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1.0 Introduction: 

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BIM is software for creating and modeling processes for the construction process and managing information. It is an exceedingly collaborative procedure that allows architects, contractors, construction professionals, engineers, manufacturers, real-estate developers, and other professionals to design, construct, and plan a structure within a 3D model. Based on the intelligent model enabled by the cloud platform, BIM integrated multidisciplinary analyses, systems, and data to process the digital representation of any assets across the construction lifecycle, from designing to planning and construction to operations. BIM champions coordinate the procedure of generating and analyzing digital models. A BIM Coordinator knows technical skills and the zeal to lead teams in improving the BIM implementation.

2.0 Discussion

2.1 Innovative Approaches to “Integrating Project Delivery”

IPD is a method of delivery that is largely noted for the potential in the integration with BIM (“Building Information Modeling or Management”) on construction projects. Mixing the BIM with the IPD is usually proven to help in improving efficiency, decreasing errors, allowing exploring alternative approaches, and also increasing opportunities of the market on projects (Jacobsson et al, 2018). The actual benefits of the IPD and BIM can only be achieved when they are used together. Therefore, the construction control on the project of IPD can rely on the BIM models of data-rich, with a motive of exploiting BIM in the information flow of integration. The combined use of the IPD and BIM makes sense from a theoretical point of view, but in reality, it faces many substantial roadblocks.

The IPD project is not considered successful as its projects are not easy because it requires attaining a vast range of conditions and establishing numerous support systems. “Integrated Project Delivery combined with Building Information Management” have developed work “hand in hand” for a better and improved effluent way of construction project management, to escalate profit from both the systems in an early stage (Bui et al, 2018). Construction companies from all over the world are acquiring benefits and profits from BIM applications because of their approach to IPD projects. Sustainability evaluations are aided by the usage of BIM application tools. The use of the “BSA methods, LEED, BREEAM, and SBTool,” tools along with the design are providing relevant sustainability merits along with the usage of BIM applications in the IPD projects.

To date, the projects of BIM-based control activities and also very largely depended on the automated tools of data collection which use various methods, such as linking between the model of 3D BIM and the works performed, spatial technologies of sensing, etc (Hijazi et al, 2021). Despite the advantages that are undeniable, these processes usually measure the entire physical items and the components on the sites of construction, overlooking the valuable activities. There are also many problems that occurs while sharing the information control across the project entirely. Such an automated structure of cost must have the ability to distinguish making sure that no profit-related expenses are disguised by overhead costs in labor prices and operating expenses. The automated structure of cost also includes a financial tracking system because all participants in IPD are held equally accountable for the success of the overall project system that gathers all cost data; delivers data in an understandable way; is easily available to all stakeholders; and also identifies who saved money.

IPD integration enables plans and the development firm to clarify and come to conclusions with respect to the real progress scope inside the communicated development records. IDP differs from other strategies in that it necessitates the early and resolute collaboration of the parties who are included in the project specifics. In the end, IPD's goal enables the builder to complete better building more quickly. The project plan's revolutionary methodology enables empowered development support through the use of IPD and BIM methodologies, making it a feasible plan for any project's construction phases.

The innovation of BIM gives an accurate computerized display of the suggested infrastructure or building, with extra functionality like clash detection. Infrastructure projects are presented with many features; the projects have various kinds of frameworks, risks, teams, and constraints. Project teams are told to work on the basis of agreed plans and create budgets on a particular result.

As a result, it allows the production of the project to optimize the quality, convenience, constructability, aesthetics, reasonableness, and consistent lead to the administration lifestyle of a project (Prabhakaran et al, 2021). For the Design-Bid-Build system, alterations development is required among development in order to bring projects in consent with owners' needs. DBB genuinely binds commitments on a regular basis to incentivize a particular individual, rather than a whole project, optimization which leads to disputes among the project partners.

2.2 Differences and the benefits of moving documents based on BIM-based collaborative information and design coordination.

