Get free samples written by our Top-Notch subject experts for taking assignment help services.
Operational management refers to the management of corporate processes in order to ensure that an enterprise is as effective as possible. The goal is to turn resources and energy as effectively as probableinto products and services in order to increase an organisational benefit. Operational management departments aim to optimise the cost and sales in order to generate the best probable net operating margin. On the other hand, management of tasks for a project requires coordinating and managing the resources of an organization to accomplish a particular mission, event or job. It may involve a one-time initiative or a continuous operation, and regulated properties including employees, financing, technologies and property rights (Lon?ar, 2017). It is also connected with fields of architecture and construction and more recently healthcare and IT, which usually have a complicated collection of parts to be constructed and configured to deliver a working device. Therefore, due to significantly and specifically evaluate different aspects and theories and models of operation management Tesco has been taken to study. Also, to analyse the different features and effectiveness of the project management process, this study has taken the source of Crossrail, which is the biggest railway infrastructure project in Europe that is delivering the Elizabeth line across the UK.
1.1 Implementation of Strategies for Continuous Improvement Plan
1.2 Application of Six Sigma Method and Lean Principlesto Justify the Implemented Strategy
Six Sigma Method
The policy of Tesco is to exploit the marketing mix components in order to construct strategic advantages and to have a favourable impact on revenue. The organisational sells a wide variety of items and over the past three years, it has done so. Today, its shops provide food, clothes, investment banking, gadgets, home furnishings decoration. According to the statement of Kumar(2018), Commodity markets vary, but for the respective goods, the organization retains average prices close to retail rates.A business approach that differentiates Tesco from other retailers is also a cost aspect of marketing-mix. In accordance with its "Every Little Help" advertising messages, the corporation emphasizes narrow percentages which enable it to generate significant profits and make significant savings to consumers when buying in bulk. In several cities worldwide, consumers can obtain Tesco facilities at their shops. The organisation also sells internet goods to its clients.As per the statement of de Sousa Jabbour et al.(2018), Online, Tesco delivers the goods Tesco specific packaged with its own name for in-store sales; consumers get the goods Tesco Express, Tesco Metro, Tesco Compact and the Tesco Superstore in separate category classes. The labels are supplied by the shop size and the possible items contained in the shop. Consumers, therefore, depend on name shops to impact their shopping needs. The ultimate plan advises organisational advertising operations.
Moreover, Tesco during their organisational business operation in both the domestic and the international market utilises and implements different kinds of operation management theories, concepts or models. Due to which, the organisation has been able to grab a vast range of the market with engaging a huge amount of consumer's interest with their business. According to the viewpoint of Kumar(2018), the utilisation of six sigma operation management method during the organisational business operation provides sufficient guidance to fetch the extensive improvement within its organisational business. Additionally, the utilisation of the six sigma model, the organisation gets numerous positive impacts on their sales. Due to which, Tesco has been able to enhance its profit margin during their organisational business operation.Also, the implementation and utilisation of lean principles for operation management improvement process help the organisation for developing the business operation practices within the fastest way. Through which, the organisation sufficiently gets the ability to target the consumer and can focus on their fundamental needs. Moreover, by utilising these principles, the Tesco has got the ability to encourage the consumers by providing advance and digital services to them.As per the viewpoint of de Sousa Jabbour et al.(2018), to develop the organisational business operation, Tesco has to develop its organisational supply chain management system and should focus on its product quality and the cost of the product for grabbing a vast range of consumer base with their business.
However, during the implementation and utilisation of these operation management tools and strategies within the organisational culture of Tesco, it is evident that the organisation gets sufficient profits, but in some cases it faces numerous hindrances. Likely, the utilisation of six-sigma is very costly and on the other hand, the utilisation of lean principles is very time consuming (Kumar, 2018). These two operation management tools at one hand provide extensive benefits; however, on the other hand it grabs a vast amount of time and cost from the organisation. Therefore, the organisation needs to prepare an effective plan for prominently implementing these tools of operation management improvement.
