealed that the practical scenario of the company is different. The employees are losing interest in the job and they are getting lazy. This scenario hampered the business of the “Loud Mouth Media” company and the managers of the company are facing challenges in the business factors the company. In short, better job satisfaction in the company is important for the company to motivate the employees and to get a better business outcome. The managers revealed that the company has served all the important facilities to the employees regarding their respective jobs, however, some of the employees are still not satisfied with the company.

The survey conducted with the employees of the company has served the idea that the employees are facing some less productivity in the company. Most of the employees are facing difficulties with the poor organisational culture and they believe that a proper working culture in the organisation will help the employees to make better performance with their jobs. The employees have revealed that most of them are facing less job satisfaction and this makes a proper understanding of the scenario of employee satisfaction in the company. This supports the opinion of Pang and Lu, (2018), that less job satisfaction in the company serves a poor business scenario for the company. The survey has also revealed that the employees of the company are mostly of young ages and they are serving the company for a very small time. This can be said that these employees have not coped with the organisational culture of the company yet and this can be a major reason to have poor job satisfaction for the company. This also says that the employees are looking for a better organisational culture to have job satisfaction in the company. However, the survey has also revealed that most of the employees are facing problems with poor job satisfaction and this is causing a problem for the company.

Theme 03: Job satisfaction enhances organisational performance

The interview process with the managers has said that the employees are not very satisfied with the employee dissatisfaction and this is causing them some difficulties with the functions of the company. The important factors of the company are not served well and they have faced some challenges to operate their respective teams. Some of the managers have said that the employees are getting lazy and they are losing interest in their respective jobs. This supports the opinion of Huang, (2019), that a poor organisational culture and job satisfaction affect employee behaviour. This is causing the employees with a less productive approach and hampering the team-building process in the company.

However, the managers have focused on the important steps that must be taken by the company to ensure job satisfaction for the employees. Some of the managers have said that the employees must have some flexibility in the job so that they can enjoy the working hours. The manager also said that this can bring the employee a proper work-life balance and this will successfully satisfy the employees to make a better and more productive approach. Some of the employees have said that employees must have independence in their jobs so that they can enjoy their responsibilities freely. This will serve the employees with a better scenario and they can handle their entire stressful job as well. This satisfies the opinion of Moro, Ramos, and Rita, (2020), that a better organisational culture increases the productivity of the company.

One other manager of the company has said that the company must take the initiative to ensure security for the employees and take care of their mental and physical health. The important satisfactory measures must be implemented and this can help the employees to serve a better approach. This can be said that all the findings of the interview process are indicating towards a better organisational culture and this will serve them a good scenario in the company.

The survey conducted with the employees of the company has revealed that the employees agreed with a better organisational culture in the company and they have said that this will help them to make a better and more productive approach to the company. The survey has also revealed that the employees are facing issues with poor job satisfaction in the company and they are looking for the company to implement a better organisational culture. This will help them to serve the company better and this will help the company to make a better business.

4.4 Summary

The interview process conducted with the managers of the company has served the researcher to have a better understanding of the factors of the “Loud Mouth Media” Company and this helped to make a better idea about the chosen topic. The important factors of the company are served properly with the interview process and this helped the researcher to find out the problems with the company. The survey questionnaires help the researcher to understand the opinions of the employees of the company and this makes a better outcome related to the research topic.

The themes are taken related to the aims and objectives and these are helpful to make a better idea about the findings of the research. The research objectives are served with a better idea about the factors of the company and the themes are taken related to that. In short, the research themes in the discussion helped the researcher to understand the important factors regarding the “Loud Mouth Media” company and this helps to have a better understanding of the poor employee satisfaction issue in the company. In short, the important aims and objectives are fulfilled properly and this makes a better idea about the factors of the research project.

Chapter 5: Recommendations and Implementation

5.1 Conclusive Remark

Scholars in the background literary study, as well as managers and employees in the research, have claimed that people want to be treated properly from the perspective of the employees. According to Loud Mouth Media’s personnel, the organisation believes that the approach of making employees satisfied may help the organisation become more efficient and productive. However, in the research, certain issues like the engagement of employees in teams, poor culture and high stress etc., have emerged as significant issues that create barriers in the way of job satisfaction. This section is dedicated to recommending approaches that would help Loud Mouth Media to overcome such issues.

