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Theories, Principles and Models in Education and Training Assignment Sample

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Theories, Principles and Models in Education and Training Assignment Sample

Introduction

In the education process different processes and methods are used to improve the learning and information delivering process. In training and education process main goal is to improve the effectiveness of the information that is delivered to the target audience(Ingram, 2017). This report is based on various theories and processes that are used by the people to improve the effectiveness of the education and training process.

Different theories, principles and models that are used in the education and training process will be explained in the report. Various ways are analysed in the study that can be used to implement these theories, principles and models in the training and education process. Models related to the learning preference will be studied in report. Process of identifying and taking account of the learners that enables inclusive teaching, learning and assessment will be studied in report. Different theories, models and principles of communication will be analysed in the report. Application of these theories, models and principles for teaching, learning and assessment process will be evaluated in report. Various theories, models and principles of assessments, reflection and evaluation will be provided in report. Application of these theories, models and principles also will be analysed in report. Along with these Models, theories and principles of Curriculum and development also will be analysed for implementation in the education and training processes.

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Task 1

1.1 Theories, Models and Principles of Learning

There are different theories, models and principles are considered in the learning process in order to improve the learning capability of target audience. In the learning process different theories can be used to improve the education and training process(Raschka and Mirjalili, 2017). For Example Procedural v declarative Knowledge theory and Gagne Skill Development theory can be used to improve the learning process in the education or training program. Learning is considered as one of the most important part of the education system. There are different processes can be used by the organization to improve the learning process of students and teacher to improve the overall efficiency of organization. For this process organization can implement various theories, models and principles in order to get better response from both students and teachers.

Procedural v declarative Knowledge theory

This is considered as one of the most effective theory for the learning process. This theory as proposed by the Anderson. The basic concept of these theory is related to the knowledge and information that is provided to the learners. This theory is based on the delivery of procedural and declarative information or data that is static. This static procedural and declarative data can be provided to the learner in order to make them aware of the learning process that can help them to effectively gain information and knowledge. The learners are provided with static processes that will be followed in the learning process.

Gagne Skill Development Theory

This theory is based on the skills that are required for the learners to effectively gain the knowledge and information that is provided to them in the education and training process. In this theory five different learning types are provided that require different conditions for proper implementation(Vorobeychik and Kantarcioglu, 2018). This is completely based on the skills that are required to improve the learning capability. Five type of learning that is explained in the Gagne Skill development theory are- Verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive skills, motor skills and attitude. By developing various skills in the learner learning process can be improved.

Principles of Learning

There are different Learning principles can be used in the education and training process in order to improve the learning capability of learners. Some of principles that can be used to improve the learning process are- Improve connection between teacher and student, develop cooperative environment in institute, encourage active learning process, develop feedback process, execute various tasks with effective timing, communicate high expectations and promote talent with in the learning process. These principles can be followed in order to improve the learning process with in the training and educational institute.

This is how various theories and principles of learning can be implemented in the training and educational institutes to improve the delivery of knowledge and information provided to the learner.

1.2 Application of Learning Theories, Models and Principles

This is considered as one of the easiest process to implement these theories, models and principles in the learning process. For the application of these theories and principles it is important for the teacher or trainer to consider information that is provided in the theory processes to improve the complete learning process(Donahue and Simonyan, 2019). For the application of the principles teachers and trainers can implement certain changes in the teaching and training process to improve the effectiveness of the learning process in the education or training institute. With the implementation of these theories, models and principles ability of the learners can be improved. These learning theories, models and principles can be associated with current practices, plans and smart targets to improve the learning procedure. This is how learning models, principles and theories can be applied in the institutes.

For example, in teaching process skill development and procedural and Declarative learning theory can be associated with current learning process to get better result. Effective individual plans and processes can be defined in the organization in order to improve the learning capability. In implementation of Gange skill development theory teacher can help the learners to develop some skills that are important for the learning process. Procedural and Declarative knowledge theory teacher or trainer can provide static information to the learners to improve their knowledge. This can be done on basis of individual learning plan. Smart targets can be defined to improve the learning process in organization.

