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Psychological Perspectives Assignment Sample

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Psychological Perspectives Assignment Sample

Introduction

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Perspective is the way of thinking that a man can see in an object. Different people have different perspectives in their life. It is used to represent the way by which people can understand after. Due to this a person is able to define different things according to their thoughts. There is an example that if a person thought that toys are the corrupt place for the child in that case toys are evil. This report is going to share different types of perspectives and there are different definitions in various fields. In this case here a difference is shown between the methods psychiatrists use to recognize human behaviour, treating particular patients in particular conditions.

This entire case is about different types of psychological problems which occur due to the upbringing of a child, genetic problems and also the environment which a child gets from its surroundings. Different perspective helps to see various ways about any matter and it is also used to find out the solution by thinking in different kinds of ways. Moreover, the aim of this case is going to find out the solution for different psychological problems and how these types of issues are overcome by using biological, cognitive and behaviourism theory.

There are various ways to find out to overcome this problem by using various counselling seasons, medicine and meditation. In this study, the methods which are used to analyze the psychological perspective have been discussed. The treatment methods of phobia, such as Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), have been discussed in this study with brief explanation. Due to an unconscious mind various psychological problem can happen and also the psychiatrist is trying to invent the method. Different types of people have different types of thoughts so the method of this psychological problem should be different for different people. It is a very complicated process.

First perspective- Behaviourism learning theory

The behaviourism learning theory is all about the concept of which focused on the student learning. The behavioural learning theory has provided the idea which helps to learn from the environment through interaction. The learning theory explained that, for learning all kinds of behaviour, the environment is responsible. Some inherited factors are also responsible for changing or influencing behaviour. From the behaviourism learning theory it has been seen that the reactions, behaviours of the students in the classroom depends upon the behaviourism. Nowadays, the behaviourism is one of the popular orientations in all over the world among psychologists (Walters, 2020).From the behaviourism, it has been seen that the behaviour is one kind of pure science and the objective of this is to make experiments of natural science. Not only that, the main theoretical goal of the behaviourism is to provide the prediction as well to control. The behaviourism is basically two types- 'Methodological behaviourism' and 'Radical Behaviourism'. From the learning theory, the characteristics have been found; the characteristics of behaviourism are followed below-

  1. The Behaviourism totally depends upon the classical conditioning.
  2. Behaviourism has the ability of operable conditioning (Lam, 2017).
  • The behaviourism has connected with the natural events.
  1. Behaviourism denies the mind's existence.
  2. The behaviour is totally observable and it cannot be expressed through the expressions. 
  3. The behaviourism is all about physical monism.
  • Behaviourism can only be gathered from the learning experiences.

Phobia is classically conditioned by some processes, such as- Unconditioned stimulus (UCS), Unconditioned responses (UCR), Natural stimulates (NS), conditioned stimulates (CS), Conditioned responses (CR) and many more. The classical conditioning is usually consists with three stages. In the case of phobia, the UCS and CS are essential for the development of CR. In the classical condition of Phobia, the CR is pair with the UCS repeatedly. In the other hand, in the discrimination condition, CS usually paired with UCS.

Mowrer's two factor theory has included operant conditioning and the classical learning principle. This theory is all about the fear stimulates and natural stimulators. This theory has helped to provide the development and maintenance of Phobia. Phobia is developed through classical conditioning and it is maintained through operant conditioning. 

The main role of classical conditioning is to create phobia (Masethe et al., 2017). The classical conditioning helps to change the natural stimulates into the conditioned stimulates. The classical conditioning engages the involuntary learning system, which to develop the Phobia. Classical conditioning can occur without any direct experiences. 

The operant conditioning engages the learning by the helped of consequences. The operant conditioning provides the knowledge of phobia maintenance through reducing the fear responses. Not only that the operant conditioning helps to maintain phobia by reinforcing the avoidance responses. The phobia is also maintained by operant conditioning through making them more for the future (Gatej and Vladu, 2019).