5.2 Recommendations for the Issues Identified

Employee engagement and retention are particularly difficult to manage in today’s rapidly evolving paradigm of human resource management. Having a high degree of work satisfaction may influence the success of a firm, which relies on the performance of its employees (Smith et al. 2020). Satisfied employees in their jobs are more probably to become “engaged employees”, who are actively involved in the company’s operations and have a “strong zeal” for the company’s success because they are more likely to be inspired to perform at their best and to care about the interests of their employers (MADAN, 2017). According to Beer (1997), the HR function must shed its old administrative, compliance, and service role and embrace a new strategic position that focuses on strengthening the organisation and the competencies of its managers to achieve a successful transition in people management. Traditional HR functions such as administration, compliance, and customer service will need to be distinguished from newer, more strategic HR endeavours shortly. It is assumed that, as the pace of change quickens in the twenty-first century, HR will have to adapt its strategic and cultural approaches to keep up.

HR is seen in Beer’s (1997) view as assuming that, notwithstanding the motivation of top management, the process of organisational growth cannot be directed from the corporate level. Executives from every unit in the firm should take charge of the initiative. According to Ali and Anwar (2021), motivation also has to do with the impact that culture has on the happiness of workers in their jobs. The need to boost employee motivation, dedication, and engagement has never been greater. Workers are more likely to perform at their best if they know they will be rewarded for their hard work and contributions. In this regard, Beer (1997) further said that the CEO’s responsibility is to build a corporate setting that promotes an action learning process within every subunit and to drive a framework for strategic change at the top management level. Action learning, rather than educational programmes, consultants, or academic research, will be the primary method through which an organisation develops new methods of organising and management that can be put into action.

HR specialists believe that if an employee is not motivated, s/he will not be able to deliver his best effort to the company (Beer, 1997). The best practices of other organisations may not coincide with the company’s strategy or culture, and new systems and processes designed by outside specialists may not include vital tacit knowledge in the organisation. In the end, this leads to a failure in implementation. An unmet need often serves as the catalyst for motivation, although it may also begin elsewhere. In order to meet the demand, a goal must be set and then achieved. There are ways in which incentives and rewards may be set up to encourage individuals to work harder toward a specific objective. Motivation is also influenced by the social setting in which one is operating (Anwar and Shukur, 2015). An employee’s work environment is defined by the company’s principles and culture, as well as by the leadership and management of their team or workgroup.

A company’s strategic human resource profile is a high-engagement approach that a general manager and his immediate reports may use to examine the alignment of their organisation with their strategy and values in conjunction with lower-level workers in the view of Beer (1997). A “profiler” from HR or the strategic planning division facilitates this process. First, the leadership team must decide on its strategic goals and objectives, which is where the real work starts. It is decided to designate a group of high-potential workers one or two rungs below the top of the organisation to interview various employees and customers in order to learn about the challenges they see in implementing the strategy and how closely management actions match the professed ideals. A three-day profiling meeting is held by the task force, according to Beer (1997), in which the data is sent back to the company’s senior management. There will be a feedback session with the task force on day one, conducted in a fishbowl format for easy exchange of ideas. An in-depth diagnosis is carried out the next day, with the use of a model for diagnosis. During the third day, participants will create a vision for how the company and its management procedures need to be rebuilt, and a number of design teams will participate in the actual redesign activity. To ensure accountability, the general manager will submit task force results and a plan of action for the next level after examining them with the task force.

Maintaining employee satisfaction and engagement in the workplace requires ensuring that people feel linked to the work they perform, inspired and motivated by a goal, and able to cultivate a sense of purpose and meaning. According to Setiawan et al. (2020), high levels of employee work satisfaction may have a positive effect on the company’s bottom line when employees feel supported by their employers. Numerous research has examined whether or not a person’s perception of their employer’s support influences their level of work satisfaction, and the results consistently show that it does. Organisational support describes how much workers think their contributions and well-being are valued and cared for, and the strong perceived organisational support leads to high job satisfaction and decreased turnover. According to Miao (2011), this is corroborated by the finding that employers must show more gratitude for the contributions made by their workers. To be happy at work, employees must appreciate the value of helping their colleagues and the ripple effects that come from working holistically. They must also grasp the concept of working holistic’s actual nature. People who have a work holism mentality are so consumed with the jobs that they engage in unreasonable behaviours such as skipping breaks and working even when they’re too tired to think about anything else. Setiawan et al. (2020) claimed that if an employee is a content with their employment, they are able to execute every duty and responsibility without feeling compelled.