1.4 Analysis of the Effectiveness of Continuous Improvement in Operation Management
2.1 Implementation of the Project Life Cycle for Managing the Project
The Project Life Cycle
The first stage of the project management life cycle initiates the project strategy byclarifying the intuitions and project objectives of the undertaken project or what the project aims to address (Picciotto, 2020). The opportunities are identified and a proper strategic plan is outlined which projects the probable solutions of the opportunities of the project. The proper set of responses are aptly documented and adjusted with the requirements of the project. The recommended solutions are considered and approved by the committee of experts. Crossrail Ltd started the industrial project of the Elizabeth line with a set of objectives which underlines certain criterion (Larsson and Larsson, 2020). After the proposed solutions are accepted, a project is established and a project manager assigned to implement the approved solution.
The key results and the working groups involved are recognised and the project team gets shape. The project manager then receives permission for extensive preparations (de etal., 2020). The design and maintenance of the Elizabeth line demonstrate a complicated project strategy as is represented by contractual agreements expected which were expected to deliver processes and equipment, a highly dynamic schedule of the additional projects were considered for management and completion of the project. Crossrail Ltd so far had allocated 23 contracts for the framework and over 80 contracts for construction and logistics.
The objectives of Crossrail Ltd in constructing the Elizabeth line was to
Planning is the second stage of the project management process (Klein and Müller, 2020). In this phase, the solutions are further established and placed according to the strategic outline. Steps are integrated to meet the objectives. The resources and equipment required for the completion of the tasks are recognised and a proper budget is estimated. A specific time frame is also decided to manage and deliver the tasks according to the particular time (Bushuiev and Kozyr, 2020). Although the Crossrail initially decided to follow a design-build delivery method which would transform the risks to the contractors later the idea was rejected and a traditional or construction management method was adapted which involved a detailed design concerning the main structure of the project and special construction packages were allocated regarding the project.
Implementation (Execution) Phase
In this stage, the project tasks are put into action. The actions are placed according to the project strategy. Project implementation includes controlling and monitoring. Continuous adjustments are made according to the requirements. The progress report is constantly provided to the authority (Atkinson, Crawford and Ward, 2006). The stakeholders are constantly given the required information regarding operational growth. Detailed procurement strategies were developed and followed to define the procurement contracts for supply chain management for key construction, advancement and support services, tunnelling services, stations and rail networks which were operated by the integrated programme management team (Munns and Bjeirmi, 1996). An assurance software for technically ensured operating organisations, including the supply chain, the structure managers, and the operator was developed for the documentation and description of different obligations.
In the finalisation of the comprehensive plan, an optimised early contractors' engagement phase was developed and carried out to get the advantage of contractors (Atkinson, 1999). When the main tunnelling started, the objectives became more centred on the maintenance of the complicated interfaces between subway drives, stations, portal and constructions and the local authority and participants who were involved and affected those operations. Authorities and project funding were given by Crossrail Act and consent of Parliament in 2008 with the support of the joint patrons including "Transport for London (TfL)" and the "Department for Transport (DfT)".An entire £14·8billion funding package was granted for the project.
The last phase of the project involves the handing over of the deliverables to the users and closing supplies and also communicating with the authorities for resource management, releasing the resources, providing accurate documents to the authorities (Bannerman, 2012). Operations of the Elizabeth line have now reached its dynamic final level, at a time of major instability owing to the threats and potentials of further outbreaks of the Coronavirus. Crossrail has stepped up its efforts to complete outstanding development and trial running assurance actions.
Figure 1: The Project Life Cycle
(Source: Van et al., 2012)
2.2 Conduction of Review and Critique for the Implementation of PLC Concept
The execution strategy of Crossrail was designed in the inner document "Crossrail Project Delivery Strategy" in the year 2009. The strategy was founded on the model in which the entire operations would be engineered, procured, developed and commissioned by Crossrail and its industry partners. The series of integral projects were accomplished by the combined delivery group in which Crossrail was accountable for distribution and declaration of the necessities of the sponsors (Van etal., 2012). Crossrail got involved in the agreement of "Network Rail", "London Underground" and other parties as it was essential to accomplish the program. Crossrail also clarified the health and security, ecological and superiority regime under which the entire program was executed. Crossrail managed the financial resources and findings according to the requirements of the project. It also integrated different programs and also managed public relations.