The phobia is all about the fear reaction; it can be experienced initially or after conditioning. The phobia is all about one kind of anxiety disorder. One of the best treatments of Phobia is the cognitive behavioural theory, which can be done through the fear reduction technique and exposure technique. One of the best treatments of Phobia is the medication, it is better if it could be done before the therapies. 

Through the Systematic Desensitisation treatment process, the treatment can be done. 

 Systematic Desensitisation is one kind of behavioural therapy which is based upon the classical conditioning. The main aim of this therapy is to eliminate the responses of the phobia and it also provides relaxation.

The Systematic Desensitisation is the primary behavioural treatment procedure of phobia. This treatment procedure helps to make pairing the imaginable exposures through relaxation. This treatment process is basically session wise. The sessions depend upon the present condition of phobia. For the treatment basically four to six sessions are required but it can be extended up to 12 sessions. The main goal of the therapy is to remove the fear completely. The treatment therapy can be continued until remove the fear. The Systematic Desensitisation can be is basically done through the two ways, such as - In vitro and In vivo. In the Systematic Desensitisation treatment procedure, the three phases are present. In the first phase, the patients are taught about the proper techniques of deep muscle relaxation as well as the proper techniques of the breathing exercises. In this stage, the treatment is done by the mediation process. This stage is very important because in the stage included with reciprocal inhibition. For the phobia patients, the mind relaxation is very necessary; in this stage through the mediation the patience gets relief and reduces tension.

In the second stage of this treatment procedure, a fear hierarchy created by the patient, which creates least fear. 

The third stage of this treatment is through relaxation techniques, the patients can control the fear hierarchy. In this stage, the patients feel relaxed and comfortable. When the patient feels that they have got the comfort ability, they go to the next stage - hierarchy. If the patient did not feel relaxation then the patient again goes to the previous stage of the treatment procedure. Systematic Desensitisation is one of the best effective treatments of phobia. Recently this treatment applied to between 25%-40% of students. A good result has been found in the hierarchy stage of treatment.

The Systematic Desensitisation provides support to the behavioural perspective through the relaxation procedure. When the patient achieves relaxation, the anxiety reduces. This is a lengthy procedure, but it is very effective to reduce fear and anxieties.

In the laboratory experiment, the researchers conducts the highly experiments so that, it helps to provide the solution of the particular disease. In the other hand, the laboratory experiments provide the replicable opportunities, which helps to increase the several experiments. The laboratory experiment provides a lot of opportunities for participating student. The lab experiments provide the opportunities for learning a lot of things, such as - the procedures, the behaviour, the instruction maintenance in the laboratory and outside the laboratory and many more. Moreover, the laboratory experiments help to establish the knowledge about the cause and the effects (Lou et al., 2020). The several methods also used to apply in the lab experiments; it also helps to provide the necessary data and information, which is very helpful for the future lab experiments. In the lab experiments, the direct controls can be improved. The experiments provide the opportunities for the changes of ceteris paribus in exogenous variables.

In the laboratory experiment, a lot of disadvantages are also presents, such as -the laboratory experiment is one kind of artificial, which means it does not reflect the real life. Not only that, the laboratory experiment provides the less ecological validities. As a result, the chances of findings real life settings are very less. A lot changes in behaviours have been seen in the lab experiments. In the lab experiment, one of the major difficulties is the demand characteristics.

For the development of phobia the evolutionary theory is very effective. The evolutionary theory helps to provide the development of phobia by providing the adaptive mechanism. Not only that, the evolutionary theory helps to eliminate the innate fears, within the habits of the patients of phobia. From the experiments of evolutionary theory, it has been seen that, the innate fears is develops the phobias. The most fears of human are- spider and snake fear. After analyzing about the evolutionary theory, it has been seen that the mammal passes though the three stages for the development of phobia. In the first stages, the most intense phobia produced and in the last stage of the theory, it involves the ontological fears.

