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Comparing and Contrasting the Methodological and Ethical Issues Coursework Sample

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Comparing and Contrasting the Methodological and Ethical Issues Coursework

Introduction

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While conducting the research it is important for the researcher to focus on different factors that are having a significant impact on the quality of the research study. With the continuous development in all the diverse sectors, multiple options are available for the individuals to make a choice(D?wigo?, &D?wigo?-Barosz, 2018). Similar to this the researcher also has to make a choice between different methodologies while choosing an appropriate one for the research. Along with this, the ethical considerations which need to be focused on the research study are also very important and the researcher needs to focus on work in an ethical manner so that high-quality research can be conducted.

The present report focuses on explaining regarding the different methodologies and ethical issue which are important for the researches. The present report will focus on comparing and contrasting two different articles of the research study in which the researcher had used different methods and had focused on diverse ethical issues while conducting the research study. The chosen articles had used diverse methodologies and on the basis of it, they have focused on different ethical considerations that are important for their research study.

Main Body

Research methodologies are the most important thing which is having a significant impact on the research study and its outcomes as well. Different research methodologies are available but it is important for the researcher to select an appropriate methodology for the research study.In the present report, the two articles which are selected for analyzing their methodologies and ethical issues are based on two different research topic and the researchers had focused on using diverse methodologies for both the groups(Pillai, & Kaushal, 2020). Different factors are included in the research methodology of the research as the research uses different methods for collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and representing the data in an effective manner.

One of the most important parts of the research methodology is the process of data collection. The research needs to decide the nature of the research that whether it would be primary research or secondary research and on the basis of the secondary or the primary data is being collected for the research study. In the two research articles, the researcher has used different data collection methods. Amer and Howarth, (2017) had focused on collecting secondary data, and on the basis of it, they have conducted the research study. In contrast to this Andreouli, et. al., (2015) had focused on collecting the primary data for their research study. Both the data collection methods are effective in collecting high-quality data related to the research questions and the aim of the research study as well. With the primary and data collection methods also there are different methods that are being used by the researchers on the basis of their study and the data which is required for them in their research(Prada-Ramallal, et. al. 2018).

In the study of Andreouli, et. al., (2015)they have focused on conducting primary research and for which they have focused on a particular group. In this research, the researcher had focused on three urban and rural areas of England on which the research is being supposed to be conducted. The researcher had selected the areas of the basis of the inclusion criteria that they should have peoples belonging from different cultures so that they can study the different sociodemographic characteristics. For this study, the researcher had targeted the school on which the researcher is being conducted. In this study, the researcher had focused on 11 focus groups which include a total of 72 participants who are the students of the selected schools for the research study. On comparing this with the study ofAmer and Howarth, (2017) they have collected high-quality secondary data for the research study. In the study of Amer and Howarth, (2017) they have focused on analyzing who the different newspapers represent the while British Muslim in their newspapers and for this, the British national and the Muslim newspaper were being examined in the current study for gathering the secondary data. For the study of Amer and Howarth, (2017) six newspapers were being selected for collecting the information related to the research topic. The broadsheets and the tabloid of these newspapers were being analyzed in the present study and the selection of the newspapers was done on the basis of the circulation rates and the political orientation. As we have read both the studies had collected different data and had selected the research participants in a different manner it can be said that the inclusion and exclusion criteria are developed in all the methodologies as huge data is available but it is crucial for the researcher to focus on most relevant data to the research aim.

While collecting the data there are different ethical considerations that need to be focused on by the researchers so that the ethical issues can be limited or controlled to a greater extent(Knottnerus, &Tugwell, 2018).Different ethical considerations are required to be followed in the primary and the secondary data collection methods and the ethics also depends on the participants involved in the research study. The study of Andreouli, et. al., (2015) would have taken informed consent from the school authorities before including them in the research study and along with this the students or the teachers on which the interview is conducted are also being informed and given all the important details related to the research study and with the consent of all the stakeholders, the research has been conducted. In contrast to this the research of Amer and Howarth, (2017)would have focused on different ethical considerations on the basis of their research type. The research aim of the study of Amer and Howarth, (2017)  was quite difficult and is related to the great ethical issues because it involved the study and research on the issues related to the communities which can lead to disputes and issues due to which the data of this research needs to be managed in an effective manner. In this study, the researcher had focused on the Confidential Disclosure Agreement (CDA) which had helped them in handling the confidential information in an effective manner.

After the selection of the sample size of the research, it is important for the researcher to focus on how the data would be collected for the research study. In the study of Amer and Howarth, (2017)total of 1631 articles was identified which can be used in the research study for getting better information but extracting information from such a large number is quite complicated and challenging and due to this reason, the researcher had shortlisted 161 articles which were being analyzed in the research study. In contrast to this in the study of Andreouli, et. al., (2015)for collecting the data the researchers had focused on conducting an interview with the research participants. A semi-structured interview is being conducted with the research participants so that the researcher can get better knowledge regarding what are the views of the participants on the research topic(Roulston, & Choi, 2018). The great data is being collected from the interview which can help the researcher in conducting high-quality research.