Employees who are happy and positive about their work environment have higher morale than those who are dissatisfied and negative about their workplace. Employee morale refers to how workers feel about themselves and their job in relation to others. Employee morale may be affected by factors such as working environment, managerial support, and job security. For Ali and Anwar (2021), workplace stability is achieved by actual promises that forbid reprisal for employees who break the rules, according to their definition. Assuring employees that they are safe and secure, as well as boosting morale and productivity, is the result of such assurances. This means that the institution must develop a link between the employee’s stability and the enhanced productivity of the institution. Not only do workers expect a salary, but they also want their bosses to treat them well. Employee morale would improve, according to Pancasila, Haryono, and Sulistyo (2020). If their supervisors appreciate their efforts, their workers will be more motivated. An improvement in staff morale and work satisfaction is a direct result of employee appreciation.

5.3 Implementation of the Research

This research would help companies and academics understand that people are an organisation’s most valuable asset since they are capable of growth and improvement at any point in time. It elevates the importance of employees to a new level for a corporation. The research would specifically help Loud Mouth Media to understand that, to have great workers and to be able to go on the right path, it must first put the satisfaction of its employees at the top of its priority list. For a worker to achieve his or her full potential in the workplace, he or she must be satisfied in their position, and the research has concluded with systematic solutions recommended for the job satisfaction issues of the company. Workers and employers both benefit from a better understanding of their level of job happiness, and the findings of job satisfaction surveys have a direct impact on both groups. The managers in every company would realise that if employees are treated well at work, it may be because they feel respected and fulfilled in their jobs.



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Background Research:

Aburumman, O., Salleh, A., Omar, K. and Abadi, M., 2020. The impact of human resource management practices and career satisfaction on employee’s turnover intention. Management Science Letters10(3), pp.641-652.

Ali, B.J. and Anwar, G., 2021. An Empirical Study of Employees’ Motivation and its Influence Job Satisfaction. Ali, BJ, & Anwar, G.(2021). An Empirical Study of Employees’ Motivation and its Influence Job Satisfaction. International Journal of Engineering, Business and Management5(2), pp.21-30.

Alshmemri, M., Shahwan-Akl, L. and Maude, P., 2017. Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Life Science Journal14(5), pp.12-16.

Aziri, B., 2011. Job satisfaction: A literature review. Management Research & Practice3(4).

Bauer, M.R., Harris, L.N., Wiley, J.F., Crespi, C.M., Krull, J.L., Weihs, K.L. and Stanton, A.L., 2016. Dispositional and situational avoidance and approach as predictors of physical symptom bother following breast cancer diagnosis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine50(3), pp.370-384.

Blanz, M., 2017. Employees’ job satisfaction: A test of the job characteristics model among social work practitioners. Journal of evidence-informed social work14(1), pp.35-50.

Butler, J.R., Darbas, T., Addison, J., Bohensky, E.L., Carter, L., Cosijn, M., Maru, Y.T., Stone-Jovicich, S., Williams, L.J. and Rodriguez, L.C., 2017. A hierarchy of needs for achieving impact in international Research for Development. Social Sci. Sustain109.

Corlett, P.R., 2019. Factor one, familiarity and frontal cortex: A challenge to the two-factor theory of delusions. Cognitive neuropsychiatry24(3), pp.165-177.

Cui, L., Wang, Y., Chen, W., Wen, W. and Han, M.S., 2021. Predicting determinants of consumers’ purchase motivation for electric vehicles: An application of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model. Energy Policy151, p.112167.

Davidescu, A.A., Apostu, S.A., Paul, A. and Casuneanu, I., 2020. Work flexibility, job satisfaction, and job performance among Romanian employees—Implications for sustainable human resource management. Sustainability12(15), p.6086.