With the rising complexity of building projects and the quality of the building design, the conventional “information island” is a part of the design industry that is getting fewer measures to connect the required design requirements because of insufficient coordination and information sharing. Its main difference in moving the document is the collaborative approach using the BIM-based collaborative design and the promises to acquire affluent ways of designing through communications by analyzing the networking in real-time sharing of the data (Bui et al, 2020). Along with the combination of the BIM, BIM-based design coordination with the collaborative platform of information is developed to emphasize the approach and support the collaborative information design structure (Bui et al, 2018). This process demonstrates the validity of the software. The difference clearly shows the potential of BIM-based information and its effective uses by reducing errors and also by sharing, therefore it improves the quality of the design. The BIM-based construction design coordination platform represents the expected outcomes which provide the support that is needed in the application where the collaborative design is promoted to new project management. The rapid increase in the construction industry promotes preliminary architecture use as the specialty design. To prevent and ensure consistency, the BIM-based design review its conducted work gathers the requirement details and information from the document-based innovation, and provides relevant outcomes (Kassem et al, 2018). The intention of “moving document-based to BIM-based collaborative information and design coordination” is to coordinate the work and allow various participants to transmit information from any medium. However collaborative design is a subject carried in the industry where it describes the notion and principles of the design that includes the management, integration, the usefulness of resources, and application regarding the benefits of information technology.

The advantages of the document-based over BIM-based collaborative information and design coordination lead to greater changes in the design, the conventional information approach has transformed the technology to a three-dimensional design, which is considered a greater potential associated with the cooperation and the specialty of the engineer (Adel et al, 2022). Some most important benefits of the BIM applications software:

“Visualization design”- the real construction components are presented digitally and visually in the BIM applications. The 3D model is taken to examine some images presented by the architecture, and the functional layout is selected for the optimal project source. The construction drawings show the modeling projects are carried out along with the individual professionals and also connect with the model of the coordinative platform. Duplicate and along with the monitoring capability, design changes are monitored. If the connected documents change, then it is immediately reflected in the model.

“Parameterization for modeling”- is the representation of the BIM system its design and the modeling document that is in the database, where the contents are parameterized as well as the interrelations are tagged. The two-way comprehensive and correlation change propagation can realize better quality, relevance, and significant information transmission, which helps in providing digital workflow. Some parameters are as follows.

  • Parametric model- BIM database, where designers are defined to reach the parameters of the complex structure that are related to constraints, which is maintained according to the system.
  • Structural model- this model does not only contain geometrical and physical information, but it also contains information that concerns the structure, as a result, structural models are linked with professional software and structural analyses (Mosse et al, 2022).
  • Automatic drawing-in respect to the conventional design the drawing also needs some modification manually, where the BIM is required to deliver the common changes that are related to the drawings.

Multi-specialty collaboration- the participation and the cooperation of the document-based to BIM-based information design corporation has multi-specialty in the inner concept of the collaborative design. Conventional design collaboration has been the defective aspect where the poor effluent in the information transmission is subjected to error-prone. The problems are solved by the “BIM-based collaborative design information” (Shahruddin et al, 2022). By using the model it can associate with real-life time by sharing necessary information among the team members and by carrying the coordination of the work. BIM thus results in great potential for information design.

2.3 Potential activities include deliverables BIM-based collaborative production and the delivery procedure for design, construction, and operation process.

BIM software exploits the original file formats, where the files are shared inside the common data. Where the data are dropped to provide the party with different information about the federated model in order to coordinate and check for any clashes. For instance, this model is expected to have the same type of deliverables found in the non-BIM process- where the 2D documents are derived and are coordinated, detected, and federated into the set of models. “CIC BIM protocol” refers if there is any discrepancy between the delivered models and also the 2D where the federated data is referred to as the “primary data” resources.

Some key deliverables are-

  • Agreeing with the “Employers Information Requirements (EIR)”
  • “BIM Execution Plan (BEP)”
  • Common Data Environment (CDE)”
  • BS (PAS)- 1192 of parts 1-5
  • “3D-based collaboration”
  • “3D digital survey”
  • COBie
  • “Intelligent 3D libraries”
  • “Intelligent 3D models”

Future additional deliverables that are not published yet but will be a soon increasingly important-

  • Requirements of the contractor's information “3D model take-off”
  • 4D or 5D modeling.
  • “3D model-based meetings”
  • Requirements of the contractor's information
  • “3D model validation”
  • Clash prevention