The project was also established and developed on the basis of sustainability. A performance declaration was recognised as a self-determining measure to the agreement of the contractors' contract-related essentials (Larsson and Larsson, 2020). The preparation of a technical assurance policy issued to record and describe these commitments and various tasks between Crossrail, the supply chain, the supervisors of infrastructures and the operator. In order to achieve the benefit of contractors in the completion of the specific design an optimised early contractors intervention method was designed and implemented. When every tunnelling and station contract was signed, the contractor and the designer had a duration of advanced six weeks to evaluate the design for security, constructively and effectiveness.
The findings of the design evaluations by the contractor then affected the end product and the building schedule of the contractor (Bushuiev and Kozyr, 2020). Via its designers, Crossrail held the ultimate construction liability to ensure that the finished design included all responsibilities and specifications. In order to ensure continuity among specifications and outputs in parallel contracts, the original disciplinary framework was used during the design, contracting, and operational stage.
2.3 Evaluation of the Rationale for Project Methodologies, Tools and Leadership within the PLC
Waterfall Project Management Methodology
The Crossrail project in Elizabeth line went through a series of complicated sequences. The entire approach of the project was centred on a correlated process of multiple phases (Atkinson, Crawford and Ward, 2006). At least five to seven phases are adopted in the waterfall model which operate in a strict linear sequence, where a process does not commence before the previous phase is finished. The exact names of the stages differ, but they were initially identified in separate names by their inventor, Winston W. Royce.
Requirements: The core feature of the waterfall model is that at the initiation of the procedure, all consumer provisions are collected, permitting any other step to be organised before the cycle is finished without any further client interaction. It is supposed that at this point, all conditions can be gathered.
Design: The design procedure is preferably separated into two sub-categories: "physical" and "conceptual" design (Munns and Bjeirmi, 1996). The logical concept process is where suggesting and hypothesising ideas are conceivable. The physical design process refers to the process of transformation of theoretical principles and schemes into practical requirements.
Implementation:Implementation step is where project managers and associated constructors integrate and create real functionality with the limitations and criteria from the earlier stages.
Verification: This phase is where the project is patterned and monitored by the client to confirm that it satisfies the provisions set at the beginning of the project (Atkinson, 1999). Through presenting the complete product to the customer, the project aim is accomplished. Crossrail has not yet started the railway services as the operations at the last stage of the project is going on and due to the external obligations concerning the Corona Virus outbreak, the project cannot be opened for public usage. However, the Crossrail authority is aiming to start its services in 2021.
Maintenance: Maintenance is when the project gets open for the customers and the clients come up with faults which occurred during the project development phase (Bannerman, 2012). These issues are resolved by the authority until the clients are satisfied with the project outcome.
Figure 2: Waterfall Model
(Source: Atkinson, Crawford and Ward, 2006)
Crossrail aimed to recruit management with best practises and Systems of delivery in the management of agreements (Van etal., 2012). Conventional project management approach such as work "breakdown structure" with related cost regulator and "financial management", a combined project management timetable, "commodity-based earned value reporting" and a robust trend and "change control process" was applied in this project.
Guides for best practise were organised and released to discuss major risky operations, for instance, excavation preparation, building fire security, operation of the railway tunnel building and use of sprayers concrete lining exclusion zones (de etal., 2020). Front-line leadership preparation for Subordinates was offered to all supervisor contractors. Therefore, the central section delivery committee rationalised its leadership again to be more coordinated to produce and deliver the official outcome to different stakeholders engaged in the service and management of the railway.