When the data is being collected that the most important thing which needs to be considered in selecting an appropriate data analysis method that can help them in analyzing the data in an effective manner(Johnston, 2017). The data analysis methods used in the research varyon the basis of the type of data that is being collected in the research study. In the study of Andreouli, et. al., (2015)the researcher had focused on using the thematic analysis for analyzing the data in which the data is observed closely and the common themes are being identified in the data so that these themes can be represented in an effective manner(Terry, et. al. 2017). For analyzing the data in a more systematic and organized manner the researchers had focused on using the hierarchical scheme of themes, sub-themes, and basis codes. Along with this, the data was being initially analyzed by the first author by making use of the thematic analysis but later on the other two authors have also analyzed the data by making use of the peer-debriefing process and this re-analysis is helping them inachieve consensus among all the three authors.

In contrast to this in the study of Amer and Howarth, (2017) the researcher had used a different data analysis method depending on their research aim and data collected. In this research both the researchers are more concernedwithanalyzing the data in an effective manner as they have to focus on the CDA. In this study as the data which is studied by the articles published in the newspapers is having unique data and because of this reason, the researcher has used different analysis categories for analyzing the data in an effective manner. For better validation of the data analysis in the study of Amer and Howarth, (2017)all the articles were being analyzed by the first author and the second author had randomly selected the articles and then had analyzed them for better validation and by doing this the analytical findings are becoming more reliable(Vaismoradi, &Snelgrove, 2019). In both, the researcher articles the researcher had focused on analyzing the data in an effective manner and greater importance is given to the data analysis which reveals that analyzing the data in an effective manner is important for the researchers for conducting high-quality research which provides better knowledge related to the research. In both the studies the researchers had re-evaluated the analytical findings which reflects that for avoiding errors and the researchers focus more on proper data analysis, interpretation, and representation.

Conclusion

The above-mentioned comparison of the article shows that there are diverse factors that need to be focused on by the researchers while conducting the research study. Both the methodology and the ethical considerations are equally important in the research study. On comparing the study of Amer and Howarth, (2017)and Andreouli, et. al., (2015) it can be said that there are different similarities and dissimilarities between the methodological factors such as data collection method, data analysis methods, sampling, and the inclusion and exclusion criteria for selected the research participants. Also, the different ethical considerations on which the researchers had focused are also compared. In concluding this report it can be said that it is important for the researchers to focus on the methodologies and ethical considerations in an effective manner for conducting high-quality research.

COURSEWORK: 2

Opting for a career is very important in everyone's life and for me being a successful individual is the most important life goal for which I am working so hard. I have completed my graduation and now I am moving towards being a successful psychologist. I am presently studying psychology which is my favorite subject and due to this reason only I want to be a psychologist. There are different fields in which I can do specialization in the future but I want to be in the field of clinical psychology which is quite interesting and I want to offer better and high-quality mental and behavioral health care to the patients facing different psychological issues. For working in the field of clinical psychology I need to have a B.Sc or the BA honors degree in psychology and I need to have a post-graduate course in clinical psychology so that I can get specialization in this particular field.

The British Psychological Society had provided better guidance to us that what are the important skills and qualities are required fora person to be a successful psychologist. According to my, there are some skills on which I am good and there are some skills on which I need to work and for analyzing the strengths, weakness, threats, and opportunities I have conducted a personal SWOT analysis which in my view is an effective method for self-analysis.

On the basis of the Swot analysis, it can be said that there are some areas in which development is required and I think I should focus on developing all the interpersonal skills including empathy and other soft skills which are important for a psychologist to be successful in treating the patients. The present program in which I have been enrolled will provide me better chances to develop these skills and at the end of the program, I will be having all the skills and better knowledge related to the psychological theories and practices so that I can be a successful employee in the field of clinical psychology

REFERENCES

Amer, A. & Howarth, C. (2018). Constructing and contesting threat: Representationsof white British Muslims across British national and Muslim newspapers. EuropeJournal of Social Psychology, 48 (5), 614-628.

Andreouli, E., Greenland, K. & Howarth, C. (2016). 'I don't think racism is that badany more': Exploring the 'end of racism' discourse among students in Englishschools. European Journal of Social Psychology, 46 (2), 171-184.

D?wigo?, H., &D?wigo?-Barosz, M. (2018). Scientific research methodology in management sciences. Financial and credit activity: problems of theory and practice2(25), 424-437.

Johnston, M. P. (2017). Secondary data analysis: A method of which the time has come. Qualitative and quantitative methods in libraries3(3), 619-626.

Knottnerus, J. A., &Tugwell, P. (2018). Ethics of research methodology requires a methodology of research ethics. Journal of clinical epidemiology100, v-vi.

Pillai, A. A., & Kaushal, U. (2020). Research Methodology-An Introduction To Literary Studies. CENTRAL ASIAN JOURNAL OF LITERATURE, PHILOSOPHY AND CULTURE1(1), 1-11.

Prada-Ramallal, G., Roque, F., Herdeiro, M. T., Takkouche, B., &Figueiras, A. (2018). Primary versus secondary source of data in observational studies and heterogeneity in meta-analyses of drug effects: a survey of major medical journals. BMC medical research methodology18(1), 1-14.

Roulston, K., & Choi, M. (2018). Qualitative interviews. The SAGE handbook of qualitative data collection, 233-249.

Terry, G., Hayfield, N., Clarke, V., & Braun, V. (2017). Thematic analysis. The Sage handbook of qualitative research in psychology, 17-37.

Vaismoradi, M., &Snelgrove, S. (2019, September). Theme in qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis. In Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research (Vol. 20, No. 3).

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