A well-planned construction project explains the worth of BIM and its yield, the increase in the design quality across its effluent analysis cycle, increasing innovation by using the digital design software, greater fabrications because of the predictable field state, improved in the field effluent by visualizing and planning the construction schedule and to improve in the overall performance in order to facilitate the required portfolio to operate in the asset management, also by space planning to schedule the maintenance by using valuable information which is obtained by the end of the construction phase. Implementing BIM requires thorough planning and detailed fundamental modification procedures. In order to obtain synergy among interoperable BIM concept designs and production fields, it is vital to organize work-sharing regarding cloud technologies and to produce any application and its standardized and secured rules in order to protect the shared project and the work progress.  The preparation of BIM has its major step with respect to the project user and its relation with the main contractors (Papadonikolaki et al, 2019). The identification, the work, and the fundamental aspects are made into action which makes it possible to define the main objectives by setting them correctly and by allowing the parameters to optimize the scenario to its best ability to meet the required purpose.  In order to make use of the BIM, it is necessary to facilitate the BIM and review the process, BIM also includes a worksheet template that includes potential BIM usage, with its field review value, additional notes, responsibility, and capabilities, and decision in accordance to the team if the work to be implemented using BIM. In the process of mapping and clarifying any progressive steps so as to implement the traditional workflows. At the initial stage, the high-level map shows the implementation and the sequence to interact among all the primary users of BIM listed in the project and also allows the members to interact and understand the work processes. The representation of each map is identified and is held responsible by the parties. BIM allows designs and buildings to leverage the technology investment to proceed much more. This process supports the creation and management of information around the life cycle of different projects associated with the federation and multi-disciplinary and building documentation of a common dataset (Boton et al, 2021).

2.4 Discussion of relevant international standards with different utilization of collaborative production with having proper design and constructional project

Building information modeling is mostly a significantly advanced procedure of technology where different advanced process has been taken for understanding the overall process of adoption in the industry with having construction based on the industry. With the process of BIM growth and adoption where different witnessed adaptive processes have been taken with different operations and maintenance based on different organizational management and infrastructure where different it would work with ultimate gain values that are highest with utilizing management and different values are needed (Lindblad et al, 2020). It also occurs with different challenges like a multi-faced adoption process and poor data integration between BIM with various existing management systems where this kind of information is needed. Sometimes there are different gaps based on the knowledge and efficient use of the O and M phases. Furthermore, it occurs with different clarity for understanding the different informational assets of the BIM model system. The particular paper mainly states about different methodological enable extraction based on the requirement and assessment of BIM direct data related function where different data and relationships with different extraction platforms and database architecture are needed for creating a particular framework based on the creation. In the O and M project, different facts are taken in an overlooked way where different stakeholders are taken to understand different overviews based on the lifestyle contribution where it mainly increases over 80% of the infrastructure that is significant in a way of understanding regarding the various different aspects.

BIM today facilitates programs and a design application where the documentation runs from a derivative process and allows schematic design and construction to manage the technology. BIM is an accurate model for construction that is constructed digitally, and when it is completed the computer allows it to generate the model that contains the relevant data and the relevant geometry to support any construction, procurement activities, and fabrication that are required in the execution of the project

(Azzouz et al, 2020). “According to the European BIM” standard tasks, the process relates to formulating the construction industry, people, policy, and technology it also relates to the area where it regulates the procedure and the information management from the international standards.

2.5 Discuss two case studies that have been implemented in BIM project delivery.

From the basis of the BIM project delivery actions; there are two sets of case studies that generalized their functionalities through their variations. Through these case studies, there are lessons that can be learned and informed. Basically from two perspectives, the generalization of the case studies can be evaluated through the medical research lab terms and also through the expenditures regarding the hospital areas and their facilities. As per estimating some conditional factors within the diorama of the information that has arisen during modeling the hospital facilities and also on the research lab by the accumulation of the digital representation of the expenditures that will be presented as a matter of management of functional aspects (Shahruddin et al, 2021).

The case studies through their reviewing scenes are as follows:

Review of Case Study 1:

There are more than 8800 hospital projects that have been undertaken by many modular project builders in the places of northern America for the establishment of the regional medical center where the life expectancy has been proposed at the level of 50 years. Though through much planning, development, and conceptual programming with vital approvals, the project somehow dealt with canceled award sessions, functional disconnection in facilities, and some constraints arise which said that there is the presence of redesigning factors and after the investments from the beginning this happened to be a big problem for the reinvestments within the given delivery time. From here the BIM tools act with their design implementation and also for the documentation by 3D modeling, 2D drawings plan, and many variations for the development of the adjacent bases, correlated color temperature requirements, fire alarm zoning, and many other things. Through their helpful digitized software, they have evaluated the corrected price and the estimations for the expenditures.