Hale, A.J., Ricotta, D.N., Freed, J., Smith, C.C. and Huang, G.C., 2019. Adapting Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as a framework for resident wellness. Teaching and learning in medicine31(1), pp.109-118.

Hassard, J., Teoh, K. and Cox, T., 2016. Job satisfaction: Theories and definitions. Available at:[CrossRef][Accessed 4 Oct 2020].

Hee, O.C., Yan, L.H., Rizal, A.M., Kowang, T.O. and Fei, G.C., 2018. Factors influencing employee job satisfaction: A conceptual analysis. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences8(6), pp.331-340.


Holmberg, C., Caro, J. and Sobis, I., 2018. Job satisfaction among Swedish mental health nursing personnel: Revisiting the two?factor theory. International journal of mental health nursing27(2), pp.581-592.

Hopper, E., 2020. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs explained. ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo24.

Huang, W.R., 2019. Job training satisfaction, job satisfaction, and job performance. Career Development and Job Satisfaction, p.25.

Jabeen, F., Friesen, H.L. and Ghoudi, K., 2018. Quality of work life of Emirati women and its influence on job satisfaction and turnover intention: Evidence from the UAE. Journal of Organisational Change Management.

Judge, T.A., Zhang, S.C. and Glerum, D.R., 2020. Job satisfaction. Essentials of job attitudes and other workplace psychological constructs207, p.241.

Lan, J., Mao, Y., Peng, K.Z. and Wang, Y., 2021. The combined effects of positive and negative affect on job satisfaction and counterproductive work behavior. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, pp.1-19.

Liu, Y., Aungsuroch, Y. and Yunibhand, J., 2016. Job satisfaction in nursing: a concept analysis study. International nursing review63(1), pp.84-91.

Lussier, K., 2019. Of Maslow, motives, and managers: The hierarchy of needs in American business, 1960–1985. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences55(4), pp.319-341.

Matei, M.C. and Abrudan, M.M., 2016. Adapting Herzberg’s two factor theory to the cultural context of Romania. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences221, pp.95-104.

McLarty, B.D. and Whitman, D.S., 2016. A dispositional approach to applicant reactions: Examining core self-evaluations, behavioral intentions, and fairness perceptions. Journal of Business and Psychology31(1), pp.141-153.

Moro, S., Ramos, R.F. and Rita, P., 2020. What drives job satisfaction in IT companies?. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management.

Ndulue, T.I. and Ekechukwu, H.C., 2016. Impact of job satisfaction on employees performance: A study of Nigerian breweries PLC Kaduna State Branch, Nigeria. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review33(3820), pp.1-11.

Nemteanu, M.S. and Dabija, D.C., 2021. The influence of internal marketing and job satisfaction on task performance and counterproductive work behavior in an emerging market during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health18(7), p.3670.

PANCASILA, I., HARYONO, S. and SULISTYO, B.A., 2020. Effects of work motivation and leadership toward work satisfaction and employee performance: Evidence from Indonesia. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business7(6), pp.387-397.

Pang, K. and Lu, C.S., 2018. Organisational motivation, employee job satisfaction and organisational performance: An empirical study of container shipping companies in Taiwan. Maritime Business Review.

Park, S., 2017. Motivating raters through work design: Applying the job characteristics model to the performance appraisal context. Cogent Psychology4(1), p.1287320.

Ramli, A.H., 2018. Compensation, job satisfaction and employee performance in health services. Business and Entrepreneurial Review18(2), pp.177-186.

Scanlan, J.N. and Still, M., 2019. Relationships between burnout, turnover intention, job satisfaction, job demands and job resources for mental health personnel in an Australian mental health service. BMC health services research19(1), pp.1-11.

Siengthai, S. and Pila-Ngarm, P., 2016, August. The interaction effect of job redesign and job satisfaction on employee performance. In Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Singh, A., Singh, S.K. and Khan, S., 2016. Job characteristics model (JCM): utility and impact on working professionals in the UAE. International Journal of Organisational Analysis.

Soomro, A.A., Breitenecker, R.J. and Shah, S.A.M., 2018. Relation of work-life balance, work-family conflict, and family-work conflict with the employee performance-moderating role of job satisfaction. South Asian Journal of Business Studies.