1.3 Models of Learning Preferences

Learning preference is explained as process of learning and understanding of each person is different. People have different preferences in order to learn various things in the education and training process.There are different models can be used in the education and training institutes in order to identify the learning preferences of the target people. In this process learning process of each person have different tendency(Molnar, C., 2020). In this process learning process of each person can be focused in order to improve the learning, teaching and assessment. Honey and Mumford & Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence theory can be used to improve the identification of learning tendency of individual person.

Honey and Mumford

According there are four different categories of learner on basis of the process that is used by them for learning. These four categories are- Activist, reflectors, Theorist and Pragmatists. These are four type of learner that are usually identified in the education and training institutes.

Activist- This are the people who prefer to learn different type of information on basis practical implementation and performing the action. By doing activity they perform the learning process.

Reflectors- This people are usually considered as observers. These type of learners have tendency to learn the knowledge and data on basis of observations. These people have tendency of learning things on basis of experience of other people.

Theorist- This type of learners are completely different from the activist and reflectors. These people can learn things by reading the theoretical information and knowledge.

Pragmatists- These people are different from above all three. These people are home learners. They use different ideas and process to learn different things. Various ideas and processes are used by these people to learn new things and gain knowledge about various things.

This is how there are different learners are there who have different level of understanding and learning capability. This theory can help the teacher to learn about different student in institute. This theory can improve the capability of teacher to understand the students.

Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory

According to these theory people do not born with intelligence. In these theory different intelligences has been explained. These theory can help the students to understand their strengths that can be used by them in the learning processes(Ho and Ermon, 2016). This process can develop various opportunities for the students to improve the learning process and it can help the teacher to analyse the dynamic of the class and different students. Different type of intelligences that are explained in this theory are- Verbal Linguistic, Logical mathematical, visual spatial, musical intelligence, naturalist intelligence, Bodily Kinaesthetic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence to analyse the mood of different people and Interpersonal intelligence to recognise own common skills with other people.

 This is how different type of intelligences can be used by the teachers and students to analyse own strengths and capability at learning and information providing capability.

1.4 Process to Identify Account of Learners for Implementation of Inclusive Teaching, Learning and Assessment

There are different processes can be used by the organization to analyse the ability of people to learn different type of knowledge. This process can help the teacher to analyse the accountability of the student in the learning process. To analyse the capability of student teacher can use cognitive regulation that can help to find out the attainment of the goals that are designed by people in the teaching process(Li and Hoiem, 2017). This process is most effective to analyse the effectiveness of the students at learning. In this process self-directed thoughts, beliefs and affects are considered for the identification of the learning capability of people.This processes can be used by the teachers to enable inclusive teaching on basis of individuals learning capability.

2.1 Theories, Models and principles of Communication

Communication is considered as process that is consists of exchange of data between two people in which one of them is sender of information and other one if considered as receiver of information. This is how process of exchanging information can be considered as communication process. In the learning process at education and training institute have important role of communication process. This is most important for the leaders to develop effective communication in organization in order to improve the delivery of information that is provided to the students. There are different theories, models and principles of communication can be used to improve the education and training process. For example Piaget‘s four stage of intellectual model can be used by the organization to improve the communication process in the institute and learning process. These four stages in the communication theory are- Sensori Motor, Preoperational stage, Concrete stage and Formal Operational stages. These stages are explained as four different stages of cognitive development. These stages can be considered to analyse the development of cognitive skills in a person.

Sensori Motor- Age limit between 18 to 24 months is considered as sensori motor. At this stage person have tendency to learn with senses. All the knowledge that is gained by the child is based on their own senses.

Preoperational stage- In this stage age limit of 2 to 7 years is considered. At this stage child can think about symbols and it can be considered as ability of making one thing. At this stage main objective stands for something else then the real one(Rajkomar, Dean and Kohane, 2019). Thinking process is still based on the egocentric process. At this level this is difficult for person to taking a visual point.

Concrete stage- This is third stage of the cognitive development. Age limit for this stage is 7to 11 years. This is considered as major turning point of cognitive development. At this level child is capable to thinking processes in mind. Child of these age can conserve weight, mass, lengths and age. This can be considered as ability to understand something that is in number.

Formal Operational stages- This is last cognitive stage in which minimum age limit is 11 and people over this age are considered in formal operational stage in cognitive development. At this stage person develops capability of thinking about abstract, concept and logics.