Second perspective -Cognitive

Cognitive perspective is considered as the belief that psychology is termed as pure science and hence, research methods need to be always scientific. The major feature of this perspective is thinking and then it is linked with the mental processes which are the forgetting, perception, memory, language and attention. The main influence takes place on human emotion and behaviour because of the processing of information in mind. This perspective has the below characteristics:

  1. The mind processes information actively through the senses that includes taste, touch and many more (LeMoult and Gotlib, 2019). 
  2. Responses and stimulus are considered as the complex processes that need to be studied scientifically. 
  • Humans are perceived as the system of data processing
  1. The function of human mind and computer operations are similar. This means they encode the information, stores it and then gives the output. 

Internal mental processes are a combination of memory, attention and decision-making. In context to this, there are computer and theoretical models that explain the mental process significantly. Information processing model has mentioned that the human mind is like a computer because there is a relationship between encoding of incoming information, manipulation of the information and then output is reflecting. In addition to this, the role of schema is very important in this perspective. It is related to the present situation as in how to act in that particular situation and what expectations a human is having in that situation (Tuscher and Abdelkafi, 2017). 

The cognitive approach focused on the beliefs of the people and their behaviours. The depression basically comes through the systemic negative bias in the time of thinking anything. Depression basically depends upon a lot of reasons, such as -negative self-schemas, cognitive biases, negative automatic thinking and many more.

A schema is one kind of a package of knowledge, where all the data and information stores. The schema has basically developed since childhood. The negative thoughts, negative self schema produces depression. The negative self schema can come from the negative experiences, such as - criticism from any close people or teachers. The negative self-schemas of a person help to push in the negative ways, which could be the reason for cognitive bias (Garca-Batista et al., 2018).

The negative thinking also comes to mind for several reasons, such as- the negative results, failure and many more. As a result of this, it creates depression. Not only have that, as a result of the depression, the negative thought, anxiety and many more produced. 

The depressed people think about the negative thoughts and ignore the positive thoughts. The process of avoiding the positive thoughts and thinking about the negative thoughts is called Cognitive Bias. A depressed person has the abilities of overgeneralization (Thumat et al., 2018).

It has been seen that the negative self schemas and cognitive biases basically maintain the negative triad. As a result of the negative triad, people suffer from depression, which comes automatically. The negative triad consists of the three components, such us - The self, the world and the future.

From Beck's Cognitive trial it has been seen that depression has three components, such as- the cognitive bias, negative triad and negative self-schemas. According to Beck, a person suffers from depression due to some reasons, such as - the previous bad experiences, the negative thoughts, mental stress and many more. As a result of this, the cognitive bias produces. Due to these reasons, the people who are suffering from depression cannot think positive thoughts.

The depression is all about the result of the imbalance of brain chemicals. In the case of depression, a lot of multiple layers of brain are involved. The depression is linked with the problems, especially with the norepinephrine, dopamine and neurotransmitters serotonin. The measurement of the level of neurotransmitters for a person's brain and the activities is very difficult. In the depression, the neurotransmitter serotonin is basically involved to control many major body functions, such as- aggression, sexual behaviour, eating, mood, sleep and many more. From the recent experiment it has been seen that, the lack of the production of serotonin can be the reason of depression, it could be the reason of feel suicidal for some people.

The CBT treatment is one kind of psychoanalysis treatment for the depressed patients. The CBT treatment completes their therapy treatment procedure within the 10 to 20 sessions (Li et al., 2018). In this session the therapist at first finds the patterns of the depressions. In the CBT treatment procedure, a lot of patterns are found such as - for some patients the Evidence based cognitive behavioural therapy treatment apply.

The CBT helps to manage the patents who are suffering from the phobia. In the cognitive behavioural therapy, the therapist analyzes the stages of phobia. The treatment can also be done by conducting the session for the patients. Not only that, CBT has been done by some techniques, such as- Mindfulness practice. The mindfulness practices are one kind of cognitive behaviours. In this treatment technique, the people usually disengage from the negative thoughts and increase the attention to the present situation.

