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Article 1: Adolescents’ as active agents in the socialization process

Darling, N., Cumsille, P., & Martínez, M. L. (2007). Adolescents’ as active agents in the socialisation process: Legitimacy of parental authority and obligation to obey as predictors of obedience. Journal of adolescence30(2), 297-311. DOI: 

1. Introduction

In this research paper, Darling, Cumsille & Martínez (2007) showed adequate parental monitoring of adolescent behaviour” is the main element of the specialisation effort of parents of healthy physical development. The main goal of this research paper is "to explore the affinity between an agreement of adolescents, childrearing practices beliefs of adolescents and parents" about parental control and “conformity to parental standards”. All questions are addressed in a manner for predicts discrepancies between the observation of various adolescents, controlling for parental monitoring concerning the issue-specific agreement. 

2. Methodology

The primary quantitative data collection method is used in which survey data types chosen for parents and adolescents each fulfilled a “Strategic Disclosure Questionnaire”, with parents answering three questions and adolescent’s six “questions about each of 18 different types of problems”. HLM analyses are specifically designed and chosen for specifically addressing issues components. 

3. Results

Regards to the issue minors were additionally probable to study obeying their parents. Togetherness, “40% of the between-person variance in adolescents”' obedience controlled for parental monitoring, gender and age. However, a 10% variance showed adolescents' beliefs that adolescents were additionally likely to observe their parents when they blend with them. 

4. Strengths

Multiple regression and agreement used in this research paper as a predictor of obedience and evaluated as the most powerful predictor in finding differences between parents and adolescents across issues. 

5. Weakness

The study was limited in several aspects in which social conformity and other responses biases across individuals created many problems. Traditional statistics methods were required for providing a stronger test of models for parental knowledge and parental monitoring. 

6. Evaluation

In my opinion, the annotated study that focused on the beliefs of adolescents delivers leverage in the understanding process linking parenting style, and the decision to obey by the minor's side. Most importantly, they were also able to deliver conceptual tools as well for understanding teenager specialisation. 

Article 2: Infants’ representations of others’ goals-Representing approach over avoidance

Feiman, R., Carey, S., & Cushman, F. (2015). Infants’ representations of others’ goals: Representing approach over avoidance. Cognition136, 204-214.

1. Introduction

According to Feiman, Carey & Cushman (2015), infants dishabituate to advance to a new entity in the old site, but not to bear for the old object in a new location. The main aim of this research paper was to consider a paradigm for investigating representations of an infant repeatedly reaching and touching one of two objects. The research questions consist of a major consistent representation for indicating infant's activities and whether there are any consistent with both avoidance and approach or not. 

2. Methodology

A trial method used with a habituation phase in the methodology process where sixteen full-term infants participated and up to 19 objects were utilised for each of the infants. 

3. Results

“The variable object” was completely exchanged off-stage between each trail and infants habituated similarly in both conditions. In the Avoidance condition, newborns did not look longer at violation trails as expected trails. Thus, infants in that condition seemingly failed to expect that their hand would continue not to arrive for an object that was fixed. 

4. Strengths

The findings in this research paper suggest a positive connection between adult bias and infant cognition for drawing inferences from representations of their actions. Adults' competence in reasoning bout their biases is evaluated with the help of logical concepts, which remains a critical topic for future research. 

5. Weakness

Domain general information is a major weakness that has contributed to the failure of 7-month olds infants in the avoidance condition. 

6. Evaluation

From my viewpoint, ruling out several low-level variations of failure of an infant's changing pattern is considered one of the effective approaches for reaching established during habituation. 

Article 3:In-group and out-group attitudes of ethnic majority and minority children

Griffiths, J. A., & Nesdale, D. (2006). In-group and out-group attitudes of ethnic majority and minority children. International Journal of Intercultural Relations30(6), 735-749.

1. Introduction

The present text displays the "ethnic attitudes of 5-12 year children from a racial majority group" "Anglo-Australian" and a juvenility group such as "Pacific Islanders" in Australia. Griffiths & Nesdale (2006), considered the ethnic perspectives of children as the country has experienced many stages of migration in the past few years. Although, the finding's relations to "ethnic minority children" using a range of stimuli representing preferences and attitudes collaborated in research questions. 

2. Methodology

The validity of the doll paradigm with the help of the primary qualitative method is used in which the use of interviews, overt measures and naturalistic observation were used as a data collection process. The simple random sampling process utilised 119 children of which 59 were "Anglo-Australian" and 60 of them "Pacific Islanders"

3. Results

"An alpha level of .05 was used as the significance level for all the analyses and Duncan’s multiple-range test". The result revealed that the ethnic majority of participants articulated that autochthonous-in-group families' lives are very interrelated to themselves. Moreover, the most immature "aged minority children" failed to separate their preferences for neighbours. 

4. Strengths

They were able to extend the opportunity to show that social knowledge related to colonial factors contributes to children's ethical attitudes and that shows the strength of the study.  