 This is how cognitive development of the person can be understand with help of these theories. This process can be really helpful to design learning process with in education organization and training centre. This information can improve overall efficiency of the education process that is developed to improve the knowledge of people. There are some drawbacks of these theory because it is more focused on children not on adult people. All learners cannot be analysed with help of this theory. This theory is based on the cognitive development of people not on the learning process of people. It cannot provide the overview of the learning process.

2.2 Processes to Implement Theories, Models and Principles of Communication

There are different process and methods can be used by the organisation to implement theories, models and principles of communication in the educational organization to develop better communication practices. These process can help the organization to implement better communication process in daily routine practices. Main process that can be used by organization to implement these communication theories, models and principles are- By implementing communication in routine processes and practices communication models and theories can be easily implemented in organization(Reigeluth, Beatty and Myers, 2016). Regular use of these theories and models in practice can make people familiar with the processes that can help the organization to meet communication requirement in operations and practices. For the implementation of communication principles, organization can use implement this principles in routine work and process to make it as part of organization culture. As this principles are implemented in organization than people will be able to follow these principles as culture of organization. This is how the communication principles, models and theories can be implemented in organization.

Task 3

3.1 Theories, Models and Principles of Assessment

In the organization various theories, models and principles of assessment can be used to analyse various aspects of the organization in effective manner. These processes can be implemented by organization to evaluate the area of changes and development to improve the performance of organization in internal operations. For the personal assessment process different models and theories can be implemented(Schneider, 2017). These models and theories can help the individual person to effectively analyse own experience in effective way. There are different assessment processes are used in the organization that can help the teachers and individual person to implement personal and general assessment process. Main processes that are used in assessment process are- formative assessment and other process is summative assessment. These are common assessment process that can be used by the organization and individual person for the assessment process.

 The processes that are used in the formative assessment are- Question answer session in organization. In this process question can be asked to the target people to know about their opinion and perspective about certain practice or process that is followed in organization. Report back from the groups also can be considered as effective process to analyse the knowledge gain by individual person in organization. Peer assessment is considered as process in which individual person in the class room is assessed individually in order to get proper overview of the performance of individual person in class room. The last and most effective process that can be used in the personal assessment process is self-assessmentprocess(Hiim, 2017). This process can be used by the organization to evaluate the performance of various people who are associated with the organization. These assessment process can be implemented for both teachers and students to effectively analyse their performance and growth in environment of organization.

Some of the most common processes that can be used in organization for the assessment process are – Question answer session and Feedback sessions. These processes can be used by the organization and teachers to evaluate the performance of students and their growth in organization. Question answer session can be implemented in classrooms to improve the assessment process. The other process that can be used for the assessment process is feedback process. In the assessment process organization

Principles of Assessment

 The main principles of the assessment process are- practicality, reliability, validity, authenticity and washback. These are the main principles that are need to be followed in the implementation of principle of assessment in education sector organization.This all principles of assessment process can improve the effectiveness of assessment processes that are used by the organization to analyse operations and learning capability of students. Feedback sessions can be used by the organization to assess the effectiveness of the processes and operations that are performed in organization.

3.2 Implementation of Theories, Models and Principles of Assessment

 There are different processes and methods can be used to implement these personal assessment models with in the education sector organization. The process of implementing these theories, models and principles is very simple. It is only required to switch the traditional process that are used by the organization for the assessment of the people who are studying in organization. By using the principle of the assessment in the current practices can improve the assessment process used in organization. The process of assessment that are used in the organization can be aligned with these assessment process then these theories, models and principles can be effectively implemented in organization.

Task 4

4.1 Theories and models of Curriculum and Development

Curriculum is considered as complete plan and process that will be followed by teachers and trainers to provide knowledge and information to people. In other words it also can be considered as sequence of different learning experience which are important to keep the journey of learning successful. In the design of curriculum various consideration are need to be involved in process which are- Aims and objective of curriculum, learning outcomes, syllabus, teaching methods that will be used in the process and assessments that will be conduct to evaluate the effectiveness of process that is used to deliver education to the students(Reigeluth, 2016).In the educational organization various processes are used by the educational organization to provide effective knowledge and education to the students. Humanist Curriculum is one of the most effective theory that can be used by the organization to improve the curriculums that are currently implemented in organization.