Through the pharmacotherapy treatment procedure, the therapist knows the details of their depression. In the CBT treatment procedure, sometime OPD (Out patient Department) is also planned during the session. The duration of each session is 45 minutes to 1 hour. The session can be varied. Sometimes in the CBT treatment, the therapist can change treatment settings to reduce the depression of the patients. Sometimes the suicidal patients hospitalized for self-harm. 

The clinical interviews data is used to assess the patients for making a diagnosis. The medical practice students gather data and information, which will be very helpful for their study. From the clinical interviews the various symptoms of the depression helps to know. The interviews help to provide the knowledge of supplementary information about the depression. The Hospitality Anxiety and Depression or HAD Scale helps to provide the advantages of the medical students, who are practicing about depression. From the HAD, the other members who connected with hospitalities, can gather data and information. HAD provides the information of the success and the failure. HAD has provided the details about the tools which have been sussed to treat the depressed patients. The clinical interviews provide the facilities to show the treatment procedure. Not only that, the interviews can easily observe the facial expression of the depressed patients. In the interview, through the scoring and the test drives the interviewer can notes of the depressed patients. The clinical interview process, the interviewer can easily analyze the patients practically. Through the clinical interview procedure, the interviewer can easily ask questions directly to the patient. HAD and clinical interview helps to gather the information of the medical practitioners.

Third perspective - Biological 

It is one of the major things that involve the immune systems, nervous systems and genetic systems. This is also known as biopsychology and in this branch includes neurology and genetics. For recognize this perspective issues psychiatrist used some steps that is:

  1. How people behave after getting a trauma and how that trauma influences that person's brain.
  2. By analysing twins to determine which symptoms are genetic and which is environmental. 
  3. Also analyse how degenerative brain and disease impact on people's act and behaviour. 
  4. Due to this perspective a people can learn to judge the people and also handle the different kind of situation.

Various numbers of factors are related with schizophrenia that are endocrinological, metabolic, and virological and also auto immunological factors. This helps to control the function of the neuromotor transmitter system and also in the structural disorders of the brain. By analysing the genetic variation schizophrenia can be occurred and as well as other different disorders can be happened. Due to this schizophrenia, a person is not able to communicate with people in normal way. That people are mentally disturbed, that patient can listen the sounds which is abnormal to common people. For this disorder there is no particular treatment without love and care. If there is some family issue then the child of that family may suffer with this problem. The percentage of these issues described below: 

  1. Bipolar disorders schizophrenia (medicalnewstoday.com, 2020)- 15%
  2. Depression and schizophrenia- 9% 
  3. And autism and schizophrenia- 3%

There one aspect that the biological explanation of schizophrenia refers to the fact that this illness is transmitted from parents to children by genes. There is variation in genes likely contribute to risk of developing this schizophrenia. In maximum cases multiple genes are changed with small effects each. This is the combination to increase the risk to develop this disorder. 1% greater chance of developing the schizophrenia has been found. If the family of the child is suffering from schizophrenia then the child is also affected with it. The symptoms of this disorder, according to biology, is that people who are suffering with schizophrenia can hear noise and voices, become paranoid and also start to believe that on unusual power, they think that others control their thoughts (Gross et al., 2019). 

The treatment of this schizophrenia is drug therapy which is prescribed by the doctor after analysing the patient and considering the dosages by recognizing the stages of schizophrenia. On other hand a meditation the doctors are prescribed most is antipsychotics for schizophrenia (webmd.com, 2020). The symptoms of these dieses are - hallucination, delusion. That drugs work on the brain as serotonin and dopamine. Schizophrenia is such a disorder that affects the thinking of the people and it can be overcome also by talk therapy. This is also needed that the family environment must be healthy otherwise talk therapy cannot be succeeded in this case. Doctors are not also sure what the exact reason for this disorder is so the doctor considered love and medication to overcome this issue. There are some drugs which are effective for this schizophrenia, those are Serotonin and Dopamine. With this drug therapy there is also need medication like Anti Tremor and Antipsychotic. Doctor highly recommended giving a healthy atmosphere and trying to build a good relationship with the patient. Doctors are able to recover the patient, if those patients get love and care. In this case there is some drugs are used as medicine of this problem. Those drugs affect the patient's brain. If this dosage is use in regular basis then patients become addicted.