2.4 Critical Analysis of the Utilisation of Appropriate Theories, Concepts or Models in PLC
The Triple Constraint Theory
A project is typically "bound" or limited by three components in the contemporary business world, which can be represented in various ways (Van etal., 2012). The three elements are described by the triple constraint theory, also called the "Iron Triangle" of project management.
Although the terms of the three triangle components might vary, they quantify the same things in actuality: a fixed budget, a fixed timetable and a fixed collection of requirements or performance metrics (Picciotto, 2020). In project management, the "triple constraint theory" states that a project operates within the restrictions of possibility, time, and cost. The other two would invariably be impacted by an alteration in one of the aspects. For instance, if a customer requests to add any additional things to the development of the project, to get those completed, they would have to invest more resources and time.
Scope: A project has various opportunities which are often transformed into practical deliverables (Klein and Müller, 2020). The project objectives often get evolved with the advancement of the project. Additional stretches on news development of features influence time and budget. The Crossrail project of the Elizabeth line had also started with initial scope alignment process. It coved the probable scopes of project development and advanced concepts were considered while outlining the scopes for further development of the quality of the deliverables.
Time: Rapid development of the operations requires a heavy budget extension. Increased scopes often cause increased expenses. Short deadlines require increased resource capacity. During the execution of the Crossrail project time frames were often altered due to various increments of project scopes.
Cost: Projects involve a range of sequential operations. Thus, consistent scheduling of these tasks requires proper cost breakdown and estimation (de etal., 2020). Increased project features and scopes can impact the time allocated for the accomplishment of the project which directly influences the cost structure of the project. Project cost and scheduling were also controlled by a separate dedicated team yet the costs often fluctuated due to the gradual increase in project uncertainty and complexity.
Figure 3: The Triple Constraint
(Source: Van etal., 2012)
2.5 Work Breakdown Structure
Outlining the objectives
Adapting the probable solutions to address the tasks
The information are given to the authority and stakeholders
Project requirements are documented according to the objectives
The resources are aligned with the project's strategic moves
Cross rail Elizabeth Line Project
Resource supply management
A budget is estimated
Time frame is established
The actions are executed
Controlling and monitoring system was implemented
The Elizabeth line is in its final stage and ready for final closure of the project
Communicating with the stakeholders
2.6 Gantt Chart
Planning and budgeting
Beginning of the construction
Designing and advance resource distribution
Development and strategic implementation
Expected Closure of the project
Management of operations is mainly concerned with preparation, coordination and control in the form of construction, industrial or facility delivery. It is delivery-focused, meaning that an enterprise converts inputs to outputs proficiently in a suitable manner. From tools, machinery and technologies to human capital, the inputs themselves may reflect everything. A project is a constant process and has a static start and end of time, and therefore a distinct possibility and resource is pre-estimated. A project is not an average set of processes, but a specific collection of operations that are organised on a sequential basis to fulfil a single purpose. The report has been developed to evaluate the process and implementation of operation and project management. A thorough discussion has been established in the report concerning the nuances associated with operation and project of management.
Both concepts have been evaluated with particular company scenarios. The operation management processes have been rationalised in the context of Tesco. On the other hand, the project management evaluation has been established in the context of Crossrail's largest railway infrastructure project in Europe. A set of supporting evidence have been provided to justify these two concepts to provide a clear insight about them.
Atkinson, R., 1999. Project management: cost, time and quality, two best guesses and a phenomenon, its time to accept other success criteria. International journal of project management, 17(6), pp.337-342.
Atkinson, R., Crawford, L. and Ward, S., 2006. Fundamental uncertainties in projects and the scope of project management. International journal of project management, 24(8), pp.687-698.
Bannerman, P.L., 2012. Why good project management is not enough: liabilities of incumbency and newness.
Boer, H., Berger, A., Chapman, R. and Gertsen, F. eds., 2017. CI changes from suggestion box to organisational learning: continuous improvement in Europe and Australia: Continuous Improvement in Europe and Australia. Routledge.