Humanist Curriculum- Humanist curriculum is consists of complete approach that is based on the development of the child as complete human. Whole personality of the children is considered for development. In this approach teacher encourage the student to think critically and act according to the position. This process can help the students to understand how to act in different conditions. This approach can be applied in the learning process and teaching process to improve the capability of students and make them effective learner. This curriculum is focused on complete development of individual person in organization. This is all about development of the creative and active nature of the students. This is how by implementing humanist approach in the curriculum better learning conditions can be developed in the organization(Tisch and Metternich, 2017).Humanist curriculum is considered as one of the best curriculum that can be used by organization to develop better education system in organization and provide better facility to the students. There are different advantages of these approach that can improve the performance of organization in internal operations. Level of understanding can be improved in students and better relationship can be developed between student and teachers. This type of curriculum can be developed in order to implement and ensure overall development of students and trainees who getting trained in organization. Humanist approach also can improve the methods and processes that are used by the teachers to deliver knowledge and information to students. This is how humanist approach can be considered as one of the most effective approach for the education sector organization. These curriculum can be implemented in organization to get higher success in mission and vision of organization. This process can help the organization to meet the goals to develop students in overall manner. This is how from range of curriculum approaches organization can use

4.2Ways to Implement Theories and Models of Curriculum and Development

There are different processes can be used to implement humanist curriculum in organization for proper development of children and trainees in organization. The development of curriculum for teaching can be done on basis of this humanist approach in order to improve the basic knowledge of students. Best process of implementing Humanist curriculum in the organization is to complete the changes the current curriculum and effectively implement new curriculum in practice. Old curriculum can be removed on immediate basis for the effective implementation of humanist curriculum in organization(Zare and Sarikhani, 2016). The specific process that can be used to implement curriculum in organization is Identify current issues in the curriculum, analyse the needs of curriculum, development of team of specialist, Development of the new curriculum, set the possible outcomes, select the content for the curriculum, design and implement experimental processes in the curriculum, implement developed curriculum in process and the last stage of implementing curriculum is to analyse the effectiveness of curriculum.

This is how complete process can be followed in the organization to change current curriculum that is used in organization

Task 5

5.1Theories and Model of Reflection and evaluation

In the education process this is highly important to implement personal reflection process in order to analyse the operations and processes that are followed in the learning process. Reflection process can improve the capability of the individual person to improve their performance in various operation that are performed by them on frequent basis. This is how reflection can be used in the education sector organization to for delivery of effective knowledge and training.For this process Kolb Learning Cycle can be implemented in order to assess personal experience in certain project of operation. In the Kolb reflective cycle four different steps are used to assess personal assessment. The Steps that are followed in the learning cycle are- Concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualisation and active experimentation(Leppink and Hanham, 2019). These are main steps need to be followed in the Kolb Reflective cycle to perform personal assessment. Theory of reflection is considered as process in which various complex processes can be used by the organization to develop a method that can help individual student in the organization to explain their experience on their own and learn various things from personal experience. This reflection process can help individual person to analyse the conditions and situations that are faced by them in the operations and methods that are used by them to address various situations. This process also provide opportunities to the students and teachers to analyse the approach that is used by them and other approach that are much effective than the approach that is used by the individual in particular condition. This is how this is much effective process that can help the individual person to learn about more effective strategies that can be used in similar process to gain higher productivity.

Kolb Reflective Model

This model is defined as experimental learning. In this model personal experience is reviewed, analysed and evaluated in systematic order to effectively analyse the importance and learning within a particular task.  In this process four different steps are performed to analyse and evaluate the personal experience.

Concrete Experience- At this stage proper notes are prepared by the person according to the situation and conditions that are faced by them. Complete situation is described in this stage and also the feelings and thought process is also analysed in order to get better overview of the particular condition.

Reflective Observation- At this stage personal of the individual person is analysed in depth. Proper reflection of the experience is provided in this stage. The work done in the experience and success and failure of the process is also analysed in this stage through the reflection process. The actions that are performed at the time of task are analysed in order to analyse own behaviour at the time of task.