5. Weakness

The doll technique was chosen for conducting research and that was limited by its compelled choice and allocated negative attributes for both groups. 

6. Evaluation

The responses of racial juvenility children have been less uniform as compared to dominant group children and favourable ratings given them established community status. Indeed, it is clear that underlying triggers are also necessary for requiring further investigation by using their responses. 

Article 4:Sketching to remember-Episodic free recall task support for child witnesses and victims with autism spectrum disorder

Mattison, M. L., Dando, C. J., & Ormerod, T. C. (2015). Sketching to remember: Episodic free recall task support for child witnesses and victims with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders45(6), 1751-1765. 

1. Introduction

Mattison, Dando & Ormerod (2015) compared "the cognitive performances of all individuals with Austin Spectrum disorder (ASD) to a typically developing control group". The main aim of this research paper is to examine the suitability of techniques and procedures for adult and child witnesses with ASD in isolation for this group. One of the primary questions for this research is the "mental reinstatement of context technique (MRC)" designed to support a witness among these groups. 

2. Methodology

A “between-subjects design” was used as an independent variable with the help of interviews on three levels. 90 children participated in a research of which 55 were males and 35 of females. Greet, rapport, explain, free recall and closure order followed in the interview section for getting relevant information. 

3. Results

In the Control condition, "ASD children, 95 % CI and confabulated more surroundings information than typically developing children". For children having ASD, “a substantial positive correlation” of items were drawn and ps>.251 showed that developing groups were not significantly effects. 

4. Strengths

Utilising the mock witness and Sketch-RC techniques all hypotheses in children with ASD are supported and that help in improving free remembrance performance. Sketch-RC for this group delivered success in pulling their contextual return clues rather than being directed by any other person such as the interviewer or their family member. 

5. Weakness

There are “several errors reported by ASD children in the MRC technique” and were unable to measure specific implementation. This study was processed with the help of “intentional coding” which does not normally occur in the real world which delivers delays in some of the instances. 

6. Evaluation

After analysing the entire annotated study, I am able to consider that children who had ASD can perform at a more typical levelled that commences with a free recall account. 

Article 5

Plaks, J. E., & Higgins, E. T. (2000). Pragmatic use of stereotyping in teamwork: Social loafing and compensation as a function of inferred partner–situation fit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology79(6), 962. DOI: 10.1037//0022-3514.79.6.962

1. Introduction

The study suggests that people are not able to amplify their exertion flexibly, a practical skill is necessary that may be better positioned in other situations to expand the high effort. As opined by Plaks & Higgins (2000) considered the main aim of a research paper is to consider the "pragmatic use of Stereotyping in teamwork as a function of expectancies". One of the primary questions of this study states whether participants ought to embrace their motivational practice by complementing inferred-partner situations. 

2. Methodology

A survey is chosen for the data collection process where the demographic questions were included as a possible alternative explanation. A total of 86 participants were included and on entering the chamber each participant needs to read an instruction sheet comprised of verbal skills. The computer questionnaire was also included in the methodology approach for preventing attributes separately. 

3. Results

The findings of these experiments showcase that information about their teammates calibrates their effort on a task. The analysis also revealed that performed with only partner type as the independent variable and the overall effect is regarding changes in mood driven by pragmatic concerns covered with the all-around effect. 

4. Strengths

Greater performance in the collective condition is taken rather than the coactive condition which is considered as a main strength of study and delivers good performance and social compensation. 

5. Weakness

Explicit claims about social loafing do not consider in specific ways participants decreased in effort and differ significantly from the baseline. Using a consensual model in an experiment for participants is one of the weaknesses of this study as it can be a poor fit for stereotypes. 

6. Evaluation

Many instances in social life considered in this annotated study increase understanding of diverse issues along the interpersonal interaction and self-regulation. The notion of the researcher was consistent with value formation that will lead to desired conclusions. 

References

Journals

Darling, N., Cumsille, P., & Martínez, M. L. (2007). Adolescents’ as active agents in the socialization process: Legitimacy of parental authority and obligation to obey as predictors of obedience. Journal of adolescence30(2), 297-311.

Feiman, R., Carey, S., & Cushman, F. (2015). Infants’ representations of others’ goals: Representing approach over avoidance. Cognition136, 204-214.

Griffiths, J. A., & Nesdale, D. (2006). In-group and out-group attitudes of ethnic majority and minority children. International Journal of Intercultural Relations30(6), 735-749.

Mattison, M. L., Dando, C. J., & Ormerod, T. C. (2015). Sketching to remember: Episodic free recall task support for child witnesses and victims with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders45(6), 1751-1765. 

Plaks, J. E., & Higgins, E. T. (2000). Pragmatic use of stereotyping in teamwork: Social loafing and compensation as a function of inferred partner–situation fit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology79(6), 962. DOI: 10.1037//0022-3514.79.6.962

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