Bushuiev, D. and Kozyr, B., 2020. Hybrid infrastructure project management methodologies. Innovative Technologies and Scientific Solutions for Industries, (1 (11)), pp.35-43.
de Mattos Nascimento, D.L., Quelhas, O.L.G., Caiado, R.G.G., Tortorella, G.L., Garza-Reyes, J.A. and Rocha-Lona, L., 2019. A lean six sigma framework for continuous and incremental improvement in the oil and gas sector. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma.
de Melo, J.C.F., Salerno, M.S., Freitas, J.S., Bagno, R.B. and Brasil, V.C., 2020. From open innovation projects to open innovation project management capabilities: A process-based approach. International Journal of Project Management, 38(5), pp.278-290.
de Sousa Jabbour, A.B.L., Jabbour, C.J.C., Godinho Filho, M. and Roubaud, D., 2018. Industry 4.0 and the circular economy: a proposed research agenda and original roadmap for sustainable operations. Annals of Operations Research, 270(1), pp.273-286.
Henrique, D.B. and Godinho Filho, M., 2020. A systematic literature review of empirical research in Lean and Six Sigma in healthcare. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 31(3-4), pp.429-449.
Ivanov, D., Tsipoulanidis, A. and Schönberger, J., 2017. Global supply chain and operations management. A decision-oriented introduction to the creation of value, 2.
Kemp, S., 2020. What Is Six Sigma in Operations Management? ToughNickel. [Online]. Available at: https://toughnickel.com/business/What-is-Six-Sigma-in-Operations-Management. [Accessed on: 15th Jan, 2021].
Klein, G. and Müller, R., 2020. Literature Review Expectations of Project Management Journal®.
Kumar, V., 2018. A theory of customer valuation: Concepts, metrics, strategy, and implementation. Journal of Marketing, 82(1), pp.1-19.
Larsson, J. and Larsson, L., 2020. Integration, application and importance of collaboration in sustainable project management. Sustainability, 12(2), p.585.
Lon?ar, M., 2017. THE IMPACT OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND STRATEGIC THINKING APPROACHES ON BUSINESS PERFORMANCE OF COMPANIES OPERATING IN THE RETAIL INDUSTRY. European Project Management Journal, 7(1), pp.85-98.
McLean, R.S., Antony, J. and Dahlgaard, J.J., 2017. Failure of Continuous Improvement initiatives in manufacturing environments: a systematic review of the evidence. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 28(3-4), pp.219-237.
Munns, A.K. and Bjeirmi, B.F., 1996. The role of project management in achieving project success. International journal of project management, 14(2), pp.81-87.
Picciotto, R., 2020. Towards a 'New Project Management'movement? An international development perspective. International Journal of Project Management, 38(8), pp.474-485.
Sartal, A., Martinez-Senra, A.I. and Cruz-Machado, V., 2018. Are all lean principles equally eco-friendly? A panel data study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 177, pp.362-370.
Tortorella, G., Miranda, R., Caiado, R., Nascimento, D. and Portioli Staudacher, A., 2021. The mediating effect of employees' involvement on the relationship between Industry 4.0 and operational performance improvement. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 32(1-2), pp.119-133.
Van Wyngaard, C.J., Pretorius, J.H.C. and Pretorius, L., 2012, December. Theory of the triple constraint—A conceptual review. In 2012 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (pp. 1991-1997). IEEE.
Psychology of Stress Assignment Get free samples written by our Top-Notch...Read more
Professional Behaviours And Valuing People Assignment Introduction -...Read more
Renewable And Alternative Energy Assignment Sample Introduction...Read more
Business Culture And Change In Context Introduction - Business Culture...Read more
Crime media and Culture Assignment 1. IntroductionGet free samples written by...Read more
Doing Business In Europe 1. Introduction - Doing Business In Europe Get...Read more
Get your doubts & queries resolved anytime, anywhere.
Receive your order within the given deadline.
Get original assignments written from scratch.
Highly-qualified writers with unmatched writing skills.
Ph.D. Writers For Best Assistance
No AI Generated Content
offer valid for limited time only*