Abstract Conceptualisation- In this stage the on basis of reflection various factors analysed in order to find different effective ways to perform tasks in effective manner. With experience this is much easier for individual to find different effective ways to perform similar tasks.

Active Experimentation- At this different possible ideas are considered by the individual’s person and all the concepts that are learned in the reflection process are considered in the implementation. Various plans and processes are analysed in this stage for the further implementation. This is how on basis of reflection various new processes and concepts are considered by the person to perform same tasks in more effective and productive way.

This is how Kolb Reflection cycle can be used in order to perform self-assessment process. This assessment process can improvise the actions that are performed by individual person.

5.2 Process to implement Theories and Models of Reflection and Evaluation in organization

Implementation of reflection model is considered as very easy process that can be implemented in the organization maintain the effectiveness of the learning process that are implemented in organization.Various processes can be used by the organization to implement theories and models related to reflection. In different ways reflection model can be implemented in organization that can help the organization to get success in effectively reflecting personal experience(Tseng, 2020). There are some steps that are need to be followed in the reflection processes are- Describe the situation. This is important for the individual person to analyse particular situation in order to explain it later in effective manner. All the details are need to be considered in the reflection process. Feelings that are triggered at time of particular situation. The experience should be analysed effectively for proper reflection. This is also required to conclude the reflection in order to evaluate the findings that are collected in the reflation process. This is how proper reflection process can be implemented in the education sector organization.

Conclusion

This report is concluding importance of various processes and methods that can be used by the education sector organization to improve the educational activities that are performed by them in daily routine practices. Various theories and models has been analysed in this report to make improvement in the current practices that are used by the organization. Models, Principles and theories of learning has been analysed in report to improve the learning process in organization. Models, Theories and Principles of communication, assessment, curriculum development and reflection has been analysed in report that can be used by the organization to improve the internal practices. Different processes that can be used by organization for implementation of these theories, models and principles also has been described in report.

Refrences

Books and Journals

Donahue, J. and Simonyan, K., 2019. Large scale adversarial representation learning. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (pp. 10542-10552).

Hiim, H., 2017. Ensuring curriculum relevance in vocational education and training: Epistemological perspectives in a curriculum research project. International journal for research in vocational education and training. 4(1). pp.1-19.

Ho, J. and Ermon, S., 2016. Generative adversarial imitation learning. In Advances in neural information processing systems (pp. 4565-4573).

Ingram, P., 2017. Interorganizational learning. The Blackwell companion to organizations, pp.642-663.

Leppink, J. and Hanham, J., 2019. Human cognitive architecture through the lens of cognitive load theory. In Instructional Design Principles for High-Stakes Problem-Solving Environments (pp. 9-23). Springer, Singapore.

Li, Z. and Hoiem, D., 2017. Learning without forgetting. IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence. 40(12). pp.2935-2947.

Molnar, C., 2020. Interpretable Machine Learning. Lulu. com.

Rajkomar, A., Dean, J. and Kohane, I., 2019. Machine learning in medicine. New England Journal of Medicine. 380(14). pp.1347-1358.

Raschka, S. and Mirjalili, V., 2017. Python machine learning. Packt Publishing Ltd.

Reigeluth, C.M., 2016. Instructional theory and technology for the new paradigm of education. Revista de Educación a Distancia, (50).

Reigeluth, C.M., Beatty, B.J. and Myers, R.D. eds., 2016. Instructional-design theories and models, Volume IV: The learner-centered paradigm of education. Routledge.

Schneider, K., 2017. Promoting the entrepreneurial success of women entrepreneurs through education and training. Science Journal of Education. 5(2). pp.50-59.

Tisch, M. and Metternich, J., 2017. Potentials and limits of learning factories in research, innovation transfer, education, and training. Procedia Manufacturing. 9. pp.89-96.

Tseng, J., 2020. Learning theories and principles in surgical education and technical learning. Journal of Surgical Oncology.

Vorobeychik, Y. and Kantarcioglu, M., 2018. Adversarial machine learning. Synthesis Lectures on Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. 12(3). pp.1-169.

Zare, M. and Sarikhani, R., 2016. From E-learning to Ubiquitous learning; Theoretical principles. Future of medical education journal. 6(3). pp.12-15.

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