Review of Case Study 2:

For the MRL, which had different occupancy, some of the renovations were settled about the existing building and also about the limited members who were from the US continental. The teams for which they are working have both internal and external determination to the organization (Davies et al, 2019). Thus there is proper planning of the work through the BIM. The BIM settled to take 20% of the savings according to the man hours for their division and also about the space calculations which create the learning curve of delivering the key project in the meantime.

Lessons from the case studies: From the case studies it can be said that the application of the BIM by facing the challenges of delivering the project in the meantime is really very important because this gives an insight that they are very time-saving as they work through the pretty high collaborating schedule. Through the best implementation of the software, they have securely acted to make a profit with the little and affordable expenditures for the premises in the medical backgrounds.  Their use of architectural designs is very highest end and advances from the respects of doing utmost better planning. Following and maintaining the propositions of expenditures and settling up the best background are very helpful and also with the best variations of redesigning assimilation they work very accurately.

3.0 Conclusion

With the drastic change in technology and several technologies coming up, BIM is considered the foundation in the digital transformation of the architecture, construction buildings, and engineering industry. BIM visualization provides a 3D model of any project which enables the owners to understand and visualize how construction is going to be constructed. The IPD is introduced in the construction industry where it provides new contractual, organizational content, and behavior in delivering building projects, through integrated improvement and collaborative practices. By using this tool it updates the information flow while proceeding with a project. It also allows continuing with the development ability and streamlining the current processes by enabling the BIM-enabled building management and by completing the task with good efficiency.

4.0 Reference list


Adel, M., Cheng, Z. and Lei, Z., 2022. Integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) with Stick-Built Construction to Implement Digital Construction: A Canadian General Contractor’s Perspective. Buildings, 12(9), p.1337.

Azzouz, A. and Papadonikolaki, E., 2020. Boundary-spanning for managing digital innovation in the AEC sector. Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 16(5), pp.356-373.

Boton, C., Pitti, Y., Forgues, D. and Iordanova, I., 2021. Investigating the challenges related to combining BIM and the Last Planner System on construction sites. Frontiers of Engineering Management, 8(2), pp.172-182.

Bui, N., 2018. BIM technology implementation in Vietnam: an institutional perspective on a bridge project.

Bui, N., 2020. Implementation of Building Information modeling in Vietnamese infrastructure construction: A case study of institutional influences on a bridge project. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 86(4), p.e12128.

Bui, N., Merschbrock, C., Munkvold, B.E. and Lassen, A.K., 2018. An institutional perspective on BIM implementation–a case study of an intercity railway project in Norway.

Davies, K., 2019. Professional pathways in BIM and digital construction.

Hijazi, A., Hardie, M. and Das, P., 2021. Process Improvement Priorities for BIM-related curricula in Australian Universities. 44th, p.195.

Jacobsson, M. and Merschbrock, C., 2018. BIM coordinators: a review. Engineering, Construction, and Architectural Management.

Kassem, M., Abd Raoff, N.L. and Ouahrani, D., 2018. Identifying and analyzing BIM specialist roles using a competency-based approach. In Creative Construction Conference 2018 (pp. 1044-1051). Budapest University of Technology and Economics.

Lindblad, H. and Guerrero, J.R., 2020. Client’s role in promoting BIM implementation and innovation in construction. Construction Management and Economics, 38(5), pp.468-482.

May, I., Pynn, C. and Hill, P., 2018. Arup’s digital future: The path to BIM. In Building Information Modeling (pp. 509-534). Springer, Cham.

Mosse, H.N., 2022. Investigating the Influence of Building Information Modelling (BIM) on Engineering Contract Management in Kenya: The Case of Nairobi County (Doctoral dissertation, JKUAT-COETEC).


Papadonikolaki, E., van Oel, C. and Kagioglou, M., 2019. Organising and Managing Boundaries: A structurational view of collaboration with Building Information Modelling (BIM). International Journal of Project Management, 37(3), pp.378-394.

Prabhakaran, A., Mahamadu, A.M., Mahdjoubi, L., Andric, J., Manu, P. and Mzyece, D., 2021. An investigation into macro BIM maturity and its impacts: a comparison of Qatar and the United Kingdom. Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 17(5-6), pp.496-515.

Shahruddin, S., Zairul, M. and Haron, A.T., 2021. Redefining the territory and competency of architectural practitioners within a BIM-based environment: a systematic review. Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 17(5-6), pp.376-410.

Shahruddin, S., Zairul, M., Haron, A.T. and Fared, M.M., 2022. Performance-based identity in a BIM environment: an architect's perceptions and experiences. Open House International.

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