Sudiardhita, K.I., Mukhtar, S., Hartono, B., Sariwulan, T. and Nikensari, S.I., 2018. The effect of compensation, motivation of employee and work satisfaction to employee performance Pt. Bank Xyz (Persero) Tbk. Academy of Strategic Management Journal17(4), pp.1-14.

Method Justification and Explanation:

Akhtar, D.M.I., 2016. Research design. Research Design (February 1, 2016).

Alghamdi, A.H. and Li, L., 2013. Adapting design-based research as a research methodology in educational settings. International Journal of Education and Research1(10), pp.1-12.

Broesch, T., Crittenden, A.N., Beheim, B.A., Blackwell, A.D., Bunce, J.A., Colleran, H., Hagel, K., Kline, M., McElreath, R., Nelson, R.G. and Pisor, A.C., 2020. Navigating cross-cultural research: methodological and ethical considerations. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 287(1935), p.20201245.

Daas, P. and Arends-Tóth, J., 2012. Secondary data collection. Statistics Netherlands, The Hague/Heerlen.

Gentles, S.J., Charles, C., Ploeg, J. and McKibbon, K.A., 2015. Sampling in qualitative research: Insights from an overview of the methods literature. The qualitative report20(11), pp.1772-1789.

Goles, T. and Hirschheim, R., 2000. The paradigm is dead, the paradigm is dead… long live the paradigm: the legacy of Burrell and Morgan. Omega28(3), pp.249-268.

Graue, C., 2015. Qualitative data analysis. International Journal of Sales, Retailing & Marketing4(9), pp.5-14.

Kaushik, V. and Walsh, C.A., 2019. Pragmatism as a research paradigm and its implications for social work research. Social sciences8(9), p.255.

Melnikovas, A., 2018. Towards an explicit research methodology: Adapting research onion model for futures studies. Journal of Futures Studies23(2), pp.29-44.

Sahay, A., 2016. Peeling Saunder’s research onion. Research Gate, Art, pp.1-5.

Sanjari, M., Bahramnezhad, F., Fomani, F.K., Shoghi, M. and Cheraghi, M.A., 2014. Ethical challenges of researchers in qualitative studies: The necessity to develop a specific guideline. Journal of medical ethics and history of medicine7.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P.H.I.L.I.P. and Thornhill, A.D.R.I.A.N., 2007. Research methods. Business Students 4th edition Pearson Education Limited, England.

Woiceshyn, J. and Daellenbach, U., 2018. Evaluating inductive vs deductive research in management studies: Implications for authors, editors, and reviewers. Qualitative Research in Organisations and Management: An International Journal.

Žukauskas, P., Vveinhardt, J. and Andriukaitien?, R., 2018. Philosophy and paradigm of scientific research. Management culture and corporate social responsibility121.

Ali, B.J. and Anwar, G., 2021. An empirical study of employees’ motivation and its influence job satisfaction. Ali, BJ, & Anwar, G.(2021). An Empirical Study of Employees’ Motivation and its Influence Job Satisfaction. International Journal of Engineering, Business and Management5(2), pp.21-30.

Anwar, G. and Shukur, I., 2015. The impact of training and development on job satisfaction: a case study of private banks in Erbil. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies2(1), p.65.

Beer, M., 1997. The transformation of the human resource function: Resolving the tension between a traditional administrative and a new strategic role. Human resource management36(1), pp.49-56.

MADAN, S., 2017. MOVING FROM EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION TO EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT. CLEAR International Journal of Research in Commerce & Management8(6).

Miao, R.T., 2011. Perceived organizational support, job satisfaction, task performance and organizational citizenship behavior in China. Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management12(2), pp.105-127.

Pancasila, I., Haryono, S. and Sulistyo, B.A., 2020. Effects of work motivation and leadership toward work satisfaction and employee performance: Evidence from Indonesia. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business7(6), pp.387-397.

Setiawan, R., Eliyana, A., Suryani, T. and Christopher, J., 2020. Creating job satisfaction in a strict organisation (Doctoral dissertation, Petra Christian University).

Smith, K.W., Davis, M., Malone, C. and Owens-Jackson, L., 2020. Faculty that look like me: An examination of HBCU accounting faculty motivation and job satisfaction. Issues in Accounting Education.

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