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Child labor harms children's health and general wellbeing, especially in its worst form. Efforts of growth by developing countries are perceived to be a major obstacle. This reduces the likelihood of a well paying job in the future through poor comparative knowledge and skills. In particular in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the ILO Conventions the ILO are international legislative instruments that tackle child labor issues and call for an end to their worst types. In some developed countries, pending foreign and domestic child labor initiatives, the situation remains socially acceptable. The problem of too many child workers is still facing Bangladesh. The key cause of increased child labor is now a few days of poverty. Bangladesh has taken a number of measures in recent years to resolve the crisis, including legal action. This paper reviews the situation of child labor in Bangladesh and the current child labor legal system and reveals a lag behind Bangladesh's legal and political structure.
Statistical surveys confirm that in Bangladesh, pay or help for a family farm or business is usual. In 2002/2003, the country in which most comprehensive statistical investigation was conducted was 7.4 million children aged between 5 and 17 years, of which 3.2 million were in employment as children's labour under circumstances. The research also included 1.3 million children in risky work. A more recent study showed the prevalence of child labor in Bangladesh.
Figure 1 Child Labour Participation Rate, Aged 10-14 Years
Source- Quattri and Watkins, 2019
It is estimated that this study offers employment for 3.55 million children between the ages of 7-14 and 2.8 million children between 15 and 17 years, for both wages and benefits and jobs in family businesses and farmers. This report estimates a total of 5.1 million child labor children. Roughly 1,3 million aged 5 - 11 years in all kinds of jobs were hired. More than 1.7 million people aged between 12-14 worked more than 14 hours a week every day and worked more hours than "light jobs." Finally, there were 2 million people aged between 15 and 17 engaged in risky jobs. However, it is important to remember that the study cannot take into account the worst forms of child labor, other than hazardous labor, such as slavery, prostitution work and criminal activities, because of data restrictions (Rahman, et. al., 2019).
The study shows that the likelihood of working children is similar in rural and urban areas in Bangladesh. Since the majority of the population lives in rural areas, it is not shocking that the majority of working children live in rural areas. But the proportion of working children in rural and urban areas is similar. The research has indicated that the workforce share of children is 20% over the age of 14. Working hours often increase with age. In total, the study found a higher number of boys than girls.
Figure 2 Poverty and Hazardous Child Labor in Bangladesh
Source- Islam, et. al., 2019
The argument by Brasilia stresses in reality, the government of Bangladesh has taken a range of measures to deal with child labor. The national policies and laws, the country has signed, ratified and resolved the problems. It highlights that the governments are in charge of measures for preventing and eradicating child labor and particularly the worst kind of child rescue in partnership with employers' and labor organizations as well as NGOs and other civil society actors and the most recent formal international child labor policy paper. However, a thorough analysis reveals a deficiency in the legal system of child labor. The following paragraphs outline Bangladesh's obligations to international child labor as well as national child labor legislation. By means of ratification conventions, the Bangladeshi State is obliged to enforce the relevant provisions in its internal legal system. The State shall enact national laws that apply the requirements and shall act as provided by policies and program for the application and execution of those laws. Any failure to do this will lead to the international responsibility of Bangladesh under international law (Biswas, et. al., 2019).
The above report concluded that Legal reforms in Bangladesh have been taken in recent decades to solve the issue of child labor. The United Nations CRC and the International Labor Organization Convention No182 have been ratified, and the Labor Act 2006, the 2012 Deterrence and Suppression Act and the Children's Act 2013 have been ratified. However, even in the successful implementation of these agreements, decisive gaps remain in the overall legal system for child labor. In addition, the execution of these acts remains an immense task. Other signs of progress include the introduction of the 2010 National Policy on the Elimination of Child Labor and the national action plan (NAP) and the 2010. Bangladesh has also promised to update its child labor data through the implementation of a new child labor census after the most comprehensive official study was undertaken on child labor from 2002-2003. However, further steps should also be taken in the policy area in order to handle child labor effectively. In addition, it also takes long periods. In short, there are too many challenges to be overcome, despite the successes. These shortcomings and gaps are outlined in the following paragraphs and how to correct them.
Biswas, R.K., Khan, J.R. and Kabir, E., 2019. Trend of child marriage in Bangladesh: A reflection on significant socioeconomic factors. Children and Youth Services Review, 104, p.104382.
Elahi, S., Hosen, M.D. and Nizam, M.E.H., 2019. Comparative analysis in RMG industries before and after Rana Plaza incident in Bangladesh. J Textile Eng Fashion Technol, 5(4), pp.202-211.
Islam, M., Alim, M.A., Hawlader, S.C., Mohiuddin, M. and Sarker, A.K., 2019. Assessment and Analysis of the Overall Situation of Women and Children: Bangladesh Scenario. International Journal of Public Administration, 4(1), pp.026-030.
Quattri, M. and Watkins, K., 2019. Child labour and education-A survey of slum settlements in Dhaka (Bangladesh). World Development Perspectives, 13, pp.50-66.
Rahman, M.A., Rahman, M.S., Alam, M.A., Hasan, M. and Rahul, M.I.H., 2019. Child labor in the Era of Sustainable Development: insights from Jhenaidah City of Bangladesh.
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