Schizophrenia has ho particular medicine and it has no exact reason that a person can be affected. This schizophrenia is also called antipsychotics. The medicine of this disorder is - love, caring and medication. The symptoms of this disorder are hallucination and delusion. The drugs are used to come down for a patient for the affect the brain such as serotonin and dopamine. There is a new study that is found to reduce the connection in schizophrenia. A person with schizophrenia has the connection between the living brain and the neurons that comes out from a research for the first time. This information comes out from the advanced scanning of the brain. There are five types of schizophrenia that are:

  1. Paranoid type.
  2. Catatonic type.
  3. Disorganised type.
  4. Residual type.

The research about schizophrenia spectrum illness, also has added important insight into the ethicology, schizotypal disorder and neuropathology. It can be facilitated after recognizing by the intervention and identification (Brar et al., 2020). From the modern scientific data schizophrenia is proven as an unequivocally biological disorder like bipolar and Alzheimer's disease. The exact reason for schizophrenia is unknown and the research can help to reach a destination that the combination of environmental, psychological and physical factors can help to make a person's personality. Most of the people can be prone to schizophrenia and also emotional and stressful life may be triggered by a psychotic part. This disorder has no particular medicine and treatment procedure but the delusion may go away after taking the treatment and usually after six weeks the hallucination also can be reduced (Green et al., 2019). Lionel Aldridge is a renowned person who suffered from schizophrenia but after taking the right treatment and taking medication developed his illness and belonged to a normal life. Many people become influenced and motivated by his journey. 

Magnetic resonance imaging is the method by which an image of the brain comes out but from this schizophrenia cannot be recognized and also the physician prescribes this test for the regular check-up. With the help of their doctor, they can understand that the body function of the patient is normal. By CT scan and MRI, the schizophrenia cannot be recognised (Morgan et al., 2020). This disorder may be recognised by the behaviour of the patient and also it has a great impact on the patient's attitude. In 2013 the scientist and the doctors found that netmakers for verity of mental health conditions could be recognised by the MRI. The other scan of the brain with schizophrenia finds the difference from normal function of the brain. By this the people can be recognised who are suffering with schizophrenia. This schizophrenia cannot be recognized previously but with modern science this disorder might be identified in some cases but there is no surety. The parietal lobe and the front lobe volume can be reduced. Most Of the time schizophrenia is not identified with it. People with Schizophrenia have enlarged ventricles in their brain. It is identified by MRI and the report become prominent in this test. Due to the reason and no particular medicine the doctors prescribed love, care and medication to overcome from this disorder. The drugs which are used in this schizophrenia disorder affect the people's brain and patients become addicted. Without that drug patients cannot be survived. So, at the first stage psychiatrics does not want to prescribe these drugs. Schizophrenia disorder cannot be cured totally but by care, love of family the patient may have developed their mental status from previous. In CT scan and MRI that is unable to identify those issues but for regular check-up doctors are recommended to do that. In this case it is used to identify any internal issues of brain and body but this is a psychological problem. 

MRI is used to scan internal view of the body so it is very helpful in medical science. On other hand a ray which is used to do this function that ray is very harmful for body tissues. MRI provides better soft tissues and muscle. It can provide better report than any other scan report. It is also better to imagining bones, fat and muscles.


