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The most complex study is related to the mind and psychology. Experimental psychology is mainly based on the experiment of the theories on normal humans. Experiments in psychology mainly focus on psychological phenomena and processes. “Child psychology, clinical psychology, educational psychology, and social psychology are the different branches.” The whole concept of the psychological experiments is based on the three things empiricism, falsifiability, and determinism. Empiricism refers to the data collection method; falsifiability is used for the formalization of the collected data, and the last determinism is based on the reason behind every cause. Exploring different psychological questions by creating a hypothesis is the main aim of the psychological experiments.
The British Psychological Society (BPS) is associated with psychological societies. This society produced some guidelines, which apply to psychological research. Breaking these guidelines by any psychologists is illegal and society can take disciplinary action against them. There are four ethical principles are present under this BPS code and they are
Psychologists are requested to “respect individuals, cultural and the role differences”, This topic is based on different ages, disabilities, and education. ethnicity, gender, and language. Treating the people fairly is the primary target of this ethical principle.
The identification of the limits of knowledge, skills, training, education, and experience is done with the help of this principle. Development and maintaining the “comprehensive awareness” of professional ethics is another role of this principle.
According to these principles, psychologists are instructed not to harm the research participants during the research experimentation (Hollis, 2019). Taking care of the participants is mandatory for research experimentation. The psychologists are responsible for all the actions, which will be taken on the participants as per this m ethics.
Psychologists should try to make their research accurate and fair. Remaining honest during the representation of the professional affiliations and qualifications is mandatory as per this principle.
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Albert Bandura conducted a controlled experiment on the investigation of social behaviors. The experiment6s were done by the observation strategies. The main of this experiment was to establish the “Social Learning Theory” in society and to understand the different social behaviors like aggressiveness was the prime aim of this experiment.
He took the experiment on thirty-six boys and thirty-six girls from the “Stanford University Nursery Schools” and the age of the boys and girls were between 3 to 6 years old. The experiment was done to identify the aggressiveness of the children on a 5-point scale. Method
The lab experiment was done by the Albert bandura and he chose the “The independent variable” model (Hollis, 2019). Two models were chosen for the experiment “Aggressive model” and the “Non-aggressive model”. The “aggressive model” was shown to twenty-four children, the “Non-aggressive model” was presented to the twenty-four children, and no other model was presented to the reset 24 students.
There were different stages included in this experiment. The stages are
“Stage 1: Modelling”
According to this model, every student was allowed into a playing room, which was fulfilled with toys, and some potato prints. About 24 children (a group of 12 boys and 12 girls) showed their aggressiveness on a toy named “Bobo doll”. Some of the boys attacked the toy in different manners and another 24 children were exposed to a “Non-aggressive environment” for 10 minutes.. For the last twenty-four, children were present under voluntary control. They were detached from the other two models(Johnson and Leo, 2020).
“Stage 2: Aggression Test”
All the children were allowed under this stage. They were subjected to “Mild Aggression.”In this step, every student was taken to the room separately which was filled with attractive toys.
Stage 3: Checking of delayed limitation
In this stage, both “aggressive and non-aggressive” students were allowed to play together and after that, the “non-aggressive students” were allowed to play with a tea set, crayons, and bears.
The “Aggressive model” created more aggressiveness within the children than in the other children who were exposed to the “Non-aggressive model (Kolilet al.2020)”. The girls who were treated with the “aggressive model” showed more physical aggressiveness than the other girls who were under the control and non-aggressive model.
Benefits of this experiment
The experiment helped the researchers to examine the social behaviors of the children after the application of different models. Different causes and the effects behind different social behaviors are examined with this psychological experiment.
The research was chosen for the analysis of the social behavior and here “Aggressiveness”, is taken as the social behavior. The research was done on children aged 3 to 6 years. This experiment is done to check the effect of the "Aggressive model” and “non-Aggressive model” on the children (Peyrot et al 2020). Some of them became aggressive which was a negative effect of this research. This is the reason this particular experiment was not ethical as per the ethical principle of “responsibility” because Bandura created an aggressive nature within some of the children, which was illegal as per the “BPS code.” It increased the observation learning of the researchers. Different variables were controlled with this experiment.
4. Watson experiment
Professor Dr. John B. Watson took a test, which was named “Classical Conditioning”. This learning method involved the learning involuntary and automatic behaviors through the process of association (Peyrot et al. 2020). He used this technique to create phobia in a child. This experiment also demonstrated two additional concepts:
The conditioned association is very much strong in the initial portion and after that, it begins to fade until its disappearance.
Conditioned associations sometimes cross the specific condition associated with social behaviors. For example, a negative association with the teacher can create a negative association with others.
In this experiment, a nine-month-old toddler was used as the sample of Watson’s Experiment. Albert was allowed to play with the furry objects to get fun and affection. Over the progression of time when he was, playing with those furry objects Dr. Watson made a noise behind the child’s head to frighten him (Powell and Schmaltz, 2021).
Benefits of this experiment
It proves that all humans are controlled by their social circumstances. The effect of social behavior creates an impact on every single person. This experiment also provides data about the changes in human behaviors (Mertens et al. 2020). The development of irrational fear within a person in the early stage of life can also be analyzed with the help of this experiment.
Ethical analysis of this experiment
The experiment is based on the effect of the circumstances on a person’s mental condition. Professor Watson took this “Little Albert” test for a better understanding of the concept of “Classical conditioning” (Kalil et al. 2020). In this experiment, he frightens the baby, which is not harmful but mental pressure on that child. This was not so much harm to that baby that is the reason this experiment was worth understanding the effect of outsourced activity on a baby. Maintaining familiarity was done during this experiment, which is based on the ethical principle of “Competence.”
The topic is based on the psychological experiments, which were conducted by renowned professors, as well as by scientists to understand the social behavior of a person. Bandura's experiment shows the social impact of the circumstances on a person. The experiment of Watson on Albert shows the fact behind the development of irrational fear within a person in the early stage of life. These psychological experiments were done to understand human psychology and the effect of the circumstances on people. The benefits of these experiments helped a lot to treat the mental disorder of a person by understanding their mental condition and the real cause behind this disorder.
Hollis, L.P., 2019. Lessons from Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiments: Leadership's deliberate indifference exacerbate workplace bullying in higher education. Journal for the Study of Postsecondary and Tertiary Education, 4, pp.085-102.
Johnson, M.A., and Leo, C., 2020. The inefficacy of LinkedIn? A latent change model and experimental test of using LinkedIn for job search. Journal of Applied Psychology, 105(11), p.1262.
Kalil, V.K., Muthupalani, S. and Achuthan, K., 2020. Virtual experimental platforms in chemistry laboratory education and their impact on experimental self-efficacy. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 17(1), pp.1-22.
Mertens, G., Krypotos, A.M. and Engelhard, I.M., 2020.A review on mental imagery in fear conditioning research 100 years since the ‘Little Albert’study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 126, p.103556.
Peyrot, C., Brouillard, A., Morand-Beaulieu, S. and Marin, M.F., 2020. A review on how stress modulates fear conditioning: Let's not forget the role of sex and sex hormones. Behavior research and therapy, 129, p.103615.
Powell, R.A. and Schmaltz, R.M., 2021. Did Little Albert acquire a conditioned fear of furry animals? What the film evidence tells us. History of psychology, 24(2), p.164.
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