Conclusion 

There are only 15% people who have genetic psychological problems but the other people face this problem due to their upbringing and cultural differences and also the atmosphere that the children have brought up. By analysing the entire case it is very clear that today's generation is mostly affected psychologically due to loneliness. Most of the parents have no time for their child and it leaves a bad impact on the children. From the whole case there are various psychological issues that have been discussed like behaviourism, cognitive and biological. This disorder is not happening in one day, it is the outcome for a while. It explains the behaviourist perspective and the reason behind it. It also reveals the maintenance and conditioning of behaviourism issues. It also evaluates the method to solve this psychological problem. On other hand there is another issue which is discussed that is cognitive perspective. The symptom of this problem is negative thinking, negative schemes and cognitive bias. This case has already shared the usefulness of this perspective and also elaborating the depression using research evidence and so on. Moreover, the symptoms of schizophrenia also explained and also the reason behind it also revels. It occurred by genetic faults, excessive dopamine and also damage in certain areas of the brain. A research has been done to evaluate these issues and also explain the remedy that overcomes this problem with the help of a psychiatrist.

Reference list

Brar, P., Kalarchian, M. and Beck, D., 2020. S191. A SCOPING REVIEW AND PHENOMENOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF METACOGNITIVE TRAINING FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA. Schizophrenia Bulletin46(Supplement_1), pp.S111-S111.

Garca-Batista, Z.E., Guerra-Pea, K., Cano-Vindel, A., Herrera-Martnez, S.X. and Medrano, L.A., 2018. Validity and reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in general and hospital population of Dominican Republic. PloS one13(6), p.e0199750.

Gatej, E.R. and Vladu, A.N., 2019. The Effects of Communication by Interactive Road Signalling on Behavior While Driving. Romanian Journal of Psychological Studies (RJPS).

Green, M.F., Horan, W.P. and Lee, J., 2019. Nonsocial and social cognition in schizophrenia: current evidence and future directions. World Psychiatry18(2), pp.146-161.

Gross, J.J., Uusberg, H. and Uusberg, A., 2019. Mental illness and well?being: an affect regulation perspective. World Psychiatry18(2), pp.130-139.

Lam, R., 2017. Enacting feedback utilization from a task-specific perspective. The Curriculum Journal28(2), pp.266-282.

LeMoult, J. and Gotlib, I.H., 2019. Depression: A cognitive perspective. Clinical Psychology Review69, pp.51-66.

Li, J.M., Zhang, Y., Su, W.J., Liu, L.L., Gong, H., Peng, W. and Jiang, C.L., 2018. Cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment-resistant depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry research268, pp.243-250.

Lou, C., Zhou, X., Lebowitz, E.R., Williams, L.L. and Storch, E.A., 2020. Assessing Symptom Accommodation of Social Anxiety Symptoms Among Chinese Adults: Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of Family Accommodation Scale AnxietyAdult Report. Frontiers in Psychology11.

Masethe, M.A., Masethe, H.D. and Odunaike, S.A., 2017. Scoping Review of Learning Theories in the 21th Century. In Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science, San Francisco, CA, EUA.

medicalnewstoday.com, (2020), Mental disorders linked by genetic traits, Accessed from:https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/264715#1 [Available on: 17 December 2020]

Morgan, S.E., Young, J., Patel, A.X., Whitaker, K.J., Scarpazza, C., van Amelsvoort, T., Marcelis, M., van Os, J., Donohoe, G., Mothersill, D. and Corvin, A., 2020. Functional MRI connectivity accurately distinguishes cases with psychotic disorders from healthy controls, based on cortical features associated with brain network development. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging.

Tuscher, K. and Abdelkafi, N., 2017. Visual tools for business model innovation: Recommendations from a cognitive perspective. Creativity and Innovation Management26(2), pp.160-174.

Thumati, P., Kerstein, R., Yiannios, N., Radke, J. and Sutter, B., 2018. Changes in the Beck Depression Inventory-II scores of TMD subjects after measured occlusal treatment. Advanced Dental Technologies & Techniques, p.5019.

Walters, S., 2020. 14.4 Behaviourist and Social-Cognitive Perspectives on Personality. Psychology-1st Canadian Edition.

webmd.com, (2020), Antipsychotics: Medications That Tame Psychosis, Accessed from:https://www.webmd.com/schizophrenia/medicines-to-treat-schizophrenia#1 [Available on: 17 December 2020]

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